Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Genes Nutr ; 9(4): 408, 2014 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24879315

RESUMEN

The discovery of vitamins and clarification of their role in preventing frank essential nutrient deficiencies occurred in the early 1900s. Much vitamin research has understandably focused on public health and the effects of single nutrients to alleviate acute conditions. The physiological processes for maintaining health, however, are complex systems that depend upon interactions between multiple nutrients, environmental factors, and genetic makeup. To analyze the relationship between these factors and nutritional health, data were obtained from an observational, community-based participatory research program of children and teens (age 6-14) enrolled in a summer day camp in the Delta region of Arkansas. Assessments of erythrocyte S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and 6 organic micronutrients (retinol, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, pyridoxal, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin E), and 1,129 plasma proteins were performed at 3 time points in each of 2 years. Genetic makeup was analyzed with 1 M SNP genotyping arrays, and nutrient status was assessed with 24-h dietary intake questionnaires. A pattern of metabolites (met_PC1) that included the ratio of erythrocyte SAM/SAH, Hcy, and 5 vitamins were identified by principal component analysis. Met_PC1 levels were significantly associated with (1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, (2) levels of plasma proteins, and (3) multilocus genotypes coding for gastrointestinal and immune functions, as identified in a global network of metabolic/protein-protein interactions. Subsequent mining of data from curated pathway, network, and genome-wide association studies identified genetic and functional relationships that may be explained by gene-nutrient interactions. The systems nutrition strategy described here has thus associated a multivariate metabolite pattern in blood with genes involved in immune and gastrointestinal functions.

2.
Genes Nutr ; 9(3): 403, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24760553

RESUMEN

Micronutrient research typically focuses on analyzing the effects of single or a few nutrients on health by analyzing a limited number of biomarkers. The observational study described here analyzed micronutrients, plasma proteins, dietary intakes, and genotype using a systems approach. Participants attended a community-based summer day program for 6-14 year old in 2 years. Genetic makeup, blood metabolite and protein levels, and dietary differences were measured in each individual. Twenty-four-hour dietary intakes, eight micronutrients (vitamins A, D, E, thiamin, folic acid, riboflavin, pyridoxal, and pyridoxine) and 3 one-carbon metabolites [homocysteine (Hcy), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH)], and 1,129 plasma proteins were analyzed as a function of diet at metabolite level, plasma protein level, age, and sex. Cluster analysis identified two groups differing in SAM/SAH and differing in dietary intake patterns indicating that SAM/SAH was a potential marker of nutritional status. The approach used to analyze genetic association with the SAM/SAH metabolites is called middle-out: SNPs in 275 genes involved in the one-carbon pathway (folate, pyridoxal/pyridoxine, thiamin) or were correlated with SAM/SAH (vitamin A, E, Hcy) were analyzed instead of the entire 1M SNP data set. This procedure identified 46 SNPs in 25 genes associated with SAM/SAH demonstrating a genetic contribution to the methylation potential. Individual plasma metabolites correlated with 99 plasma proteins. Fourteen proteins correlated with body mass index, 49 with group age, and 30 with sex. The analytical strategy described here identified subgroups for targeted nutritional interventions.

3.
OMICS ; 12(4): 263-72, 2008 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19040372

RESUMEN

Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad/métodos , Nutrigenómica/métodos , Pruebas Genéticas , Variación Genética , Humanos , Nutrigenómica/tendencias , Proyectos de Investigación , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture
4.
Mol Pharmacol ; 72(6): 1637-46, 2007 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17875604

