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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 235: 109448, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding what sociodemographic characteristics and reasons for use are associated with adolescent solitary alcohol and marijuana use. METHODS: Data from 7845 12th grade students participating in the nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study from 2015 to 2021 were used to examine cross-sectional associations between sociodemographics, heavy drinking/marijuana use, reasons for use, and past 12-month solitary alcohol or marijuana use among past 12-month users. Historical trends and possible differences related to the COVID-19 pandemic also were examined. RESULTS: Solitary use prevalence increased from 2015 to 2021 with no evidence of significant COVID-19 deviations. In 2021, solitary alcohol use was reported by 32.1% (SE 3.01) and solitary marijuana use by 55.8% (4.72) of those reporting past 12-month use. Common and substance-specific sociodemographic risk factors were observed. Binge drinking was associated with solitary alcohol use; frequent marijuana use was associated with solitary marijuana use. Reasons for use related to coping with negative affect were associated with solitary use. Compulsive use reasons were more strongly associated with solitary alcohol than marijuana use. Drinking to have a good time with friends was negatively associated with solitary alcohol use but this association was not seen for solitary marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana when they were alone has increased among those who report using each substance. Associations between solitary use and (a) higher levels of consumption and (b) coping with negative affect highlight the importance of solitary use as a risk indicator.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 301: 114887, 2022 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316700

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The current study used U.S. national data to examine drinking trends prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, focusing on changes in U.S. young- and middle-adult alcohol prevalence, frequency, and drinking contexts and reasons, and whether they differed by age and college status. METHODS: Data from 2015 to 2020 from 16,987 young adults (ages 19-30) and 23,584 middle adults (ages 35-55) in the national Monitoring the Future study were used to model historical trends and potential 2020 shifts (data collection April 1 to November 30, 2020) in prevalence (30-day, daily, binge drinking) and frequency (30-day, binge drinking). For young adults, data on drinking contexts and negative affect reasons for drinking were examined. Moderation by age and college status was also tested. RESULTS: 2020 was associated with (1) downward deviation in 30-day (young and middle adults) and binge drinking (young adults) prevalence; (2) upward deviation in daily drinking prevalence (middle adults); (3) among drinkers, upward deviation in frequency of 30-day (young and middle adults) and binge drinking (young adults); and (4) changes in drinking contexts and reasons among drinkers. Among college students, in particular, 2020 was associated with a downward deviation from expected historical trends in drinking prevalence. Upward deviations in daily prevalence and both binge and 30-day drinking frequency were stronger at ages 25-30 (vs. 19-24) and 35-45 (vs. 50-55). CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. young and middle adults, deviations from expected historical trends in population alcohol use that occurred during the pandemic included decreases in alcohol use prevalence, increases in alcohol use frequency, and increases in the use of alcohol to relax/relieve tension and because of boredom. These shifts were likely due, in part, to drinking while alone and at home-which increased during the pandemic.

3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107098, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521066

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study estimated self-reported perceived negative marijuana use consequences among a national sample of U.S. young adults, examining consequence prevalence differences by use frequency, college attendance, living situation, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity; and use frequency/sociodemographic characteristic interactions. METHODS: A subsample of 1,212 respondents from the 2004-2018 class cohorts of 12th grade students participating in the nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study was surveyed up to two times from modal ages 19 through 22 (in 2008-2019). Respondents self-reported negative consequences related to their own past 12-month marijuana use. Bivariate and multivariable models examined subgroup differences in consequence prevalence. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of those using frequently (20+ use occasions in the past 30 days) and 35% of those using non-frequently reported negative consequences. Among all young adult marijuana users, 31.1% reported emotional/physical consequences, 12.9% performance/financial consequences, and 12.3% relational consequences. Use frequency was positively associated with consequence likelihood, excluding regret and unsafe driving. Among college students, frequent use was more strongly associated with any and performance/financial consequences. Controlling for use frequency, men reported more performance/financial consequences; relational consequences were higher among Hispanic (vs. White) respondents, and those living with parents, employed full-time, and not attending 4-year colleges. CONCLUSION: Young adults using marijuana reported a wide range of negative use consequences; likelihood of most consequences increased with higher use frequency. Perceived consequences varied by college attendance, living situation, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity. Efforts to reduce negative marijuana consequences may be strengthened by recognizing and addressing the different types of negative consequences users perceive.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
4.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(5): 584-594, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546904

