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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 40-43, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945035

RESUMEN

Multiple genetically distinct influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses have cocirculated in the United States recently, circulating sporadically during the 2018-19 season and more frequently early during the 2019-20 season (1). The beginning of the 2019-20 influenza season in Louisiana was unusually early and intense, with infections primarily caused by influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses. One large pediatric health care facility in New Orleans (facility A) reported 1,268 laboratory-confirmed influenza B virus infections, including 23 hospitalizations from July 31 to November 21, 2019, a time when influenza activity is typically low. During this period, Louisiana also reported one pediatric death associated with influenza B virus infection. An investigation of the influenza B virus infections in Louisiana, including medical and vaccine record abstraction on 198 patients, primarily from facility A, with sporadic cases from other facilities in the state, found that none of the patients had received 2019-20 seasonal influenza vaccine, in part because influenza activity began before influenza vaccination typically occurs. Among 83 influenza B viruses sequenced from 198 patients in Louisiana, 81 (98%) belonged to the recently emerged B/Victoria V1A.3 genetic subclade. Nationally, to date, B/Victoria viruses are the most commonly reported influenza viruses among persons aged <25 years (2). Of the 198 patients in the investigation, 95% were aged <18 years. Although most illnesses were uncomplicated, the number of hospitalizations, clinical complications, and the reported pediatric death in Louisiana serve as a reminder that, even though influenza B viruses are less common than influenza A viruses in most seasons, influenza B virus infection can be severe in children. All persons aged ≥6 months should receive an annual influenza vaccination if they have not already received it (3). Antiviral treatment of influenza is recommended as soon as possible for all hospitalized patients and for outpatients at high risk for influenza complications (including children aged <2 years and persons with underlying medical conditions) (4).


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Influenza B/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Louisiana/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Adulto Joven
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(1): e25416, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957332

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: HIV-associated cryptococcal, TB and pneumococcal meningitis are the leading causes of adult meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis with the primary aim of estimating mortality from major causes of adult meningitis in routine care settings, and to contrast this with outcomes from clinical trial settings. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for published clinical trials (defined as randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) or investigator-managed prospective cohorts) and observational studies that evaluated outcomes of adult meningitis in SSA from 1 January 1990 through 15 September 2019. We performed random effects modelling to estimate pooled mortality, both in clinical trial and routine care settings. Outcomes were stratified as short-term (in-hospital or two weeks), medium-term (up to 10 weeks) and long-term (up to six months). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventy-nine studies met inclusion criteria. In routine care settings, pooled short-term mortality from cryptococcal meningitis was 44% (95% confidence interval (95% CI):39% to 49%, 40 studies), which did not differ between amphotericin (either alone or with fluconazole) and fluconazole-based induction regimens, and was twofold higher than pooled mortality in clinical trials using amphotericin based treatment (21% (95% CI:17% to 25%), 17 studies). Pooled short-term mortality of TB meningitis was 46% (95% CI: 33% to 59%, 11 studies, all routine care). For pneumococcal meningitis, pooled short-term mortality was 54% in routine care settings (95% CI:44% to 64%, nine studies), with similar mortality reported in two included randomized-controlled trials. Few studies evaluated long-term outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates from HIV-associated meningitis in SSA are very high under routine care conditions. Better strategies are needed to reduce mortality from HIV-associated meningitis in the region.