RESUMEN

The cystine-glutamate transporter SLC7A11 has been implicated in chemoresistance, by supplying cystine to the cell for glutathione maintenance. In the NCI-60 cell panel, SLC7A11 expression shows negative correlation with growth inhibitory potency of geldanamycin but not with its analog 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which differs in the C-17 substituent in that the the methoxy moiety of geldanamycin is replaced by an amino group. Structure and potency analysis classified 18 geldanamycin analogs into two subgroups, "17-O/H" (C-17 methoxy or unsubstituted) and "17-N" (C-17 amino), showing distinct SLC7A11 correlation. We used three 17-O/H analogs and four 17-N analogs to test the role of the 17-substituents in susceptibility to SLC7A11-mediated resistance. In A549 cells, which are resistant to geldanamycin and strongly express SLC7A11, inhibition of SLC7A11 by (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine or small interfering RNA increased sensitivity to 17-O/H, but had no effect on 17-N analogs. Ectopic expression of SLC7A11 in HepG2 cells, which are sensitive to geldanamycin and express low SLC7A11, confers resistance to geldanamycin, but not to 17-AAG. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, a precursor for glutathione synthesis, completely suppressed cytotoxic effects of 17-O/H but had no effect on 17-N analogs, whereas the prooxidant ascorbic acid had the opposite effect. Compared with 17-AAG, geldanamycin led to significantly more intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was quenched by addition of N-acetylcysteine. We conclude that SLC7A11 confers resistance selectively to 17-O/H (e.g., geldanamycin) but not to 17-N (e.g., 17-AAG) analogs partly as a result of differential dependence on ROS for cytotoxicity. Distinct mechanisms could significantly affect antitumor response and organ toxicity of these compounds in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Sistema de Transporte de Aminoácidos y+/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/farmacología , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos/fisiología , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacología , Benzoquinonas/química , Línea Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales/métodos , Humanos , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/química , Relación Estructura-Actividad
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 6 Suppl 2: S5, 2005 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16026602

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Proteomic profiling of complex biological mixtures by the ProteinChip technology of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most promising approaches in toxicological, biological, and clinic research. The reliable identification of protein expression patterns and associated protein biomarkers that differentiate disease from health or that distinguish different stages of a disease depends on developing methods for assessing the quality of SELDI-TOF mass spectra. The use of SELDI data for biomarker identification requires application of rigorous procedures to detect and discard low quality spectra prior to data analysis. RESULTS: The systematic variability from plates, chips, and spot positions in SELDI experiments was evaluated using biological and technical replicates. Systematic biases on plates, chips, and spots were not found. The reproducibility of SELDI experiments was demonstrated by examining the resulting low coefficient of variances of five peaks presented in all 144 spectra from quality control samples that were loaded randomly on different spots in the chips of six bioprocessor plates. We developed a method to detect and discard low quality spectra prior to proteomic profiling data analysis, which uses a correlation matrix to measure the similarities among SELDI mass spectra obtained from similar biological samples. Application of the correlation matrix to our SELDI data for liver cancer and liver toxicity study and myeloma-associated lytic bone disease study confirmed this approach as an efficient and reliable method for detecting low quality spectra. CONCLUSION: This report provides evidence that systematic variability between plates, chips, and spots on which the samples were assayed using SELDI based proteomic procedures did not exist. The reproducibility of experiments in our studies was demonstrated to be acceptable and the profiling data for subsequent data analysis are reliable. Correlation matrix was developed as a quality control tool to detect and discard low quality spectra prior to data analysis. It proved to be a reliable method to measure the similarities among SELDI mass spectra and can be used for quality control to decrease noise in proteomic profiling data prior to data analysis.


Asunto(s)
Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas/métodos , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas/normas , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Control de Calidad
6.
Int J Cancer ; 117(1): 8-13, 2005 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15880531