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examined past-2-week driving after marijuana use (DMU) and driving after having five or more drinks (D5D) during young adulthood, specifically focusing on associations between within-person change in social roles (living situation, marriage, parenthood, education, employment) and mediators (perceived risk, evenings out, and religiosity) from modal ages 19 to 30. METHOD: Multilevel analyses were conducted using survey data collected from 2013 to 2019 from 1,873 adults (1,060 women; total number of data collection waves = 7,037) participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study. RESULTS: Change across waves from not being married to married was associated with lower DMU likelihood at any particular wave both directly and via mediation through wave-level change in evenings out. Change in employment (not employed to employed full time) was associated with higher D5D likelihood at any particular wave both directly and via mediation through change in evenings out. Wave-level change in other social roles was indirectly associated with DMU/D5D likelihood via wave-level change in evenings out. CONCLUSIONS: Change in all social roles examined was associated with change in evenings out, which appears to be a primary, proximal predictor of young adult DMU/D5D. Improved understanding of how socialization change is associated with driving after substance use may strengthen efforts to reduce the harms associated with such driving behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(9): 1821-1828, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342001

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The degree to which binge and high-intensity drinking prevalence estimates vary from fixed threshold frequency and continuous maximum drinks measures is unknown. The current study compared prevalence estimates for adolescent binge and high-intensity drinking (5+ drinks, 10+ drinks, respectively) and sex-specific thresholds using fixed threshold frequency and continuous maximum drinks measures. METHODS: Data were obtained from 7911 respondents participating in the 2018 and 2019 nationally representative Monitoring the Future 12th-grade surveys. Comparisons of frequency prevalence (e.g., any occasions of 5+ drinking using the frequency measure) versus maximum drinks prevalence (e.g., reporting 5 or more drinks using the maximum number of drinks measure) were made using all respondents and then separately within males and females. RESULTS: Among the sample overall and within sex, binge drinking estimates from the 5+ frequency prevalence and 5+ maximum drinks prevalence measures evidenced overlapping confidence intervals (estimates were slightly higher for frequency prevalence); similar results were observed for high-intensity drinking 10+ frequency prevalence and 10+ maximum drinks prevalence. For example, among the sample overall, 5+ frequency prevalence was 11.4% [95% CI 10.3, 12.6]; 5+ maximum drinks prevalence was 10.7% [9.6, 11.8]; 10+ frequency prevalence was 5.1% [4.4, 5.8]; and 10+ maximum drinks prevalence was 4.1% [3.5, 4.7]. Using sex-specific thresholds (i.e., 4+ drinks for females and 5+ drinks for males), binge frequency and maximum drinks levels also had overlapping confidence intervals. Binge drinking prevalence estimates for females were approximately 1.5 times higher using sex-specific (4+) versus universal (5+) thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative sample of 12th-grade students, prevalence levels for 5+ and 10+ drinking did not differ significantly when using frequency versus maximum drinks measures. Among females, binge drinking prevalence was higher using sex-specific versus universal thresholds. Both the frequency and maximum drinks measures provided comparable estimates of binge and high-intensity drinking prevalence among older adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Valores de Referencia , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(3): 362-367, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100704

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify associations of drinking intensity at age 29/30 with symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 35. METHOD: Analyses used national longitudinal data from 1,253 individuals (53.5% female) participating in the Monitoring the Future study. Age 29/30 data were collected from 2005 to 2013; age 35 data were collected from 2010 to 2018. Multivariable models regressed age 35 past-5-year AUD symptoms (vs. nondisordered drinking/abstinence) on age 29/30 past-2-week drinking intensity (no/low [0-4] drinking, binge [5-9] drinking, high-intensity [10+] drinking), with key covariates being controlled for. RESULTS: At age 35, 32.6% (SE = 1.50) of respondents reported AUD symptoms. AUD symptoms at age 35 were reported by 77.5% (SE = 4.79) of participants who reported age 29/30 high-intensity drinking and 60.6% (SE = 3.95) of participants who reported age 29/30 binge drinking. Age 35 past-5-year abstinence was reported by almost no respondents reporting age 29/30 binge drinking or high-intensity drinking. AUD symptoms at age 35 were significantly more likely for those who reported binge (adjusted multivariable odds ratio [AOR] = 5.61, 95% CI [3.79, 8.30], p < .001) or high-intensity (AOR = 12.26, 95% CI [6.70, 22.41], p < .001) drinking versus no/low drinking at age 29/30. The likelihood of having AUD symptoms was significantly higher for high-intensity than for binge drinkers (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI [1.14, 4.19], p = .019). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 80% of those young adults who reported engaging in high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks in a row) at age 29/30 later reported AUD symptoms at age 35. High-intensity drinking appears to be a strong prospective marker of risk for AUD symptoms among adults in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(5): 1078-1090, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the extent to which within-person variation in drinking motives differentiates moderate, binge, and high-intensity drinking; and independent associations of motives and drinking intensity with alcohol use consequences in a sample of young adult drinkers from across the United States. METHODS: Participants were past 30-day drinkers in the U.S. nationally representative Monitoring the Future 12th grade sample in 2018, who also reported alcohol use during a 14-day data collection burst 1 year later (N = 484 people, mean age 19.3 [SD 0.40], 43% female; N = 1042 drinking days) as part of the Young Adult Daily Life Study in 2019. Weighted multilevel modeling estimated within- and between-person associations of drinking motives, drinking intensity (i.e., moderate [women 1-3, men 1-4 drinks], binge [women 4-7, men 5-9 drinks], and high-intensity drinking [women 8+, men 10+ drinks]), and number of positive and negative alcohol consequences. RESULTS: On days participants reported greater enhancement and social motives, they were more likely to engage in high-intensity (vs. binge) drinking and binge (vs. moderate) drinking and experience more positive alcohol consequences. On days participants reported greater enhancement and coping motives, they experienced more negative alcohol consequences. Binge (vs. moderate) drinking on a given day was associated with more positive and negative alcohol consequences; high-intensity (vs. binge) drinking on a given day was associated with more negative alcohol consequences that day. Moderation analyses indicated that social motives were associated with high-intensity (vs. binge) drinking only among college students. CONCLUSIONS: Stronger drinking motives on a given day were associated with drinking intensity (enhancement and social motives) and negative consequences (enhancement and coping). High-intensity (vs. binge or moderate) drinking was associated with more negative consequences but not more positive consequences. These results underscore that high-intensity drinking and consequences vary across days and time-varying, occasion-specific risks such as current motivational context are appropriate targets for intervention.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Motivación , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
9.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(5): 604-613, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028473

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the percentage of age 35 and 55 adults reporting using medical marijuana intended for someone else (diverted use) and compared demographics and health status of such users with respondents reporting recommended use (i.e., individuals with a medical marijuana recommendation for their own health conditions) and to respondents using marijuana not intended for medical use (nonmedical marijuana [NMM] use). METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using complex sample survey data collected from 2013 to 2018 from 12,138 adults (6,998 women) at modal ages 35 or 55 participating in the U.S. national Monitoring the Future study. RESULTS: Diverted use was reported by 72.9% [95% CI, 66.4, 79.4] and 64.3% [56.0, 72.7] of age 35 and 55 past-12-month medical marijuana users, respectively. Age 35 diverted users were more likely than recommended users to not work full time and have no postsecondary education. Age 55 recommended users were more likely than NMM users to be retired. Age 35 diverted users were less likely than recommended users to report poor physical health (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40 [0.17, 0.94]). Age 55 diverted users were less likely than recommended users to report three or more poor health conditions (OR = 0.22 [0.09, 0.55]) and any qualifying conditions (OR = 0.21 [0.08, 0.58]). Prevalence of these conditions was similar between diverted and NMM users. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated a substantial degree of nonmedical (i.e., recreational) marijuana use. Diverted and NMM users reported generally similar levels of health conditions, whereas diverted users had fewer indicators of poor health than recommended users.


Asunto(s)
Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Marihuana Medicinal/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
10.
Prev Sci ; 21(7): 960-971, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737650

RESUMEN

This study (a) examined changes in marijuana and cigarette initiation sequencing and (b) considered implications of such changes for prevention efforts by examining associations between initiation sequencing and current adolescent substance use. Analyses used 2000-2019 cross-sectional data from the national Monitoring the Future (MTF) study (78,252 U.S. 12th grade students). Models examined trends in six distinct patterns of initiation order, and multivariable associations between order of initiation and 30-day cigarette and marijuana use prevalence, cigarette and marijuana use frequency among users, and nicotine and marijuana vaping prevalence. While the percentage of students initiating neither cigarettes nor marijuana increased, increases also were observed in marijuana-only initiation (the fastest-growing pattern) and initiation of marijuana before cigarettes; these increases were accompanied by a significant decrease in cigarette-only initiation. Cigarette use prevalence and frequency were highest among students initiating cigarettes before marijuana; marijuana use prevalence and frequency were highest among students initiating marijuana before cigarettes. Cigarette and marijuana prevalence, as well as marijuana frequency, were lowest among students initiating only a single substance. Nicotine vaping was less prevalent among students initiating a single substance versus both substances, but no significant differences were observed in nicotine vaping prevalence between those initiating only cigarettes versus only marijuana. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed in the frameworks of both the common liability model and route of administration model.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Fumar Marihuana/tendencias , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/tendencias , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/tendencias , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 212: 108064, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More United States adolescents now report high-frequency marijuana use than similar use levels of alcohol or tobacco. Increased high-frequency use raises questions such as (a) is frequent use likelihood growing among adolescents who experiment with use? (b) Is such change observed equally across sex and racial/ethnic subgroups? (c) Have sociodemographic and other covariate associations with frequent use changed over time? METHODS: Data were obtained from 649,505 12th grade students participating in the cross-sectional, nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study from 1976 to 2019. Historical trends were modeled for any and frequent (20+ occasions) past 30-day marijuana use among all students and lifetime users, and lifetime user sex and racial/ethnic subgroups. Multivariable logistic regression estimates from 1989 to 1993 (lowest prevalence years) versus 2015-2019 (most recent years) were compared to examine covariate association changes with frequent use. RESULTS: Among all students, recent linear trends in any and frequent marijuana use were not significantly different from zero (0.023 [SE 0.156] and 0.036 [0.073], respectively); frequent use among lifetime users increased (0.233 [0.107], p = 0.048). Among lifetime users, the increase was stronger for male than female students, and for minority versus White students. Significant association changes with race/ethnicity, parental education, and perceived risk were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of adolescent lifetime marijuana users reporting current frequent marijuana use increased, and is now at near-record levels. Increases were particularly strong among males and minority students. There appears to be an increasing likelihood that adolescents who experiment with marijuana use may progress to frequent use.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Bases de Datos Factuales/tendencias , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/tendencias , Autoinforme , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Addict Behav ; 105: 106320, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007832

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study estimated the prevalence of negative consequences associated with alcohol use in a national sample of young adults one or two years after graduating from high school, focusing on differences by college attendance, living situation, binge drinking, and sex. METHODS: A subsample (N = 1068) of U.S. nationally representative Monitoring the Future study 12th grade students from 2006 to 2016 cohorts was followed-up at modal age 19 or 20 (in 2008-2017) and asked about negative consequences related to their own alcohol use during the past 12 months. Differences in prevalence were estimated and multivariable models examined associations with college attendance, living situation, binge drinking, and sex. RESULTS: Half of surveyed U.S. 19/20 year-old alcohol users (a third of non-binge drinkers and almost three-quarters of binge drinkers) experienced negative consequences in the past year. The likelihood of experiencing several consequence types was significantly associated with college attendance prior to controlling for living situation. In multivariable models controlling for living situation, unsafe driving due to drinking remained more likely for students attending 2-year colleges or vocational/technical schools than for 4-year college students or non-attenders. In general, negative consequence risk was elevated among young adults not living with parents (vs. those living with parents) and women (vs. men). CONCLUSION: Negative consequences from alcohol use are prevalent among young adults and differ by college attendance, living situation, binge drinking, and sex. Students at 2-year/vocational/technical schools are at particular risk for unsafe driving, warranting specific research attention and targeted intervention.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Escolaridad , Características de la Residencia , Estudios de Cohortes , Conducir bajo la Influencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 19(1): 3-27, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452060

RESUMEN

Understanding racial/ethnic drinking patterns and service provision preferences is critical for deciding how best to use limited alcohol prevention, intervention, and treatment resources. We used nationally representative data from 150,727 U.S. high school seniors from 2005 to 2016 to examine differences in a range of alcohol use behaviors and the felt need to reduce or stop alcohol use based on detailed racial/ethnic categories, both before and after controlling for key risk/protective factors. Native students reported particularly high use but corresponding high felt need to reduce/stop use. White and dual-endorsement students reported high use but low felt need to stop/reduce alcohol use.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/etnología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/etnología , Alcoholismo/etnología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/etnología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/etnología , Estados Unidos/etnología
14.
Addict Behav Rep ; 9: 100159, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193782

RESUMEN

Introduction: This study presents the first nationally-representative estimates of adolescent nicotine prevalence that take into account adolescent reports of substances vaped. These reports allow nicotine estimates that consider the impact of the newly-emerged group of adolescents who report vaping only non-nicotine substances such as flavoring and/or marijuana and do not use nicotine in any form - a group typically treated as nicotine users. Methods: Data come from Monitoring the Future and are a randomly-selected subsample of 2231 U.S. 12th grade students who answered surveys with detailed questions on tobacco use and vaping in 2017. Results: Among 12th grade students 24.7% used nicotine in the last 30 days. This estimate does not include the 3.8% of students who vaped only non-nicotine substances and did not use nicotine in any other form. These students more closely resemble their peers who do not use nicotine than those who do, in terms of perceived risk and disapproval of cigarettes, as well as percentage of friends who use cigarettes. Conclusions: A decline in nicotine prevalence was statistically significant, but not strikingly large, after taking into account students who vape non-nicotine substances and do not use nicotine in any form. These students are largely similar to their peers who do not use nicotine, which underscores the importance of efforts to alert youth that they may be vaping nicotine unknowingly, and prevent them from doing so.

15.
Subst Abuse ; 13: 1178221818822976, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718957

RESUMEN

High-intensity drinking (HID; ie, having 10+ drinks in a row) is a recognized public health concern due to the individual and public risks (eg, alcohol-related injuries, alcohol poisoning, memory loss, sexual risk) associated with consumption of a large quantity of alcohol over a relatively short time period. Using nationally representative samples of US 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, and follow-up of subsamples of 12th graders, we present overall and sex-specific prevalence estimates of past 2-week HID from 29 966 individuals at the modal ages of 14 to 30 in 2016-2017. Similar data for the more commonly studied measure of binge drinking (having 5+ drinks in a row) is provided for comparison. HID prevalence ranged from 1% to 11.5% and was significantly higher for males than females at all ages other than modal age 14 (8th grade). Binge drinking prevalence ranged from 3.5% to 32.5%; males reported a higher prevalence than females at approximately half of the ages examined. Peak binge drinking and HID age for males was earlier (modal age 21/22) than that for females (modal age 21-24 for binge drinking and 25/26 for HID). The observed rapid increase in HID from adolescence through the early to mid-20s highlights the importance of prevention and intervention efforts targeted to these ages.

16.
Addict Behav ; 92: 199-202, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658256

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Age of first drink is a key risk factor for adolescent high-risk alcohol use. The current study examined whether speed of escalation from first drink to first intoxication is an additional risk factor, and whether these two factors are associated with binge and high-intensity drinking among adolescents. METHODS: Data collected in 2005-2017 from a nationally-representative sample of 11,100 U.S. 12th grade students participating in the Monitoring the Future study were coded to indicate grade of first drink, grade of first intoxication, and speed of escalation from first drink to first intoxication. Logistic regression models estimated bivariate and multivariable odds of past 2-week binge (5+ drinks in a row) and high-intensity (10+ drinks in a row) drinking in 12th grade. RESULTS: Of those who reported intoxication by 12th grade, almost 60% reported first drunkenness in the same grade in which they first drank. The likelihoods of 12th grade binge and high-intensity drinking were significantly associated with both grade of first drink and speed of escalation to intoxication. Past two-week high-intensity drinking prevalence was 17.4% among those with immediate (same-grade) escalation from first drink to first intoxication; 15.8% among those with a 1-grade delay, and 12.6% among those with a 2+ grade delay to intoxication. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of students escalate quickly from having their first drink to being intoxicated for the first time. Both earlier age of first drink and a faster escalation from first drink to first intoxication are important indicators of binge and high-intensity drinking risk among adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica/epidemiología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
Addiction ; 114(6): 1035-1048, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614105

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term frequent marijuana use is associated with significant negative outcomes, yet little is known about the longitudinal course of marijuana use among those who start frequent use during adolescence. Objectives are (a) to identify latent patterns of within-person marijuana use from ages 19-30 years among 12th graders reporting frequent marijuana use, (b) to examine if membership in identified patterns has changed across historical time and (c) to examine if key covariates differentiate class membership. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal, national US panel data from 4423 individuals [53.4% of the eligible sample; 2744 (62%) males] who reported frequent marijuana use in 12th grade (modal age 18 years; senior year cohorts 1976-2006) followed biennially from ages 19/20 to 29/30. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported past 30-day marijuana use (frequent use defined as use on 20+ occasions), demographics, college graduation, marriage and parenthood. FINDINGS: Repeated-measures latent class analysis (RMLCA) identified five latent classes of past 30-day marijuana use from ages 19/20 to 29/30: continued frequent users (estimated membership 23.4%); frequent to non-frequent users (15.5%); consistent non-frequent users (18.4%); non-frequent users to discontinuers (19.5%); and discontinuers (23.2%). In multivariable models, membership in the highest-risk latent class (continued frequent users) versus one or more of the lower-risk latent classes was more likely for recent cohorts (P = 0.038 to <0.001), as well as those who did not marry (P = 0.039 to < 0.001) or become parents (P = 0.001) by modal age 29/30. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in four 12th grade (modal age 18 years) frequent marijuana users in the US continues to report high frequency use to age 30; the proportion continuing high frequency use across young adulthood has increased among more recent cohorts.


Asunto(s)
Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estado Civil , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(2): 287-298, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645773

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study examined the extent to which the developmental pattern of prevalence of binge drinking in the past 2 weeks from ages 18 through 30 has changed across 29 cohorts of U.S. young adults, and whether the changes differed by gender. METHODS: Analyses used national longitudinal data from 58,019 12th-grade students (from graduating high school classes 1976 to 2004) participating in the Monitoring the Future study followed through modal age 30 (with age 29/30 data collected from 1987 to 2016). Weighted time-varying effect modeling was used to model cohort group differences in age-related patterns of binge drinking. RESULTS: The age of peak binge drinking prevalence increased across cohorts (from age 20 in 1976 to 1985 to 22 in 1996 to 2004 for women, and from 21 in 1976 to 1985 to 23 in 1996 to 2004 for men). Historical change in the developmental pattern of binge drinking across all ages of young adulthood differed for men and women. Even after controlling for key covariates, women in the more recent cohort group reported significantly higher binge drinking prevalence than women in earlier cohorts from ages 21 through 30. Men in the more recent cohort group reported higher binge drinking prevalence at ages 25 to 26, but prevalence levels then converged to those seen in earlier cohort groups by age 30. CONCLUSIONS: An older age of peak binge drinking and a decreased rate of decline in the prevalence of binge drinking in later young adulthood among more recent cohorts have resulted in an extension of individual and societal risks associated with binge drinking, particularly for women, across young adulthood. High-risk alcohol use prevention efforts are needed throughout at least the third decade of life.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Edad , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
19.
Addict Behav ; 93: 59-64, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685569

RESUMEN

AIMS: In the last decade the relatively lower levels of marijuana use for black relative to non-black high school seniors has grown smaller and disappeared, drawing to a close a unique disparity that actually favored a disadvantaged group for at least thirty years. In this study we test trends in cigarette smoking and religiosity as possible explanations for this closing disparity. The study also examines whether increasing marijuana levels for black adolescents is better characterized as a cohort effect or an historical period effect. DESIGN: Analyses use relative risk regression and focus on data from yearly, cross-sectional surveys from the time period 2008-2017. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data comes from the nationally-representative Monitoring the Future survey, which conducts in-school surveys of secondary school students. The analysis uses data from 114,552 high school seniors (in 12th grade), 123,594 in 10th grade, and 136,741 in 8th grade. FINDINGS: Past 12-month marijuana prevalence significantly increased for black as compared to non-black adolescents from 2008 to 2017 in 12th grade, 10th grade, and 8th grade. The increase attenuated by more than half and was not statistically significant after adjusting for cigarette smoking. In contrast, the increase was little changed after adjusting adolescent levels of religiosity. The increase is better characterized as a cohort effect than a period effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the increase in marijuana use for black relative to non-black adolescents as an unexpected consequence of the great decline in adolescent cigarette smoking, which has occurred slower for black adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Cigarrillos/tendencias , Uso de la Marihuana/tendencias , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Fumar Cigarrillos/etnología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/etnología , Prevalencia , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Religión , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Addict Behav ; 88: 77-81, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170141

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The current study examines the prevalence, stability, and correlates of simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use among underage US young adults, a population at high risk for participating in this behavior. METHOD: Analyses used data from 1719 respondents (46.8% men) who participated in the nationally representative 12th-grade Monitoring the Future study and provided responses to SAM use items at longitudinal follow-up at modal ages 19/20 between 2007 and 2016. Prevalence estimates and covariate associations with SAM use were estimated. RESULTS: SAM use prevalence at modal age 19/20 was 22.5%. Multivariable models indicated that odds of age 19/20 SAM use were significantly (p < .05) higher for men (vs. women) and for respondents who started alcohol use by age 18 (vs. those who delayed uptake until after high school). Odds of SAM use were especially high for individuals attending college full-time and not living with parents. Among those who reported SAM use at modal age 18, 56.2% continued to report SAM use at modal age 19/20. Among those who did not report SAM use at modal age 18, only 14.2% reported SAM use at modal age 19/20. CONCLUSIONS: SAM use among young adults aged 19/20 in the US is relatively common, but especially so for those who began such use by age 18, highlighting the early onset and stability of this behavior. Among underage drinkers, SAM risk varies by sex, race/ethnicity, college status, and living arrangements.


Asunto(s)
Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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