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1.
Placenta ; 145: 130-138, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134545

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study compares the angiogenic growth mediators (AGMs), oxidative stress (OS) and haematobiochemical profile as well as foeto-maternal outcomes of preeclampsia (PE) with and without foetal growth restriction (FGR) and the discriminative potential of these markers for identifying these conditions. METHODS: This hospital-based case-control study recruited a total of 209 women including 109 PE women without FGR and 48 PE women with FGR as cases whereas 52 normotensive pregnant women were recruited as controls. OS and AGMs and haematobiochemical markers were measured for all participants. RESULTS: The rates of foetal complications including intrauterine foetal death and foetal distress were more common in PE with FGR than PE without FGR (p < 0.05) but maternal complications were comparable across these groups (p > 0.05). Of the haematobiochemical markers, placental growth factors (PIGF), PIGF/8-Isoprostane, sFlt-1/PIGF (AUC = 0.87, p < 0.001), soluble FMS-tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1) (AUC = 0.85, p < 0.001), total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostane (AUC = 0.83, p < 0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (AUC = 0.70, p < 0.001) were more associated and showed at least an acceptable discrimination for PE with FGR against PE only. DISCUSSION: The occurrence of FGR in PE patients does not necessarily indicate a severe maternal presentation of the condition but a tendency for adverse foetal outcomes. Cumulative assessment of OS and AGMs may provide diagnostic usefulness for distinguishing PE with and without FGR.


Asunto(s)
Preeclampsia , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Preeclampsia/diagnóstico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Ghana , Factor de Crecimiento Placentario , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/diagnóstico , Placenta , Biomarcadores , Estrés Oxidativo , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular , Receptor 1 de Factores de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular
2.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0288079, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37384786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a leading cause of foeto-maternal deaths especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the prevalence and risk factors of preeclampsia are scarce in the Central region of Ghana with previous study assessing individual independent risk factors. This study determined the prevalence and algorithm of adverse foeto-maternal risk factors of preeclampsia. METHODS: This multi-centre prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2021 to October 2022 at the Mercy Women's Catholic Hospital and Fynba Health Centre in Central region, Ghana. A total of 1,259 pregnant women were randomly sampled and their sociodemographic, clinical history, obstetrics and labour outcomes were recorded. Logistic regression analysis using SPSS version 26 was performed to identify risk factors of preeclampsia. RESULTS: Of the 1,259 pregnant women, 1174 were finally included in the study. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 8.8% (103/1174). Preeclampsia was common among 20-29 years age group, those who had completed basic education, had informal occupation, multigravida and multiparous. Being primigravida [aOR = 1.95, 95% CI (1.03-3.71), p = 0.042], having previous history of caesarean section [aOR = 4.48, 95% CI (2.89-6.93), p<0.001], foetal growth restriction [aOR = 3.42, 95% CI (1.72-6.77), p<0.001] and birth asphyxia [aOR = 27.14, 95% CI (1.80-409.83), p = 0.017] were the independent risk factors of preeclampsia. Pregnant women exhibiting a combination of primigravida, previous caesarean section and foetal growth restriction were the highest risk for preeclampsia [aOR = 39.42, 95% CI (8.88-175.07, p<0.001] compared to having either two or one of these factors. CONCLUSION: Preeclampsia is increasing among pregnant women in the Central region of Ghana. Pregnant women being primigravida with foetal growth restriction and previous history of caesarean section are the highest risk population likely to develop preeclampsia with neonates more likely to suffer adverse birth outcome such as birth asphyxia. Targeted preventive measures of preeclampsia should be created for pregnant women co-existing with multiple risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Asfixia Neonatal , Preeclampsia , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Preeclampsia/epidemiología , Ghana/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Asfixia , Cesárea , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios Prospectivos , Algoritmos
3.
SAGE Open Med ; 11: 20503121231175759, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37324117

RESUMEN

Objectives: Micronutrients, especially calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are reported to reduce preeclampsia events via several factors such as endothelial cell control, optimal oxidative stress and a balanced angiogenic growth mediator. We evaluated the association of micronutrients with oxidative stress biomarkers, and angiogenic growth mediators in early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study recruited 197 preeclampsia (early-onset preeclampsia = 70 and late-onset preeclampsia = 127) as cases and 301 normotensive pregnant women as controls from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Samples were collected after 20 weeks of gestation for both cases and controls and estimated for Ca, Mg, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, soluble endoglin, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-epiprostaglandinF2-alpha and total antioxidant capacity. Results: Early-onset preeclampsia women had significantly lower levels of Ca, Mg, placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A and total antioxidant capacity but higher levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, 8-epiprostaglandinF2-alpha, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio, 8-epiprostaglandinF2-alpha /placental growth factor ratio, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine/placental growth factor ratio and soluble endoglin/placental growth factor ratio than late-onset preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women (p < 0.0001). Among the early-onset preeclampsia women, the first and second quartile for serum placental growth factor, first quartile for vascular endothelial growth factor-A and total antioxidant capacity and the fourth quartiles for serum sEng, serum sFlt-1, 8-epiPGF2α and 8-OHdG were independently associated with low Ca and Mg (p < 0.05). Among late-onset preeclampsia women, the fourth quartile for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 was independently associated with low Ca and Mg (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Magnesium and calcium are associated with an imbalance in angiogenic growth mediators and oxidative stress biomarkers among preeclampsia women, particularly early-onset preeclampsia. Serial and routine measurement of these micronutrients would allow the monitoring of poor placental angiogenesis while enabling an understanding of the triggers of increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant in preeclampsia.

4.
AJOG Glob Rep ; 2(3): 100065, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pain because of cervical cancer is a significant health issue globally, especially in women with advanced disease. However, little is known about unmet needs for pain control in low-resource settings where the burden of cervical cancer is the greatest. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the level of pain that women with cervical cancer in Ghana experience, explore attitudes toward pain and pain medications, and determine the barriers to adequate pain control. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 100 adult women with a histopathologic diagnosis of cervical cancer presenting for care at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana. In addition, a descriptive analysis was conducted among all participants and the subgroup of women who reported pain but did not report pain medication use. RESULTS: Among 100 participants with cervical cancer, the mean age was 59.5 years, and the median parity was 6.0 (interquartile range, 5.0-6.0); moreover, most participants presented with inoperable stage II or greater cervical cancer (99 of 100 [99%]). Of 100 participants, 80 (80%) had pain caused by their cervical cancer, with more than half (51 of 100 [51%]) rating their pain as a 3, 4, or 5 on a 5-point scale. Most participants reported pain significant enough to impact their sleep (58 of 99 [58.6%]) and their ability to carry out daily activities (54 of 100 [54%]). Furthermore, 55 of 100 participants (55%) took pain medications in the last week; however, only 5 of 54 participants (9.3%) reported complete improvement in their pain, and most participants (30 of 54 [55.6%]) felt they needed a stronger pain medication. Barriers to adequate pain control included the healthcare provider's focus on pain, with 14.1% of women reporting that their healthcare providers never asked about their pain (14 of 99 [14.1%]). In addition, participants' attitudes toward pain control demonstrated that 34 of 95 participants (35.8%) believed that they should be able to tolerate their cervical cancer pain without medication. Among participants who ever took pain medication, 16 of 58 (27.6%) were bothered that they took pain medication, and 19 of 58 (32.7%) were concerned that they used too much medication. Most participants were able to afford (51 of 58 [88%]) and access (56 of 58 [96.6%]) pain medications and did not worry their supply would run out (56 of 58 [96.6%]). CONCLUSION: Most patients had significant pain because of cervical cancer, and many of them endorsed needing more pain medications than what they were prescribed. The etiologies of the unmet need for pain control included missed opportunities to discuss pain control at clinic visits and patients' attitudes toward pain management. Financial and access barriers to obtaining pain medications were minimal.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268831, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657957

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer in Ghana. The disease and its treatment significantly affect survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We determined the overall quality of life (QoL) and identified its predictors among cervical cancer survivors after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 153 disease-free cervical cancer survivors who completed curative treatment between January 2004 and December 2018 at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana. We used the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core-30 item (EORTC QLQ-C30) and cervical cancer module (EORTC QLQ-CX24) to assess the survivors' overall QoL. QoL domain scores were dichotomised as affected or unaffected by disease and its treatment. Significant differences between the affected and unaffected groups within each QoL domain were determined using the student T-test. We used Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests to examine the difference in QoL domains between treatment types, with significance based on Bonferroni corrections. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of overall QoL. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-three (153) women having a mean age of 58.3 (SD 11.4) years were studied. The overall QoL score was 79.6 (SD 16.0), and 74.5% of survivors reported good QoL score within the median follow up time of 41.8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 25.5-71.1 months) after cervical cancer diagnosis. Although the majority (66.0-84.3%) of the QoL functioning scale were unaffected, about a fifth (22.2%) to a third (34.5%) of the subjects had perceptual impairment in cognitive and role functioning. Financial difficulties, peripheral neuropathy and pain were most common symptoms reported as affected. A third of the survivors were worried that sex would be painful, and 36.6% indicated that their sexual activity as affected. The overall QoL scores for survivors who had surgery, chemoradiation and radiation-alone were 86.1 (SD 9.7), 76.9 (SD 17.7), and 80.7 (SD 14.7), respectively (p = 0.025). The predictors of survivor's overall QoL were loss of appetite [Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 9.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 2.13-35.8, p = 0.001], pain (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 1.25-9.31, p = 0.017) and body image (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.80-19.27, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: About 75% of the survivors had a good overall quality of life. Primary surgical treatment affords the best prospects for quality of life with the least symptom complaints and financial burden. Loss of appetite, pain or diminution in body image perception predicted the overall quality of life of cervical cancer survivors after treatment.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sobrevivientes , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/psicología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/terapia
6.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 3: 801092, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734369

RESUMEN

Preterm birth is a global epidemic and a leading cause of neonatal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth among women attending the labor ward for delivery at a tertiary hospital in Ghana. This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among a cohort of 209 pregnant women admitted to the labor ward of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH). Pregnant women who delivered between 28 and 36 completed weeks of gestation were classified as preterm delivery whereas those who delivered after 37-42 completed weeks were described as term. Sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetric data were collected from patient's folder and hospital archives. Categorical variables were analyzed and expressed as frequencies and proportions. We determined the association between obstetric factors and preterm delivery with multiple logistic regressions. Significance level of the strength of association was determined at p-value < 0.05. of the 209 participants, the prevalence of preterm birth was 37.3% (78/209) whereas 62.7% (131/209) delivered at Term. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) [aOR = 2.15, 95% CI = (1.819.55), p = 0.0390], HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome [aOR = 3.94, 95% CI = (1.64-9.48), p = 0.0020], early gestational obesity [aOR = 2.11, 95% CI = (1.31-11.92), p = 0.0480] and preeclampsia [aOR = 4.56, 95% CI = (1.63-12.76), p = 0.004] were identified as independent risk factors of preterm birth. Prevalence of preterm birth was high among women attending labor admission at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and this was independently influenced by IUGR, HELLP syndrome, early gestational obesity, and preeclampsia. Identifying early signs of adverse pregnancy outcomes would inform the need for management policy to prevent high prevalence of preterm births.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265717, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312727

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Angiogenic growth mediators (AGMs) and oxidative stress (OS) both play essential roles in normal placental vascular development and as such, placental alterations in these factors contribute to pre-eclampsia (PE). Suboptimal health status (SHS), an intermediate between health and disease, has been associated with imbalanced AGMs and OS biomarkers. Thus, SHS pregnant women may be at increased risk of developing PE and may present abnormal placental alteration and expression of AGMs and OS compared to optimal health status (OHS) pregnant women. We examined the histopathological morphology, immunohistochemical expression of AGMs antibodies and oxidative DNA damage marker in the placentae of SHS and OHS pregnant women who developed early-onset PE (EO-PE) and late-onset (LO-PE) compared to normotensive pregnancy (NTN-P). METHODS: This nested case-control study recruited 593 singleton normotensive pregnant women at baseline (10-20 weeks gestation) from the Ghanaian Suboptimal Health Status Cohort Study (GHOACS) undertaken at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Socio-demographic, clinical and obstetrics data were collected, and a validated SHS questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) was used in classifying participants into SHS (n = 297) and OHS (n = 296). Participants were followed until the time of PE diagnosis and delivery (32-42 weeks gestation). Blood samples were collected at the two-time points and were assayed for AGMs; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PIGF), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and soluble endoglin (sEng), and OS biomarkers; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-epiprostaglandinF2-alpha (8- epi-PGF2α) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using ELISA. Placental samples were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: Of the 593 pregnant women, 498 comprising 248 SHS and 250 OHS women returned for delivery and were included in the final analysis. Of the 248 SHS women, 56, 97 and 95 developed EO-PE, LO-PE and NTN-P, respectively, whereas 14, 30 and 206 of the 250 OHS mothers developed EO-PE, LO-PE and NTN-P, respectively. At baseline, SHS_NTN pregnant women had a significant imbalance in AGMs and OS biomarkers compared to OHS_NTN pregnant women (p<0.0001). At the time of PE diagnosis, SHS_NTN-P women who developed EO-PE, LO-PE, and NTN-P had lower serum levels of P1GF, VEGF-A and TAC and correspondingly higher levels of sEng, sFlt-1, 8-epiPGF2α, and 8-OHdG than OHS-NTN-P women who developed EO-PE and LO-PE, NTN-P (p<0.0001). A reduced placental size, increased foetal/placental weight ratio, and a significantly higher proportion of fibrinoid necrosis, infarction, villous fibrin, syncytial knots, calcification, chorangiosis, tunica media/vascular wall hypertrophy and chorioamnionitis was associated with the SHS group who developed PE (EO-PE>LO-PE) more than OHS groups who developed PE (EO-PE>LO-PE) when all were compared to NTN-P (p<0.0001). The intensity of antibody expression of PIGF and VEGF-A were significantly reduced, whereas Flt-1, Eng and 8-OHdG were significantly increased in placentae from SHS-pregnant women who developed EO-PE>LO-PE more than OHS- pregnant women who developed EO-PE>LO-PE when all were compared to NTN-P (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased lesions, oxidative DNA damage, and imbalanced expression between pro-and anti-AGMs are associated more with SHS-embodied PE placentae rather than OHS-embodied PE subtypes, thus potentially allowing differential evaluation of PE.


Asunto(s)
Preeclampsia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Endoglina/metabolismo , Femenino , Peso Fetal , Ghana/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estrés Oxidativo , Placenta/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Placentario/metabolismo , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Factores de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo
8.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 159(2): 513-521, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212393

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer can be prevented by regular screening; however, screening rates are low in developing countries. We evaluated the proportion of women screened, modalities of screening utilized, and factors influencing uptake among Ghanaian women with access to free screening services. METHODS: Participants were women aged 25-65 in Asokore-Mampong, Ghana. A structured questionnaire collected socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, knowledge of, and utilization of cervical cancer screening. Adjusted logistic regression evaluated predictors of screening. RESULTS: Of 710 participants, the majority had heard of cervical cancer (64.6%) and screening (57.7%). Screening utilization was 24.6%. Visual inspection with acetic acid was the most common screening method (97.1%). For those who had never been screened, common reasons were believing they were healthy (21.7%), fearing pain (12.9%), lacking awareness of screening (11.8%), and being too busy (11.6%). Participants who were aged 35-44 (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.09-3.03; p = 0.023), married (aOR 3.98; 95% CI 1.68-9.40; p = 0.002), formally employed (aOR 9.31; 95% CI 2.86-30.35; p <0.001), and had higher cervical cancer knowledge (aOR 3.98; 95% CI 2.64-6.02; p <0.001) were more likely to have been screened. CONCLUSION: Despite geographic proximity to a health center that provides free cervical cancer screening, screening uptake among Ghanaian women remains low.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Femenino , Ghana , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control
9.
Ghana Med J ; 56(2): 86-94, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37449260

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore factors associated with late clinical presentation among Ghanaian women with cervical cancer. Design: This is a cross-sectional survey using a paper questionnaire. Setting: Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana. Participants: Participants were women presenting for cervical cancer care at KATH. Inclusion criteria were histologically diagnosed cervical cancer and age ≥18 years. The exclusion criteria was age <18. All women presenting from August 2018-August 2019 were recruited. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants presenting with late-stage cervical cancer, defined as stage II or higher. Results: Of 351 total participants, 33.6% were unemployed, 35.3% had no formal education, and 96.6% had an average monthly income of less than five hundred Ghana cedis ($86 USD). Time from symptoms to seeing a doctor ranged from fewer than two weeks (16.0%) to more than twelve months (8.6%). Participants' most common barrier in seeking healthcare was financial constraints (50.0%). Most participants presented at late-stage cervical cancer (95.2%, n=334), with only 4.8% (n=17) presenting at stage I. Of participants presenting with late-stage cervical cancer, the vast majority had never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear (99.1%) nor a recent gynecologic exam (99.3%). After adjusting for age, parity, and distance to a healthcare facility, a late-stage presentation was associated with lower income and living in a rural area. Conclusions: In Ghana, 95% of women with cervical cancer seek care at a late clinical stage, defined as stage II or greater, when the cancer is inoperable. Funding: None declared.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Masculino , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Ghana/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Cuello del Útero/patología
10.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 26(9): 21-30, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37585067

RESUMEN

This cross-sectional study assessed attitudes and experiences with abortion care among physician trainees in Ghana. Participants were 27 Obstetrics/Gynecology (OBGYN) residents and 138 house officers. An electronic survey evaluated attitudes, training, clinical experience, and technical skills with abortion care. The majority of participants believe that women should have access to safe abortion. However, only 51.6% of OBGYN residents and 40.9% of house officers want to currently perform abortions as a trainee, primarily due to religious or ethical beliefs. Among house officers, increased likelihood of performing abortions in their future practice is associated with greater exposure to abortion training, (OR 1.40, p=0.032), fewer years practicing medicine (OR 0.26, p=0.010), and believing abortion laws should be liberalized (OR 3.62, p=0.03). Overall, we demonstrate that only two-thirds of physician trainees in Ghana are likely to perform abortion care after completing training, and greater exposure to abortion training is associated with an increased likelihood of performing abortions.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Médicos , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Ghana , Estudios Transversales , Actitud del Personal de Salud
11.
EPMA J ; 12(4): 517-534, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women, particularly in developing countries are facing a huge burden of preeclampsia (PE) leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. This is due to delayed diagnosis and unrecognised early targeted preventive measures. Adapting innovative solutions via shifting from delayed to early diagnosis of PE in the context of predictive diagnosis, targeted prevention and personalisation of medical care (PPPM/3 PM) is essential. The subjective assessment of suboptimal health status (SHS) and objective biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) and angiogenic growth mediators (AGMs) could be used as new PPPM approach for PE; however, these factors have only been studied in isolation with no data on their combine assessment. This study profiled early gestational biomarkers of OS and AGMs as 3 PM approach to identify SHS pregnant mothers likely to develop PE specifically, early-onset PE (EO-PE) and late-onset PE (LO-PE). METHODS: A prospective cohort of 593 singleton normotensive pregnant (NTN-P) women were recruited at 10-20th (visit 1) and followed from 21 weeks gestation until the time of PE diagnosis and delivery. At visit 1, SHS was assessed using SHS questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) and women were classified as SHS and optimal health status (OHS). Biomarkers of OS (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], 8-epi-prostaglansinF2alpha [8-epi-PGF2α] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]) and AGMs (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF-A], soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 [sFlt-1], placental growth factor [PlGF] and soluble endoglin [sEng]) were measured at visit 1 and time of PE diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 593 mothers, 498 (248 SHS and 250 OHS) returned for delivery and were included in the final analysis. Fifty-six, 97 and 95 of the 248 SHS mothers developed EO-PE, LO-PE and NTN-P respectively, versus 14 EO-PE, 30 LO-PE and 206 NTN-P among the 250 OHS mothers. At the 10-20th week gestation, unbalanced levels of OS and AGMs were observed among SHS women who developed EO-PE than LO-PE compared to NTN-P women (p < 0.0001). The combined ratios of OS and AGMs, mainly the levels of 8-OHdG/PIGF ratio at 10-20th week gestation yielded the best area under the curve (AUC) and highest relative risk (RR) for predicting SHS-pregnant women who developed EO-PE (AUC = 0.93; RR = 6.5; p < 0.0001) and LO-PE (AUC = 0.88, RR = 4.4; p < 0.0001), as well as for OHS-pregnant women who developed EO-PE (AUC = 0.89, RR = 5.6; p < 0.0001) and LO-PE (AUC = 0.85; RR = 5.1; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Unlike OHS pregnant women, SHS pregnant women have high incidence of PE coupled with unbalanced levels of OS and AGMs at 10-20 weeks gestation. Combining early gestational profiling of OS and AGMs created an avenue for early differentiation of PE subtypes in the context of 3 PM care for mothers at high risk of PE.

12.
Gynecol Oncol Rep ; 36: 100750, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850996

RESUMEN

We report two cases of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the cervix in teenagers presenting to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana within one month of each other. Between October and November 2019, two patients presented with ERMS of the cervix. They both underwent fertility-sparing surgery followed by chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide. Preoperative workup for the two patients was minimal due to limited availability and high cost of imaging in a low-resource setting. Both patients were discussed at a multidisciplinary tumor board meeting to guide best management practices. Both patients had local surgical resection with histological confirmation of ERMS and negative margins, followed by six cycles of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide. Neither of the patients had perioperative complications or received radiation therapy. At the time of publication, both patients are currently alive and without evidence of recurrence. Fertility-sparing surgery followed by chemotherapy for patients with ERMS of the cervix is accessible in low-income countries.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36994331

RESUMEN

Cardiometabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the leading cause of diabetes complications. Anthropometric indices could be used as a cheap approach to identify MetS among T2DM patients. We determined the prevalence of MetS and its association with sociodemographic and anthropometric indices among T2DM patients in a tertiary hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 241 T2DM outpatients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) and the Kumasi South Hospital for routine check-up. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinicobiochemical markers, namely, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were measured. Anthropometric indices, namely, body mass index (BMI), Conicity index (CI), body adiposity index (BAI), A body shape index (ABSI), body roundness index (BRI), Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were computed based on either the Height, Weight, Waist circumference (WC) or Hip circumference (HC) of the patients. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was classified using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Data entry and analysis were done using Excel 2016 and SPSS version 25.0 respectively. Of the 241 T2DM patients, 99 (41.1%) were males whereas 144 (58.9%) were females. The prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome (MetS) was 42.7% with dyslipidemia and hypertension recording a prevalence of 6.6 and 36.1%, respectively. Being a female T2DM patient [aOR = 3.02, 95%CI (1.59-5.76), p = 0.001] and divorced [aOR = 4.05, 95%CI (1.22-13.43), p = 0.022] were the independent sociodemographic predictors of MetS among T2DM patients. The 4th quartile for ABSI and 2nd to 4th quartiles for BSI were associated with MetS on univariate logistic regression (p <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression identified the 3rd quartile (aOR = 25.15 (2.02-313.81), p = 0.012) and 4th quartile (aOR = 39.00, 95%CI (2.68-568.49), p = 0.007) for BRI as the independent predictors of MetS among T2DM. The prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome is high among T2DM patients and this was influenced by female gender, being divorced, and increased BRI. Integration of BRI as part of routine assessment could be used as early indicator of cardiometabolic syndrome among T2DM patients.

14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(2): 307-314, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188705

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate obstetrician/gynecologist and midwife perspectives and experiences with vaginal breech deliveries in Ghana. METHODS: Respondents completed a survey on their experiences, training, comfort levels, and decision making about vaginal breech deliveries. Comparisons were made across obstetricians/gynecologists and midwives. Multiple logistic regression explored predictors of comfort performing vaginal breech deliveries. RESULTS: Respondents comprised 93 (36.5%) obstetricians/gynecologists and 162 (63.5%) midwives. Most believed that some breech fetuses should be delivered vaginally, with higher agreement from obstetricians/gynecologists than from midwives (n = 86, 97.7% versus n = 207, 80.8%, P = 0.001). Midwives were more likely to strongly agree that training was adequate for obstetricians/gynecologists (n = 65, 55.6% versus n = 8, 9.8%, P < 0.001) and midwives (n = 60, 49.6% versus n = 6, 7.4%, P < 0.001). Most (n = 192, 94%) respondents wanted more experience and/or training. Despite most providers performing only one ot five breech vaginal deliveries yearly, 77.4% (n = 199) were comfortable performing them and 79.5% (n = 202) were comfortable supervising them. Significant predictors of comfort performing vaginal breech delivery were perceived adequacy of training (odds ratio 8.74, 95% CI 3.39-22.52) and belief that vaginal breech deliveries should be performed (odds ratio 4.28, 95% CI 1.33-13.72). CONCLUSION: Respondents were more likely to feel comfortable performing breech vaginal deliveries if they felt that their training was adequate. Vaginal breech deliveries can only be offered as safe alternatives to cesarean delivery if training and experience are maintained in low-resource settings.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Presentación de Nalgas/psicología , Parto Obstétrico/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Partería/educación , Partería/métodos , Obstetricia/educación , Obstetricia/métodos , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927496, 2020 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370250

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for the overwhelming majority of maternal deaths worldwide. Cesarean section rates have increased globally over the last 10 years, including in LMICs, and are an important intervention to decrease neonatal and maternal mortality. However, cesarean sections also contribute to increased complications in subsequent pregnancies, including invasive placentation and cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies (CSEP). Potential CSEP complications include rupture of the uterus, bladder invasion, and maternal mortality. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 35-year-old Ghanaian woman (gravidity 5, parity 3) with a positive urine pregnancy test and 2 months of amenorrhea. Ultrasound scanning demonstrated a gestational sac with a fetal pole and absent cardiac activity located in the lower uterine segment. Myometrium infiltration was present, with only 2 mm of anterior myometrium between the gestational sac and the urinary bladder. Owing to concern for CSEP with uncertain bladder invasion, a pelvic MRI was obtained for preoperative planning. Following the MRI, which demonstrated an intact bladder, the patient underwent an uncomplicated exploratory laparotomy and excision of the CSEP. CONCLUSIONS In LMICs, pelvic ultrasound continues to be the diagnostic tool of choice for CSEP. However, in cases with diagnostic uncertainty or possible bladder invasion, MRI is an additional imaging tool that can optimize preoperative planning and minimize the risk of maternal mortality and potential post-surgical complications.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea , Embarazo Ectópico , Adulto , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Embarazo , Embarazo Ectópico/diagnóstico por imagen , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Incertidumbre
16.
Free Radic Res ; 54(1): 27-42, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814473

RESUMEN

Optimal oxidative stress (OS) is important throughout pregnancy; however, an increased OS may alter placental angiogenesis culminating in an imbalanced of angiogenic growth mediators (AGMs). Suboptimal Health Status (SHS), a physical state between health and disease, may be associated with increased OS and unbalanced AGMs. In this study, we explored the association between SHS, biomarkers of OS (BOS) and AGMs among normotensive pregnant women (NTN-PW) in a Ghanaian Suboptimal Health Cohort Study (GHOACS). This comparative GHOACS recruited 593 NTN-PW from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. SHS was measured using a Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25). Along with the subjective SHS measure, objective BOS: 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-epiprostaglandinF2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2α), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and AGMs: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PIGF) and soluble endoglin (sEng) were evaluated. Compared to optimal health NTN-PW, levels of PlGF, VEGF-A and TAC were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced and negatively associated with SHS whilst sEng, sFlt-1, 8-epiPGF2α, 8-OHdG, and combined ratios of sFlt-1/PlGF, 8-epiPGF2α/PlGF, 8-OHdG/PlGF, and sEng/PlGF were significantly increased and positively associated with SHS. The first quartile for PIGF (2.79-fold) and VEGF-A (5.35-fold), and the fourth quartile for sEng (4.31-fold), sFlt-1 (1.84-fold), 8-epiPGF2α (2.23-fold), 8-OHdG (1.90-fold) and urinary 8-OHdG (1.95-fold) were independently associated with SHS (p < 0.05). SHS is associated with increased OS and unbalanced AGMs. Early identification of SHS-related OS and unbalanced AGMs may inform clinicians of the need for therapeutic options.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/uso terapéutico , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/farmacología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
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