4.
Lancet HIV ; 7(1): e3-e5, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727579
5.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 144, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803848

RESUMEN

Background: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening for antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults with advanced HIV/AIDS can reduce the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and all-cause mortality. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of laboratory-based "reflex" CrAg screening for ART-naïve CrAg-positive patients with CD4<100 cells/µL (those currently targeted in guidelines) and ART-experienced CrAg-positive patients with CD4<100 cells/µL (who make up an increasingly large proportion of individuals with advanced HIV/AIDS). Methods: A decision analytic model was developed to evaluate CrAg screening and treatment based on local CD4 count and CrAg prevalence data, and realistic assumptions regarding programmatic implementation of the CrAg screening intervention. We modeled the number of CrAg tests performed, the number of CrAg positives stratified by prior ART experience, the proportion of patients started on pre-emptive antifungal treatment, and the number of incident CM cases and CM-related deaths. Screening and treatment costs were evaluated, and cost per death or disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted estimated. Results: We estimated that of 650,000 samples undergoing CD4 testing annually in Botswana, 16,364 would have a CD4<100 cells/µL and receive a CrAg test, with 70% of patients ART-experienced at the time of screening. Under base model assumptions, CrAg screening and pre-emptive treatment restricted to ART-naïve patients with a CD4<100 cells/µL prevented 20% (39/196) of CM-related deaths in patients undergoing CD4 testing at a cost of US$2 per DALY averted. Expansion of preemptive treatment to include ART-experienced patients with a CD4<100 cells/µL resulted in 55 additional deaths averted (a total of 48% [94/196]) and was cost-saving compared to no screening. Findings were robust across a range of model assumptions. Conclusions: Reflex laboratory-based CrAg screening for patients with CD4<100 cells/µL is a cost-effective strategy in Botswana, even in the context of a relatively low proportion of advanced HIV/AIDS in the overall HIV-infected population, the majority of whom are ART-experienced.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 865-869, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581166

RESUMEN

In July 2019, the Illinois Department of Public Health and the Wisconsin Department of Health Services launched a coordinated epidemiologic investigation after receiving reports of several cases of lung injury in previously healthy persons who reported electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or vaping (1). This report describes features of e-cigarette product use by patients in Illinois and Wisconsin. Detailed patient interviews were conducted by telephone, in person, or via the Internet with 86 (68%) of 127 patients. Overall, 75 (87%) of 86 interviewed patients reported using e-cigarette products containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and 61 (71%) reported using nicotine-containing products. Numerous products and brand names were identified by patients. Nearly all (96%) THC-containing products reported were packaged, prefilled cartridges, and 89% were primarily acquired from informal sources (e.g., friends, family members, illicit dealers, or off the street). In contrast, 77% of nicotine-containing products were sold as prefilled cartridges, and 83% were obtained from commercial vendors. The precise source of this outbreak is currently unknown (2); however, the predominant use of prefilled THC-containing cartridges among patients with lung injury associated with e-cigarette use suggests that they play an important role. While this investigation is ongoing, CDC recommends that persons consider refraining from using e-cigarette, or vaping, products, particularly those containing THC. Given the diversity of products reported and frequency of patients using both THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette products, additional methods such as product testing and traceback could help identify the specific cause of this outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Dronabinol/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiología , Masculino , Wisconsin/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002907, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509529

