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1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789819

RESUMEN

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update to the guideline. The PRISMA 2020 statement replaces the 2009 statement and includes new reporting guidance that reflects advances in methods to identify, select, appraise, and synthesise studies. The structure and presentation of the items have been modified to facilitate implementation. In this article, we present the PRISMA 2020 27-item checklist, an expanded checklist that details reporting recommendations for each item, the PRISMA 2020 abstract checklist, and the revised flow diagrams for original and updated reviews.

2.
Int J Surg ; : 105906, 2021 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789826

RESUMEN

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update to the guideline. The PRISMA 2020 statement replaces the 2009 statement and includes new reporting guidance that reflects advances in methods to identify, select, appraise, and synthesise studies. The structure and presentation of the items have been modified to facilitate implementation. In this article, we present the PRISMA 2020 27-item checklist, an expanded checklist that details reporting recommendations for each item, the PRISMA 2020 abstract checklist, and the revised flow diagrams for original and updated reviews.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7592, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828171

RESUMEN

Chronic low back pain (cLBP) rates among younger individuals are rising. Although pain and disability are often less severe, underlying changes in trunk behavior may be responsible for recurrence. We examine the biomarker capacity of a simple Trunk Compliance Index (TCI) to distinguish individuals with and without cLBP. A random subset (n = 49) of the RELIEF RCT were matched to healthy controls for sex, age, height and weight. We measured TCI (as displacement/ weight-normalized perturbation force) using anthropometrically-matched, suddenly-applied pulling perturbations to the trunk segment, randomized across three planes of motion (antero-posterior, medio-lateral, and rotational). Mean differences between cLBP, sex and perturbation direction were assessed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Discriminatory accuracy of TCI was assessed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Baseline characteristics between groups were equivalent (x̅ [range]): sex (57% female / group), age (23.0 [18-45], 22.8 [18-45]), height, cm (173.0 [156.5-205], 171.3 [121.2-197], weight, kg (71.8 [44.5-116.6], 71.7 [46.8-117.5]) with cLBP associated with significantly lower TCI for 5 of 6 directions (range mean difference, - 5.35: - 1.49, range 95% CI [- 6.46: - 2.18 to - 4.35: - 0.30]. Classification via ROC showed that composite TCI had high discriminatory potential (area under curve [95% CI], 0.90 [0.84-0.96]), driven by TCI from antero-posterior perturbations (area under curve [95% CI], 0.99 [0.97-1.00]). Consistent reductions in TCI suggests global changes in trunk mechanics that may go undetected in classic clinical examination. Evaluation of TCI in younger adults with mild pain and disability may serve as a biomarker for chronicity, leading to improved preventative measures in cLBP.Trial Registration and Funding RELIEF is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01854892) and funded by the NIH National Center for Complementary & Integrative Health (R01AT006978).

6.
Zootaxa ; 4933(4): zootaxa.4933.4.1, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756774

RESUMEN

Andrena is the second most speciose genus of bees, with around 1,500 species known globally. It is predominantly distributed through the Holarctic with severely limited diversity in other biogeographical regions, and with the greatest species richness in arid and Mediterranean areas. Despite a long history of study, many species remain undescribed. As part of an ongoing revision of undetermined Old World material, many new species have been discovered in museum collections. Andrena (Micrandrena) atlantea spec. nov. from Morocco, Andrena (Carandrena) hoggara spec. nov. from Algeria, Andrena (Aciandrena) plumbea spec. nov., Andrena (Carandrena) inflata spec. nov., Andrena (Chrysandrena) rubricorpora spec. nov., Andrena (Orandrena) densissima spec. nov. from Tunisia, Andrena (?Aciandrena) badiyah spec. nov., Andrena (Micrandrena) convexifrons spec. nov. from Jordan, Andrena (?Aciandrena) palmyriae spec. nov., Andrena (Graecandrena) virguladivina spec. nov., Andrena (Suandrena) inaquosa spec. nov., Andrena (Truncandrena) syriensis spec. nov. from Syria, Andrena karia spec. nov. (incertae sedis) from Turkey, and Andrena (Pallandrena) persica spec. nov. and Andrena (Pallandrena) zagrosa spec. nov. from Iran are described. The description of these 15 new species confirms the extent to which our understanding of this genus remains incomplete in the arid, Mediterranean, and mountainous parts of the Old World.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Animales , Abejas
9.
Pain ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729209

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which assessed the antinociceptive efficacy of cannabinoids, cannabis-based medicines, and endocannabinoid system modulators on pain-associated behavioural outcomes in animal models of pathological or injury-related persistent pain. In April 2019, we systematically searched 3 online databases and used crowd science and machine learning to identify studies for inclusion. We calculated a standardised mean difference (SMD) effect size for each comparison and performed a random effects meta-analysis. We assessed the impact of study design characteristics and reporting of mitigations to reduce the risk of bias. We meta-analysed 374 studies in which 171 interventions were assessed for antinociceptive efficacy in rodent models of pathological or injury-related pain. Most experiments were conducted in male animals (86 %). Antinociceptive efficacy was most frequently measured by attenuation of hypersensitivity to evoked limb withdrawal. Selective CB1, CB2, non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonists (including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), and PPAR-alpha agonists (predominantly palmitoylethanolamide; PEA) significantly attenuated pain-associated behaviours in a broad range of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors, monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) inhibitors and cannabidiol (CBD) significantly attenuated pain-associated behaviours in neuropathic pain models but yielded mixed results in inflammatory pain models. The reporting of criteria to reduce the risk of bias was low, therefore the studies have an unclear risk of bias. The value of future studies could be enhanced by improving the reporting of methodological criteria, the clinical relevance of the models and behavioural assessments. Notwithstanding, the evidence supports the hypothesis of cannabinoid-induced analgesia.

10.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211001782, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719730

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is recognized as a potential support therapy for pediatric patients with refractory septic shock (RSS). This review aims to report our experience with central VA cannulation in pediatric patients with RSS, and to compare this with peripheral VA ECMO cannulations for this condition at our institution. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Pediatric and cardiac intensive care units in an academic pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: All patients 0-18 years old meeting criteria of RSS placed on VA ECMO between January 2011 and December 2018. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Demographics, relevant clinical variables, ECMO run details, and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2018, 14 children were placed on VA ECMO for RSS. Nine were cannulated centrally, with the rest placed on peripheral VA ECMO. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 57.1% (8/14), with 66.7% of the central cannulation cohort surviving versus 40% in the peripheral cannulation (p = 0.34). Median ECMO duration was 147.1 hours (IQR: 91.9-178.6 hours), with survivors having a median length of 147.1 (IQR: 138.5-185.7) versus non survivors 114.7 hours (IQR: 63.7-163.5), p = 0.48. Overall median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 19 days (IQR: 10.5-42.2). The median % maximum flow achieved on VA ECMO was higher in the central cannulation group at 179.6% (IQR: 154.4-188.1) versus the peripheral with 133.5% (98.1-149.1), p = 0.01. Functional status scale (FSS) was used to capture morbidity. All survivors had a mean increase in their FSS from baseline. In the centrally cannulated group, 50% (4/8) received mediastinal exploration, but none developed mediastinitis. In terms of blood product utilization, the central cannulation received more platelets compared to the peripherally cannulated group (median 15.6 vs 3.3 mL/kg/day, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: A central approach to VA ECMO cannulation is feasible and has potential for good patient outcomes in selected patients.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682283

RESUMEN

There is considerable interest in the development of libraries of scaffold-diverse macrocycles as a source of ligands for difficult targets, such as protein-protein interaction surfaces. A classic problem in the synthesis of high-quality macrocyclic libraries is that some linear precursors will cyclize efficiently while some will not, depending on their conformational preferences. We report here a powerful quality control method that can be employed to readily distinguish between scaffolds that do and do not cyclize efficiently during solid-phase synthesis of thioether macrocycles without the need for tedious liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrate that this assay can be employed to identify largely linear "impurities" in a DNA-encoded library of macrocycles. We also use the method to establish a useful quality control protocol for re-synthesis of putative macrocyclic screening hits.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642168

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although American and European consensus statements advocate using the ratio of the transmitral E velocity and tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e') in the assessment of left-sided heart filling pressures, recent reports have questioned the reliability of this ratio to predict left atrial pressures in a variety of disease states. The authors hypothesized that there is a clinically significant correlation between E/e' and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in patients with severe aortic stenosis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 733 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PCWP and E/e'ave (average of the lateral and medial annulus tissue Doppler velocities) were measured with a pulmonary artery catheter and transthoracic echocardiography during preprocedural evaluation. Patients were grouped by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50% and LVEF <50%. Spearman rank correlation, analysis of variance, and t and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. Seventy-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. There was no significant correlation between E/e'ave and PCWP (n = 79, Spearman r = 0.096; p = 0.3994). This correlation did not improve when ventricular function was considered (LVEF <50%: n = 11, Spearman r = -0.097; p = 0.776 and LVEF ≥50%: n = 68, Spearman r = 0.116; p = 0.345). There was no statistically significant difference in mean PCWP between each range of E/e'ave. CONCLUSION: A clinically relevant relationship between E/e' and PCWP was not observed in patients with severe aortic stenosis.

14.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the package insert clearly states that "the safety and efficacy of sugammadex in pediatric patients have not been established," we hypothesized that sugammadex is used widely in pediatric anesthetic practice supplanting neostigmine as the primary drug for antagonizing neuromuscular blockade (NMB). Additionally, we sought to identify the determinants by which pediatric anesthesiologists choose reversal agents and if and how they assess NMB in their practice. Finally, because of sugammadex's effects on hormonal contraception, we sought to determine whether pediatric anesthesiologists counseled postmenarchal patients on the need for additional or alternative forms of contraception and the risk of unintended pregnancy in the perioperative period. METHODS: We e-mailed a questionnaire to all 3245 members of the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) requesting demographic data and attitudes regarding use of NMB agents, monitoring, and antagonism practices. To address low initial response rates and quantify nonresponse bias, we sent a shortened follow-up survey to a randomly selected subsample (n = 75) of SPA members who did not initially respond. Response differences between the 2 cohorts were determined. RESULTS: Initial questionnaire response rate was 13% (419 of 3245). Overall, 163 respondents (38.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 34.2-43.8) used sugammadex as their primary reversal agent, and 106 (25.2%; 95% CI, 21.2-30.0) used it exclusively. Respondents with ≤5 years of practice used sugammadex as their primary reversal agent more often than those with ≥6 years of practice (odds ratio [OR]: 2.08; 95% CI, 1.31-3.31; P = .001). This increased utilization remained after controlling for institutional restriction and practice type (adjusted OR [aOR]: 2.20; 95% CI, 1.38-3.54; P = .001). Only 40% of practitioners always assess NMB (train-of-four), and use was inversely correlated with years of practice (Spearman ρ = -0.11, P = .04). Anesthesiologists who primarily used sugammadex assess NMB less routinely (OR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90; P = .01). A slim majority (52.8%) used sugammadex for pediatric postmenarchal girls; those with less experience used it more commonly (P < .001). Thirty-eight percent did not discuss its effects on hormonal contraception with the patient and/or family, independent of anesthesiologist experience (P = .33) and practice location (P = .38). No significant differences were seen in demographics or practice responses between initial and follow-up survey respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Sugammadex is commonly used in pediatric anesthesia, particularly among anesthesiologists with fewer years of practice. Failure to warn postmenarchal adolescents of its consequences may result in unintended pregnancies. Finally, pediatric anesthesia training programs should emphasize objective monitoring of NMB, particularly with sugammadex use.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599681

RESUMEN

Importance: Artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied to analysis of medical imaging in recent years, but AI to guide the acquisition of ultrasonography images is a novel area of investigation. A novel deep-learning (DL) algorithm, trained on more than 5 million examples of the outcome of ultrasonographic probe movement on image quality, can provide real-time prescriptive guidance for novice operators to obtain limited diagnostic transthoracic echocardiographic images. Objective: To test whether novice users could obtain 10-view transthoracic echocardiographic studies of diagnostic quality using this DL-based software. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, multicenter diagnostic study was conducted in 2 academic hospitals. A cohort of 8 nurses who had not previously conducted echocardiograms was recruited and trained with AI. Each nurse scanned 30 patients aged at least 18 years who were scheduled to undergo a clinically indicated echocardiogram at Northwestern Memorial Hospital or Minneapolis Heart Institute between March and May 2019. These scans were compared with those of sonographers using the same echocardiographic hardware but without AI guidance. Interventions: Each patient underwent paired limited echocardiograms: one from a nurse without prior echocardiography experience using the DL algorithm and the other from a sonographer without the DL algorithm. Five level 3-trained echocardiographers independently and blindly evaluated each acquisition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Four primary end points were sequentially assessed: qualitative judgement about left ventricular size and function, right ventricular size, and the presence of a pericardial effusion. Secondary end points included 6 other clinical parameters and comparison of scans by nurses vs sonographers. Results: A total of 240 patients (mean [SD] age, 61 [16] years old; 139 men [57.9%]; 79 [32.9%] with body mass indexes >30) completed the study. Eight nurses each scanned 30 patients using the DL algorithm, producing studies judged to be of diagnostic quality for left ventricular size, function, and pericardial effusion in 237 of 240 cases (98.8%) and right ventricular size in 222 of 240 cases (92.5%). For the secondary end points, nurse and sonographer scans were not significantly different for most parameters. Conclusions and Relevance: This DL algorithm allows novices without experience in ultrasonography to obtain diagnostic transthoracic echocardiographic studies for evaluation of left ventricular size and function, right ventricular size, and presence of a nontrivial pericardial effusion, expanding the reach of echocardiography to clinical settings in which immediate interrogation of anatomy and cardiac function is needed and settings with limited resources.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610367

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of concomitant aortic regurgitation (AR) in cardiac surgery and the outcomes of treatment options. METHODS: Between April 2004 and June 2018, 3289 patients underwent coronary artery bypass, mitral valve, or aortic aneurysm surgery without aortic stenosis. AR was graded none/trivial (score = 0), mild (score = 1+), or moderate (score = 2+). Patients with untreated 2+ AR were compared with those with 0 or 1+ AR, and to those with 2+ AR who had aortic valve surgery. Thirty-day and late survival, echocardiography, and clinical outcomes were compared using propensity score matching. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-eight patients (4.2%) had 2+ AR; and 45 (33%) received aortic valve repair (n = 9) or replacement (n = 36) in the treated group and were compared with 2765 untreated patients with 0 AR and 386 patients with 1+ AR. Valve surgery was more common with anatomic leaflet abnormalities: bicuspid aortic valve (9% vs 0%; P < .01), rheumatic valve disease (16% vs 3%; P < .01), and calcification (47% vs 27%; P = .021). In unadjusted analysis, lower preoperative AR grade was associated with increased 10-year survival (P < .001). At year 10, progression to more-than-moderate AR among moderate AR patients was 2.6% and late intervention rate was 3.1%. In the untreated 2+ AR group, on last follow-up echocardiogram, 58% had improvement in AR, 41% remained 2+, and only 1% progressed to severe AR. CONCLUSIONS: Aortic valve surgery in select patients with concomitant moderate AR can be added with minimal added risk, but untreated AR does not influence long-term survival after cardiac surgery and rarely required late intervention.

17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465055

RESUMEN

The effectiveness of virus-specific strategies, including administered HIV-specific mAbs, to target cells that persistently harbor latent, rebound-competent HIV genomes during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been limited by inefficient induction of viral protein expression. To examine antibody-mediated viral reservoir targeting without a need for viral induction, we used an anti-CD4 mAb to deplete both infected and uninfected CD4+ T cells. Ten rhesus macaques infected with barcoded SIVmac239M received cART for 93 weeks starting 4 days after infection. During cART, 5 animals received 5 to 6 anti-CD4 antibody administrations and CD4+ T cell populations were then allowed 1 year on cART to recover. Despite profound CD4+ T cell depletion in blood and lymph nodes, time to viral rebound following cART cessation was not significantly delayed in anti-CD4-treated animals compared with controls. Viral reactivation rates, determined based on rebounding SIVmac239M clonotype proportions, also were not significantly different in CD4-depleted animals. Notably, antibody-mediated depletion was limited in rectal tissue and negligible in lymphoid follicles. These results suggest that, even if robust viral reactivation can be achieved, antibody-mediated viral reservoir depletion may be limited in key tissue sites.

18.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(3): 981-994.e5, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419544

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mitral repair for asymptomatic (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class I) degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) is supported by the guidelines, but is not performed often. We sought to determine outcomes for asymptomatic patients when compared with those with symptoms. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2018, 1027 patients underwent mitral replacement (22) or repair with or without other cardiac surgery (1005), the latter being grouped by NYHA class: I (n = 470; 47%), II (n = 408; 40%), or III/IV (n = 127; 13%). Statistical analyses included propensity score matching and weighting, and multistate models. RESULTS: The proportion of patients designated as NYHA class I undergoing surgery increased steadily during this period (P < .001). Overall, 30-day mortality was 0.4%, and zero for patients designated NYHA class I. Unadjusted 10-year survival was significantly greater in patients designated NYHA class I compared with II and III/IV (P < .001). Freedom from reoperation at 10 years was 99.8% overall, and 100% for patients designated NYHA class I. In patients designated as NYHA class I, predischarge and 10-year moderate MR were 0.7% and 20.1%, whereas more than moderate was zero and 0.6%. Preoperative ejection fraction less than 60% was associated with late mortality (P = .025). After covariate-adjustments, freedom from MR and tricuspid regurgitation were not statistically significantly different by NYHA class. However, overall survival was significantly worse in patients with NYHA class III/IV, compared with class II. CONCLUSIONS: Mitral repair in asymptomatic patients is safe and durable. Careful monitoring until class II symptoms is appropriate. However, repair before ejection fraction decreases below 60% is important for late overall survival.


Asunto(s)
Implantación de Prótesis de Válvulas Cardíacas/normas , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral/cirugía , Válvula Mitral/cirugía , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Anciano , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Prótesis Valvulares Cardíacas , Implantación de Prótesis de Válvulas Cardíacas/efectos adversos , Implantación de Prótesis de Válvulas Cardíacas/instrumentación , Implantación de Prótesis de Válvulas Cardíacas/mortalidad , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Válvula Mitral/diagnóstico por imagen , Válvula Mitral/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral/diagnóstico por imagen , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral/mortalidad , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral/fisiopatología , Recurrencia , Reoperación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402333

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Ideally, health conditions causing the greatest global disease burden should attract increased research attention. We conducted a comprehensive global study investigating the number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published on different health conditions, and how this compares with the global disease burden that they impose. METHODS: We use machine learning to monitor PubMed daily, and find and analyse RCT reports. We assessed RCTs investigating the leading causes of morbidity and mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study. Using regression models, we compared numbers of actual RCTs in different health conditions to numbers predicted from their global disease burden (disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)). We investigated whether RCT numbers differed for conditions disproportionately affecting countries with lower socioeconomic development. RESULTS: We estimate 463 000 articles describing RCTs (95% prediction interval 439 000 to 485 000) were published from 1990 to July 2020. RCTs recruited a median of 72 participants (IQR 32-195). 82% of RCTs were conducted by researchers in the top fifth of countries by socio-economic development. As DALYs increased for a particular health condition by 10%, the number of RCTs in the same year increased by 5% (3.2%-6.9%), but the association was weak (adjusted R2=0.13). Conditions disproportionately affecting countries with lower socioeconomic development, including respiratory infections and tuberculosis (7000 RCTs below predicted) and enteric infections (9700 RCTs below predicted), appear relatively under-researched for their disease burden. Each 10% shift in DALYs towards countries with low and middle socioeconomic development was associated with a 4% reduction in RCTs (3.7%-4.9%). These disparities have not changed substantially over time. CONCLUSION: Research priorities are not well optimised to reduce the global burden of disease. Most RCTs are produced by highly developed countries, and the health needs of these countries have been, on average, favoured.

20.
Facial Plast Surg ; 2021 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517576

RESUMEN

Upper eyelid surgery is a common procedure performed by a variety of subspecialists including facial plastic surgeons, oculoplastic surgeons, general otolaryngologists, and plastic surgeons. Traditionally, a skin incision is marked in the preoperative setting to allow for an excision that eliminates upper eyelid hooding while preventing lagophthalmos. Many different methodologies have been proposed to maximize results and minimize complications. In this article, the authors propose a unique way to safely and effectively address dermatochalasis. The pinch technique allows for an accurate assessment of excess skin and provides a method that requires less operative time than traditional techniques. The use of both local anesthetic with epinephrine and hyaluronidase helps achieve the appropriate plane and attain better hemostasis. Importantly, the presented technique allows for reassessment and revision of the amount of skin excision before incision creation. It is a useful methodology for any surgeon performing upper lid blepharoplasty.

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