RESUMEN

Dietary factors appear to be involved in the high incidence of prostate cancer in "Westernized" countries, implicating dietary carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the initiation of prostate carcinogenesis. We examined 24 human prostate samples with respect to their potential for activation and detoxification of HAs and the presence of DNA adducts formed in vivo. Cytochromes P450 1B1, 3A4 and 3A5 were expressed at low levels (<0.1-6.2 pmol/mg microsomal protein). N-Acetyltransferase (NAT) activities, using p-aminobenzoic acid (NAT1) and sulfamethazine (NAT2) as substrates, were <5-5,500 and <5-43 pmol/min/mg cytosolic protein, respectively. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) P1, M2 and M3 were expressed at 0.038-1.284, 0.005-0.126 and 0.010-0.270 microg/mg cytosolic protein, respectively; GSTM1 was expressed in all GSTM1-positive samples (0.012-0.291 microg/mg cytosolic protein); and GSTA1 was expressed at low levels (<0.01-0.11 microg/mg cytosolic protein). Binding of N-hydroxy-PhIP to DNA in vitro occurred primarily by an AcCoA-dependent process (<1-54 pmol/mg/DNA), PAPS- and ATP-dependent binding being <1-7 pmol/mg DNA. In vivo, putative PhIP- or 4-aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts were found in 4 samples (0.4-0.8 adducts/10(8) bases); putative hydrophobic adducts were found in 6 samples (8-64 adducts/10(8) bases). Thus, the prostate appears to have low potential for N-hydroxylation of HAs but greater potential for activation of N-hydroxy HAs to genotoxic N-acetoxy esters. The prostate has potential for GSTP1-dependent detoxification of ATP-activated N-hydroxy-PhIP but little potential for detoxification of N-acetoxy-PhIP by GSTA1. However, there were no significant correlations between expression/activities and DNA adducts formed in vitro or in vivo, DNA adducts in vivo possibly reflecting carcinogen exposure.


Asunto(s)
Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutatión Transferasa/metabolismo , Fosfoadenosina Fosfosulfato/metabolismo , Próstata/enzimología , Adenocarcinoma/enzimología , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , N-Acetiltransferasa de Arilalquilamina/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , ADN/metabolismo , Aductos de ADN , Glutatión Transferasa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microsomas/enzimología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hiperplasia Prostática/enzimología , Hiperplasia Prostática/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/enzimología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología
7.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 18(4): 692-9, 2005 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15833029

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoking has been associated with various cancers including bladder and pancreas. 4-Aminobiphenyl has been isolated as a constituent of cigarette smoke and has been established as a carcinogen in various animal models and humans. In rodents and humans, 4-aminobiphenyl is N-hydroxylated and forms adducts to DNA, the predominant one being N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP). In this study, we report a micro-electrospray mass spectrometric (muESI-MS) isotope dilution method for the detection and quantification of dG-C8-ABP in human pancreatic tissue. A reverse phase capillary column (320 microm ID) was connected to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer via a commercially available micro-ESI source. The system was operated in the selected reaction monitoring mode transmitting the [M + H]+ --> [M + H - 116]+ transitions for both the analyte and the isotopically labeled internal standard. Twelve human pancreas samples were analyzed, where six were current smokers (three male and three female) and six were considered nonsmokers (three female and three male). Of the samples analyzed, six showed dG-C8-ABP levels above the limit of quantification for the method, five were considered to have levels that were undetectable, and one was discarded due to inconsistent internal standard signal. The age of the human subjects ranged from 17 to 63, and, in samples where adduct was present, levels ranged anywhere from 1 to 60/10(8) nucleotides. Although no correlation between smoking preference, age, or gender was proven with this particular sample pool, this report demonstrates that capillary LC-muESI-MS can provide a sensitive and definitive method for DNA adduct analysis in human tissue.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Aminobifenilo/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Aductos de ADN/análisis , Páncreas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray
8.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 17(12): 1659-66, 2004 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15606142

RESUMEN

Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Aminas/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Lactoperoxidasa/metabolismo , Aminas/química , Aminas/toxicidad , Animales , Carcinógenos/toxicidad , Bovinos , Aductos de ADN/metabolismo , Activación Enzimática , Femenino , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/toxicidad , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarburos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Leche Humana/química , Leche Humana/enzimología , Oxidación-Reducción , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray
9.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 44(4): 265-76, 2004.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15468054