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the association between preexisting vitamin D deficiency and incident tuberculosis (TB). We assessed the impact of baseline vitamins D levels on TB disease risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between baseline vitamin D and incident TB in a prospective cohort of 6,751 HIV-negative household contacts of TB patients enrolled between September 1, 2009, and August 29, 2012, in Lima, Peru. We screened for TB disease at 2, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. We defined cases as household contacts who developed TB disease at least 15 days after enrollment of the index patient. For each case, we randomly selected four controls from among contacts who did not develop TB disease, matching on gender and year of age. We also conducted a one-stage individual-participant data (IPD) meta-analysis searching PubMed and Embase to identify prospective studies of vitamin D and TB disease until June 8, 2019. We included studies that assessed vitamin D before TB diagnosis. In the primary analysis, we defined vitamin D deficiency as 25-(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, insufficiency as 50-75 nmol/L, and sufficiency as >75nmol/L. We estimated the association between baseline vitamin D status and incident TB using conditional logistic regression in the Lima cohort and generalized linear mixed models in the meta-analysis. We further defined severe vitamin D deficiency as 25-(OH)D < 25 nmol/L and performed stratified analyses by HIV status in the IPD meta-analysis. In the Lima cohort, we analyzed 180 cases and 709 matched controls. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TB risk among participants with baseline vitamin D deficiency compared to sufficient vitamin D was 1.63 (95% CI 0.75-3.52; p = 0.22). We included seven published studies in the meta-analysis and analyzed 3,544 participants. In the pooled analysis, the aOR was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04-2.10; p = 0.03). The aOR for severe vitamin D deficiency was 2.05 (95% CI 0.87-4.87; p trend for decreasing 25-(OH)D levels from sufficient vitamin D to severe deficiency = 0.02). Among 1,576 HIV-positive patients, vitamin D deficiency conferred a 2-fold (aOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.22-3.90; p = 0.01) increased risk of TB, and the aOR for severe vitamin D deficiency compared to sufficient vitamin D was 4.28 (95% CI 0.85-21.45; p = 0.08). Our Lima cohort study is limited by the short duration of follow-up, and the IPD meta-analysis is limited by the number of possible confounding covariates available across all studies. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest vitamin D predicts TB disease risk in a dose-dependent manner and that the risk of TB disease is highest among HIV-positive individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency. Randomized control trials are needed to evaluate the possible role of vitamin D supplementation on reducing TB disease risk.

9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(9): 906-911, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261367

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings of Africa. We evaluated the epidemiology of pediatric meningitis in Botswana during the rollout of antiretroviral therapy, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) vaccine. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of children (<15 years old) evaluated for meningitis by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination from 2000 to 2015, with complete national records for 2013-2014. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of microbiologically confirmed and culture-negative meningitis were described and incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae and cryptococcal meningitis was estimated for 2013-2014. RESULTS: A total of 6796 unique cases were identified. Median age was 1 year [interquartile range 0-3]; 10.4% (435/4186) of children with available HIV-related records were known HIV-infected. Overall, 30.4% (2067/6796) had abnormal CSF findings (positive microbiologic testing or CSF pleocytosis). Ten percent (651/6796) had a confirmed microbiologic diagnosis; including 26.9% (175/651) Cryptococcus, 18.9% (123/651) S. pneumoniae, 20.3% (132/651) H. influenzae and 1.1% (7/651) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. During 2013-2014, national cryptococcal meningitis incidence was 1.3 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.1) and pneumococcal meningitis incidence 0.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 0.3-1.3), with no HiB meningitis diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Following HiB vaccination, a marked decline in microbiologically confirmed cases of H. influenzae meningitis occurred. Cryptococcal meningitis remains the most common confirmed etiology, demonstrating gaps in prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission and early HIV diagnosis. The high proportion of abnormal CSF samples with no microbiologic diagnosis highlights limitation in available diagnostics.

10.
J Infect ; 79(3): 212-219, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255634

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Data on meningitis epidemiology in high HIV-prevalence African settings following antiretroviral therapy scale-up are lacking. We described epidemiology of adult meningitis in Botswana over a 16-year period. METHODS: Laboratory records for adults undergoing lumbar puncture (LP) 2000-2015 were collected, with complete national data 2013-2014. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and linked HIV-data were described, and national incidence figures estimated for 2013-2014. Temporal trends in meningitis were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 21,560 adults evaluated, 41% (8759/21,560) had abnormal CSF findings with positive microbiological testing and/or pleocytosis; 43% (3755/8759) of these had no confirmed microbiological diagnosis. Of the 5004 microbiologically-confirmed meningitis cases, 89% (4432/5004) were cryptococcal (CM) and 8% (382/5004) pneumococcal (PM). Seventy-three percent (9525/13,033) of individuals undergoing LP with identifiers for HIV registry linkage had documented HIV-infection. Incidence of LP for meningitis evaluation in Botswana 2013-2014 was 142.6/100,000 person-years (95%CI:138.3-147.1); incidence of CM was 25.0/100,000 (95%CI:23.2-26.9), and incidence of PM was 2.7/100,000 (95%CI:2.4-3.1). In contrast to previously reported declines in CM incidence with ART roll-out, no significant temporal decline in pneumococcal or culture-negative meningitis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: CM remained the predominant identified aetiology of meningitis despite ART scale-up. A high proportion of cases had abnormal CSF with negative microbiological evaluation.

12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(7): 740-749, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250824

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: CNS infections are a leading cause of HIV-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, but causes and outcomes are poorly defined. We aimed to determine mortality and predictors of mortality in adults evaluated for meningitis in Botswana, which has an estimated 23% HIV prevalence among adults. METHODS: In this prevalent cohort study, patient records from 2004-15 were sampled from the Botswana national meningitis survey, a nationwide audit of all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory records from patients receiving a lumbar puncture for evaluation of meningitis. Data from all patients with culture-confirmed pneumococcal and tuberculous meningitis, and all patients with culture-negative meningitis with CSF white cell count (WCC) above 20 cells per µL were included in our analyses, in addition to a random selection of patients with culture-negative CSF and CSF WCC of up to 20 cells per µL. We used patient national identification numbers to link CSF laboratory records from the national meningitis survey to patient vital registry and HIV databases. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate clinical and laboratory predictors of mortality. FINDINGS: We included data from 238 patients with culture-confirmed pneumococcal meningitis, 48 with culture-confirmed tuberculous meningitis, and 2900 with culture-negative CSF (including 1691 with CSF WCC of up to 20 cells per µL and 1209 with CSF WCC above 20 cells per µL). Median age was 37 years (IQR 31-46), 1605 (50%) of 3184 patients were male, 2188 (72%) of 3023 patients with registry linkage had documentation of HIV infection, and median CD4 count was 139 cells per µL (IQR 63-271). 10-week and 1-year mortality was 47% (112 of 238) and 49% (117 of 238) for pneumococcal meningitis, 46% (22 of 48) and 56% (27 of 48) for tuberculous meningitis, and 41% (1181 of 2900) and 49% (1408 of 2900) for culture-negative patients. When the analysis of patients with culture-negative CSF was restricted to those with known HIV infection, WCC (0-20 cells per µL vs >20 cells per µL) was not predictive of mortality (average hazard ratio 0·93, 95% CI 0·80-1·09). INTERPRETATION: Mortality from pneumococcal, tuberculous, and culture-negative meningitis was high in this setting of high HIV prevalence. There is an urgent need for improved access to diagnostics, to better define aetiologies and develop novel diagnostic tools and treatment algorithms. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, National Institute for Health Research.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(3): 393-401, 2019 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945252

RESUMEN

Background: We performed a phase 2 noninferiority trial examining the early fungicidal activity (EFA) of 3 short-course, high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens for cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in Tanzania and Botswana. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with CM were randomized to (i) L-AmB 10 mg/kg on day 1 (single dose); (ii) L-AmB 10 mg/kg on day 1 and 5 mg/kg on day 3 (2 doses); (iii) L-AmB 10 mg/kg on day 1 and 5 mg/kg on days 3 and 7 (3 doses); or (iv) L-AmB 3 mg/kg/day for 14 days (control). All patients also received oral fluconazole 1200 mg/day for 14 days. Primary endpoint was mean rate of clearance of cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal infection (EFA). Noninferiority was defined as an upper limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of difference in EFA between intervention and control <0.2 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL/day. Results: Eighty participants were enrolled. EFA for daily L-AmB was -0.41 log10 CFU/mL/day (standard deviation, 0.11; n = 17). Difference in mean EFA from control was -0.11 (95% CI, -.29 to .07) log10 CFU/mL/day faster with single dose (n = 16); -0.05 (95% CI, -.20 to .10) log10 CFU/mL/day faster with 2 doses (n = 18); and -0.13 (95% CI, -.35 to .09) log10 CFU/mL/day faster with 3 doses (n = 18). EFA in all short-course arms was noninferior to control. Ten-week mortality was 29% (n = 23) with no statistical difference between arms. All arms were well tolerated. Conclusions: Single-dose 10 mg/kg L-AmB was well tolerated and led to noninferior EFA compared to 14 days of 3 mg/kg/day L-AmB in HIV-associated CM. Induction based on a single 10 mg/kg L-AmB dose is being taken forward to a phase 3 clinical endpoint trial. Clinical Trials Registration: ISRCTN 10248064.

15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(11): ofy267, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488038

RESUMEN

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes 10%-20% of HIV-related deaths in Africa. Due to limited access to liposomal amphotericin and flucytosine, most African treatment guidelines recommend amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-d) plus high-dose fluconazole; outcomes with this treatment regimen in routine care settings have not been well described. Methods: Electronic national death registry data and computerized medical records were used to retrospectively collect demographic, laboratory, and 1-year outcome data from all patients with CM between 2012 and 2014 at Botswana's main referral hospital, when recommended treatment for CM was AmB-d 1 mg/kg/d plus fluconazole 800 mg/d for 14 days. Cumulative survival was estimated at 2 weeks, 10 weeks, and 1 year. Results: There were 283 episodes of CM among 236 individuals; 69% (163/236) were male, and the median age was 36 years. All patients were HIV-infected, with a median CD4 count of 39 cells/mm3. Two hundred fifteen person-years of follow-up data were captured for the 236 CM patients. Complete outcome data were available for 233 patients (99%) at 2 weeks, 224 patients (95%) at 10 weeks, and 219 patients (93%) at 1 year. Cumulative mortality was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-32%) at 2 weeks, 50% (95% CI, 43%-57%) at 10 weeks, and 65% (95% CI, 58%-71%) at 1 year. Conclusions: Mortality rates following HIV-associated CM treated with AmB-d and fluconazole in a routine health care setting in Botswana were very high. The findings highlight the inadequacies of current antifungal treatments for HIV-associated CM and underscore the difficulties of administering and monitoring intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy in resource-poor settings.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(6): ofy134, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992174

RESUMEN

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy has been associated with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes in highly endemic settings, but this association is not well characterized in the United States. Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study in Washington State using linked birth certificate and hospital discharge records from 1992-2014. Among pregnant women with hepatitis B (n = 4391) and a hepatitis B-negative group (n = 22 410), we compared the risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, placenta previa, preterm delivery, low birthweight, small for gestational age, and large for gestational age using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Hepatitis B-infected pregnant women were more likely to be Asian (61% vs 8%, P < .001), foreign-born (76% vs 23%, P < .001), and older in age (77% vs 64% ≥26 years, P < .001). They were less commonly overweight or obese (33% vs 50%, P < .001). There was a lower risk of small for gestational age infants among HBV-infected women (adjusted RR [aRR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.93). The risk of other adverse outcomes was not significantly different between hepatitis B-infected and -negative women (gestational diabetes: aRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.92-1.34; pre-eclampsia: aRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.82-1.35; eclampsia: aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 0.90-5.91; placenta previa: aRR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.35-3.84; preterm delivery: aRR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.98-1.34; low birth weight: aRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.90-1.29; large for gestational age: aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.82-1.24). Conclusions: In a low-burden setting in the United States, hepatitis B infection was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD005647, 2018 07 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045416

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is a severe fungal infection that occurs primarily in the setting of advanced immunodeficiency and remains a major cause of HIV-related deaths worldwide. The best induction therapy to reduce mortality from HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is unclear, particularly in resource-limited settings where management of drug-related toxicities associated with more potent antifungal drugs is a challenge. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the best induction therapy to reduce mortality from HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis; to compare side effect profiles of different therapies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), LILACS (BIREME), African Index Medicus, and Index Medicus for the South-East Asia Region (IMSEAR) from 1 January 1980 to 9 July 2018. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the ISRCTN registry; and abstracts of select conferences published between 1 July 2014 and 9 July 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials that compared antifungal induction therapies used for the first episode of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Comparisons could include different individual or combination therapies, or the same antifungal therapies with differing durations of induction (less than two weeks or two or more weeks, the latter being the current standard of care). We included data regardless of age, geographical region, or drug dosage. We specified no language restriction. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts identified by the search strategy. We obtained the full texts of potentially eligible studies to assess eligibility and extracted data using standardized forms. The main outcomes included mortality at 2 weeks, 10 weeks, and 6 months; mean rate of cerebrospinal fluid fungal clearance in the first two weeks of treatment; and Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grade three or four laboratory events. Using random-effects models we determined pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. For the direct comparison of 10-week mortality, we assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We performed a network meta-analysis using multivariate meta-regression. We modelled treatment differences (RR and 95% CI) and determined treatment rankings for two-week and 10-week mortality outcomes using surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). We assessed transitivity by comparing distribution of effect modifiers between studies, local inconsistency through a node-splitting approach, and global inconsistency using design-by-treatment interaction modelling. For the network meta-analysis, we applied a modified GRADE approach for assessing the certainty of the evidence for 10-week mortality. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 eligible studies that enrolled 2426 participants and compared 21 interventions. All studies were carried out in adults, and all but two studies were conducted in resource-limited settings, including 11 of 12 studies with 10-week mortality data.In the direct pairwise comparisons evaluating 10-week mortality, one study from four sub-Saharan African countries contributed data to several key comparisons. At 10 weeks these data showed that those on the regimen of one-week amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBd) and flucytosine (5FC) followed by fluconazole (FLU) on days 8 to 14 had lower mortality when compared to (i) two weeks of AmBd and 5FC (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93; 228 participants, 1 study), (ii) two weeks of AmBd and FLU (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.86; 227 participants, 1 study), (iii) one week of AmBd with two weeks of FLU (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.72; 224 participants, 1 study), and (iv) two weeks of 5FC and FLU (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.99; 338 participants, 1 study). The evidence for each of these comparisons was of moderate certainty. For other outcomes, this shortened one-week AmBd and 5FC regimen had similar fungal clearance (MD 0.05 log10 CFU/mL/day, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.12; 186 participants, 1 study) as well as lower risk of grade three or four anaemia (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.60; 228 participants, 1 study) compared to the two-week regimen of AmBd and 5FC.For 10-week mortality, the comparison of two weeks of 5FC and FLU with two weeks of AmBd and 5FC (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.23; 340 participants, 1 study) or two weeks of AmBd and FLU (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.13; 339 participants, 1 study) did not show a difference in mortality, with moderate-certainty evidence for both comparisons.When two weeks of combination AmBd and 5FC was compared with AmBd alone, pooled data showed lower mortality at 10 weeks (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95; 231 participants, 2 studies, moderate-certainty evidence).When two weeks of AmBd and FLU was compared to AmBd alone, there was no difference in 10-week mortality in pooled data (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.62; 371 participants, 3 studies, low-certainty evidence).One week of AmBd and 5FC followed by FLU on days 8 to 14 was the best induction therapy regimen after comparison with 11 other regimens for 10-week mortality in the network meta-analysis, with an overall SUCRA ranking of 88%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In resource-limited settings, one-week AmBd- and 5FC-based therapy is probably superior to other regimens for treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. An all-oral regimen of two weeks 5FC and FLU may be an alternative in settings where AmBd is unavailable or intravenous therapy cannot be safely administered. We found no mortality benefit of combination two weeks AmBd and FLU compared to AmBd alone. Given the absence of data from studies in children, and limited data from high-income countries, our findings provide limited guidance for treatment in these patients and settings.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Quimioterapia de Inducción/métodos , Meningitis Criptocócica/tratamiento farmacológico , Acetazolamida/efectos adversos , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Anfotericina B/provisión & distribución , Anfotericina B/uso terapéutico , Antifúngicos/provisión & distribución , Países en Desarrollo , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fluconazol/provisión & distribución , Fluconazol/uso terapéutico , Flucitosina/provisión & distribución , Flucitosina/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hipertensión Intracraneal/tratamiento farmacológico , Meningitis Criptocócica/mortalidad , Metaanálisis en Red
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(1): ofx246, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322063

RESUMEN

The high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa has markedly changed the epidemiology and presentation of adult meningitis. We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid, CENTRAL, and African Index Medicus to identify studies in Africa with data on neurological outcomes in adults after meningitis. We found 22 articles meeting inclusion criteria. From 4 studies with predominately pneumococcal meningitis, a median of 19% of survivors experienced hearing loss up to 40 days. Two studies of cryptococcal meningitis evaluated 6- to 12-month outcomes; in one, 41% of survivors had global neurocognitive impairment and 20% severe impairment at 1 year, and in a second 30% of survivors had intermediate disability and 10% severe disability at 6 months. A single small study of patients with tuberculosis/HIV found marked disability in 20% (6 of 30) at 9 months. Despite the high burden of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about neurological outcomes of patients with HIV-associated meningitides.

19.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 40: 95-103, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154044

RESUMEN

Modulation of host immunity in invasive fungal infection is an appealing but as yet mostly elusive treatment strategy. Animal studies in invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis have demonstrated beneficial effects of colony stimulating factors, interferon-gamma and monoclonal antibodies. More recent studies transfusing leukocytes pre-loaded with lipophilic anti-fungal drugs, or modulated T-cells, along with novel vaccination strategies show great promise. The translation of immune therapies into clinical studies has been limited to date but this is changing and the results of new Candida vaccine trials are eagerly awaited. Immune modulation in HIV-associated mycoses remains complicated by the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and although exogenous interferon-gamma therapy may be beneficial in cryptococcal meningitis, early initiation of anti-retroviral therapy leads to increased mortality. Further study is required to better target protective immune responses.


Asunto(s)
Hongos/fisiología , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/inmunología , Animales , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/inmunología , Hongos/genética , Hongos/inmunología , Humanos , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/genética , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/microbiología
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(5): 779-786, 2017 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505328

RESUMEN

Background: Botswana has a well-developed antiretroviral therapy (ART) program that serves as a regional model. With wide ART availability, the burden of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and associated opportunistic infections would be expected to decline. We performed a nationwide surveillance study to determine the national incidence of cryptococcal meningitis (CM), and describe characteristics of cases during 2000-2014 and temporal trends at 2 national referral hospitals. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid data from all 37 laboratories performing meningitis diagnostics in Botswana were collected from the period 2000-2014 to identify cases of CM. Basic demographic and laboratory data were recorded. Complete national data from 2013-2014 were used to calculate national incidence using UNAIDS population estimates. Temporal trends in cases were derived from national referral centers in the period 2004-2014. Results: A total of 5296 episodes of CM were observed in 4702 individuals; 60.6% were male, and median age was 36 years. Overall 2013-2014 incidence was 17.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.6-19.2) cases per 100000 person-years. In the HIV-infected population, incidence was 96.8 (95% CI, 90.0-104.0) cases per 100000 person-years; male predominance was seen across CD4 strata. At national referral hospitals, cases decreased during 2007-2009 but stabilized during 2010-2014. Conclusions: Despite excellent ART coverage in Botswana, there is still a substantial burden of advanced HIV, with 2013-2014 incidence of CM comparable to pre-ART era rates in South Africa. Our findings suggest that a key population of individuals, often men, is developing advanced disease and associated opportunistic infections due to a failure to effectively engage in care, highlighting the need for differentiated care models.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/epidemiología , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Meningitis Criptocócica/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Botswana/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
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