RESUMEN

Coffee drinking has been associated with reduced incidence of colorectal cancer, possibly via chemoprotection/modification of the metabolism of dietary heterocyclic amine carcinogens such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) by kahweol and cafestol palmitates (K/C), two components of unfiltered coffee. Using the PhIP-exposed male Fisher F344 rat as a model, K/C have been shown to reduce colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by > 50%. We have used the male F344 rat to investigate the effects of dietary K/C (0.02-0.2% as a 1:1 mixture) on the metabolism of PhIP by N-acetyltransferase- (NAT), sulfotransferase- (SULT), and glutathione-dependent pathways. K/C decreased hepatic NAT-dependent PhIP activation by up to 80% in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity/expression increased, e.g., 3-4 fold toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (total activity), up to 23-fold toward 4-vinylpyridine (rGSTP1), and approximately 7-fold for rGSTA2 protein. These effects had fully developed after 5 days of the test diet and persisted for at least 5 days after withdrawal of K/C. Hepatic glutathione increased two- to threefold and this increase was more short-lived than other changes. K/C did not modify hepatic SULT activity or colon NAT and GST activities. Benzylisothiocyanate and black tea, which have also been shown to reduce the formation of PhIP-DNA adducts in this model, had little effect on hepatic NAT, SULT, GST, or GSH. In primary culture of rat hepatocytes, both kahweol and cafestol palmitates reduced NAT activity by 80%. In summary, the unique potential of K/C to convert rapid acetylators to a slow acetylator phenotype, accompanied by GST induction, might contribute to chemoprevention against cancers associated with heterocyclic amines.


Asunto(s)
Acetiltransferasas/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Diterpenos/farmacología , Glutatión Transferasa/metabolismo , Imidazoles/metabolismo , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Café/química , Colon/efectos de los fármacos , Colon/enzimología , Aductos de ADN/metabolismo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Isotiocianatos/farmacología , Hígado/enzimología , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas F344 , Té/química , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 17(4): 529-36, 2004 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15089095

RESUMEN

Cytochrome p450 (p450) 1A2 and NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) catalyzed the oxidation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), with consumption of NADPH. The oxidation rate of NADPH by p450 1A2/NPR increased with time in the presence of IQ until depletion of NADPH. This unusual autocatalytic pattern of NADPH oxidation could be rationalized by formation of a nitroso derivative (IQ-N=O) and the subsequent reduction of the hydroxylamine (IQ-NHOH) and IQ-N=O, which would consume more NADPH. The formation of IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O from IQ was confirmed using HPLC/MS. Reduction of IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O was NPR-dependent but did not require p450. Autocatalytic NADPH oxidation was also observed in the oxidation of other heterocyclic and arylamines. However, the N-hydroxyl and nitroso oxidation products of 2-aminofluorene and 4-aminobiphenyl were reduced nonenzymatically by NADPH, and NPR did not catalyze the reactions. We simulated the enzymatic kinetic model for possible pathways for IQ metabolism, which included the formation of IQ-N=O, using some kinetic parameters obtained from the experimental results. In the kinetic model, we could reproduce the similar curvature for NADPH oxidation and the formation of IQ-N=O, and the reduction of IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O is required to explain the observed results for NADPH oxidation. Our results support a role for nitroso derivatives of HAAs in the unusual autocatalytic NADPH oxidation and may have relevance in terms of possible toxicities of the nitroso derivatives. Both IQ-NHOH and IQ-N=O were mutagenic in a bacterial tester system devoid of p450 and NPR; the mutagenicity of both was decreased by expression of NPR, consistent with the reduction of these compounds observed with purified NPR.


Asunto(s)
Carcinógenos/química , Modelos Teóricos , NADP/química , Compuestos Nitrosos/química , Quinolinas/química , Carcinógenos/toxicidad , Catálisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Escherichia coli/genética , Cinética , Espectrometría de Masas , Pruebas de Mutagenicidad , NADPH-Ferrihemoproteína Reductasa/farmacología , Compuestos Nitrosos/toxicidad , Oxidación-Reducción , Quinolinas/toxicidad , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
11.
Mutat Res ; 523-524: 193-200, 2003.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12628517

RESUMEN

The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen.


Asunto(s)
Anticarcinógenos/farmacología , Carcinógenos/química , Aductos de ADN , Flavonoides , Imidazoles/química , Imidazoles/farmacocinética , Fenoles/farmacología , Polímeros/farmacología , Piridinas/química , , Animales , Masculino , Oxidación-Reducción , Polifenoles , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Distribución Tisular
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA