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1.
Health Place ; 63: 102324, 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217279

RESUMEN

Using data from the United States Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2003-2012; N = 3,397,124 adults), we estimated associations between prevalent diabetes and four county-level exposures (fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, unemployment, active commuting). All associations confirmed our a priori hypotheses in conventional multilevel analyses that pooled across years. In contrast, using a random-effects within-between model, we found weak, ambiguous evidence that within-county changes in exposures were associated with within-county change in odds of diabetes. Decomposition revealed that the pooled associations were largely driven by time-invariant, between-county factors that may be more susceptible to confounding versus within-county associations.

2.
J Sci Med Sport ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085979

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine socio-demographic and psychosocial correlates of non-adherence to an accelerometry protocol in an economically disadvantaged urban population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We analyzed 985 New York City adult participants aged 18-81 years from the Physical Activity and Redesigned Community Spaces (PARCS) study. Participants were asked to wear a hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X-BT accelerometer for one week. Adherent accelerometer wear was defined as ≥3 days of ≥8 h/day of wear over a 7-day period and non-adherent accelerometry wear was defined as any wear less than adherent wear from returned accelerometers. Examined correlates of adherence included sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics (e.g., general physical/mental health-related quality of life, self-efficacy for exercise, stress, sense of community/neighborhood well-being, and social cohesion). RESULTS: From the total sample, 636 (64.6%) participants provided adherent wear and 349 (35.4%) provided non-adherent wear. In multivariable analysis, younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.75), poorer health-related quality of life (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.98 for physical health and OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.94 for mental health), lower sense of community (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-1.00) and current smoking status (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.35-2.86) were associated with non-adherent wear. CONCLUSIONS: Non-adherent wear was associated with younger age, smoking, and lower self-reported physical/mental functioning and sense of community. This information can inform targeted adherence strategies to improve physical activity and sedentary behavior estimates from accelerometry data in future studies involving an urban minority population.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135322, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787288

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, with 41,000 deaths attributable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. On July 30, 2018, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development passed a rule requiring public housing authorities to implement smoke-free housing (SFH) policies. OBJECTIVES: Prior to SFH policy implementation, we measured self-reported and objective SHS incursions in a purposeful sample of 21 high-rise buildings (>15 floors) in New York City (NYC): 10 public housing and 11 private sector buildings where most residents receive federal housing subsidies (herein 'Section 8' buildings). METHODS: We conducted a baseline telephone survey targeting all residents living on the 3rd floor or higher of selected buildings: NYC Housing Authority (NYCHA) residents were surveyed in April-July 2018 (n = 559), and residents in 'Section 8' buildings in August-November 2018 (n = 471). We invited non-smoking household participants to enroll into a longitudinal air monitoring study to track SHS exposure using: (1) nicotine concentration from passive, bisulfate-coated nicotine filters and (2) particulate matter (PM2.5) from low-cost particle monitors. SHS was measured for 7-days in non-smoking households (NYCHA n = 157, Section 8 n = 118 households) and in building common areas (n = 91 hallways and stairwells). RESULTS: Smoking prevalence among residents in the 21 buildings was 15.5%. Two-thirds of residents reported seeing people smoke in common areas in the past year (67%) and 60% reported smelling smoke in their apartments coming from elsewhere. Most stairwells (88%) and hallways (74%) had detectable nicotine levels, but nicotine was detected in only 9.9% of non-smoking apartments. Substantial variation in nicotine and PM2.5 was observed between and within buildings; on average nicotine concentrations were higher in NYCHA apartments and hallways than in Section 8 buildings (p < 0.05), and NYCHA residents reported seeing smokers in common areas more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: SFH policies may help in successfully reducing SHS exposure in public housing, but widespread pre-policy incursions suggest achieving SFH will be challenging.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Vivienda Popular , Política para Fumadores , Adulto Joven
4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(1): 31-39, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858733

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Researchers have linked geographic disparities in obesity to community-level characteristics, yet many prior observational studies have ignored temporality and potential for bias. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data were used from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (2003-2012) to examine the influence of county-level characteristics (active commuting, unemployment, percentage of limited-service restaurants and convenience stores) on BMI. Each exposure was calculated using mean values over the 5-year period prior to BMI measurement; values were standardized; and then variables were decomposed into (1) county means from 2003 to 2012 and (2) county-mean-centered values for each year. Cross-sectional (between-county) and longitudinal (within-county) associations were estimated using a random-effects within-between model, adjusting for individual characteristics, survey method, and year, with nested random intercepts for county-years within counties within states. RESULTS: A negative between-county association for active commuting (ß = -0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.16) and positive associations for unemployment (ß = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.19) and limited-service restaurants (ß = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.14) were observed. An SD increase in active commuting within counties was associated with a 0.51-kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.72 to -0.31) decrease in BMI over time. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that community-level characteristics play an important role in shaping geographic disparities in BMI between and within communities over time.

5.
J Community Health ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807996

RESUMEN

The percentage of adults in the United States reporting current marijuana use has more than doubled, from 4 to 9% between 2002 and 2018, suggesting that exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke (SHMS) has probably increased. Few studies have characterized the extent to which residents experience SHMS, particularly those living in multi-unit housing. It remains unknown how recently-implemented smoke-free housing policies (SFH) targeting cigarette smoke in public housing authorities (PHAs) will affect SHMS exposure. We sought to characterize prevalence of self-reported SHMS exposure among residents living in two different subsidized housing settings prior to SFH policy implementation in PHAs: New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) buildings and private sector buildings where most residents receive Section 8 subsidy vouchers (herein 'Section 8' buildings). Residents were recruited from 21 purposefully-selected buildings: 10 NYCHA and 11 Section 8 buildings (> 15 floors). Survey responses were collected during April-July 2018 for NYCHA residents (n = 559) and August-November 2018 for Section 8 residents (n = 471). Of 4628 eligible residents, 1030 participated (response rates, 35% NYCHA, 32% Section 8). Overall, two-thirds of residents reported smelling marijuana smoke (67%) in their home over the past year, higher than reports of smelling cigarette smoke (60%). Smoking status and smelling SHS were both strong predictors of smelling SHMS (p < 0.05). Nearly two thirds of residents perceived smoking marijuana and smelling SHMS as harmful to health. Our findings suggest that, immediately prior to SFH rule implementation in PHAs, SHMS was pervasive in low-income multi-unit housing, suggesting SFH policies should expand to cover marijuana use.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e033373, 2019 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740475

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Some of the most pressing health problems are found in rural America. However, the surveillance needed to track and prevent disease in these regions is lacking. Our objective was to perform a comprehensive health survey of a single rural county to assess the validity of using emergency claims data to estimate rural disease prevalence at a sub-county level. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional study of chronic disease prevalence estimates using emergency department (ED) claims data versus mailed health surveys designed to capture a substantial proportion of residents in New York's rural Sullivan County. SETTING: Sullivan County, a rural county ranked second-to-last for health outcomes in New York State. PARTICIPANTS: Adult residents of Sullivan County aged 25 years and older who responded to the health survey in 2017-2018 or had at least one ED visit in 2011-2015. OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared age and gender-adjusted prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, cancer, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema among nine sub-county areas. RESULTS: Our county-wide mailed survey obtained 6675 completed responses for a response rate of 30.4%. This sample represented more than 12% of the estimated 53 020 adults in Sullivan County. Using emergency claims data, we identified 34 576 adults from Sullivan County who visited an ED at least once during 2011-2015. At a sub-county level, prevalence estimates from mailed surveys and emergency claims data correlated especially well for diabetes (r=0.90) and asthma (r=0.85). Other conditions were not well correlated (range: 0.23-0.46). Using emergency claims data, we created more geographically detailed maps of disease prevalence using geocoded addresses. CONCLUSIONS: For select conditions, emergency claims data may be useful for tracking disease prevalence in rural areas and providing more geographically detailed estimates. For rural regions lacking robust health surveillance, emergency claims data can inform how to geographically target efforts to prevent chronic disease.

7.
J Urban Health ; 96(5): 720-725, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486004

RESUMEN

New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES) was a population-based cross-sectional survey of NYC adults conducted twice, in 2004 and again in 2013-2014, to monitor the health of NYC adults 20 years or older. While blood pressure was measured in both surveys, an auscultatory mercury sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure in clinics in 2004, and an oscillometric LifeSource UA-789AC monitor was used in homes in 2013-2014. To assess comparability of blood pressure results across both surveys, we undertook a randomized study comparing blood pressure (BP) readings by the two devices. Blood pressure measuring protocols followed the 2013 Association for the Advancement in Medical instrumentation guidelines for non-invasive blood pressure device. Data from 167 volunteers were analyzed for this purpose.Paired t tests were used to test for significant difference in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure between devices for overall and by mid-arm circumference categories. To test for systematic differences between the two devices, we generated Bland-Altman graphs. Sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa statistics were calculated to assess between-device agreement for high (≥ 130/80 mmHg) and not high (< 130/80 mmHg) blood pressure, with mercury set as the reference.Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured by LifeSource UA-789AC were on average 2.0 and 1.1 mmHg higher, respectively, than those of the mercury sphygmomanometer systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings (P < 0.05). Sensitivity was 81%, specificity was 96%, and the Kappa coefficient was 75%. The Bland-Altman graphs showed that the between-device difference did not vary as a function of the average of the two devices for systolic blood pressure and was larger in the lower and upper ends for diastolic blood pressure. Given the observed differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings between the two blood pressure measurement approaches, we calibrated NYC HANES 2013-2014 blood pressure data by predicting mercury blood pressure values from LifeSource blood pressure values. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in NYC HANES 2013-2014 were lower when data were calibrated.

8.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E88, 2019 07 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298212

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to describe how a cohort review approach was applied as an evaluation framework for a community health worker intervention among adult residents in 5 public housing developments in New York City in 2015-2017. The cohort review approach involved systematically monitoring participants engaged in the Harlem Health Advocacy Partners program during a given time period ("cohort") to assess individual outcomes and program performance. We monitored participation status (completed, still active, disengaged, on leave, or died) and health outcomes. In this example of a cohort review, levels of enrollment and program disengagement were higher in cohort 1 than in cohort 2. For 6-month health outcomes, the percentage of participants with hypertension who had controlled blood pressure was static in cohort 1 and improved significantly in cohort 2. The percentage of participants with diabetes who self-reported controlled hemoglobin A1c increased significantly in cohort 1 at 6-month follow-up. The cohort approach highlighted important outcome successes and identified workload challenges affecting recruitment and retention.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 23(10): 2795-2802, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321639

RESUMEN

Despite an increasing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among populations at highest risk of HIV acquisition, comprehensive and easy access to PrEP is limited among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. The present study analyzed the geographic distribution of PrEP providers and the relationship between their location, neighborhood characteristics, and HIV incidence using spatial analytic methods. PrEP provider density, socio-demographics, healthcare availability, and HIV incidence data were collected by ZIP-code tabulation area in New York City (NYC). Neighborhood socio-demographic measures of race/ethnicity, income, insurance coverage, or same-sex couple household, were not associated with PrEP provider density, after adjusting for spatial autocorrelation, and PrEP providers were located in high HIV incidence neighborhoods (P < 0.01). These findings validate the need for ongoing policy interventions (e.g. public health detailing) vis-à-vis PrEP provider locations in NYC and inform the design of future PrEP implementation strategies, such as public health campaigns and navigation assistance for low-cost insurance.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Cobertura del Seguro , Masculino , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial
10.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 26(8-9): 847-854, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181144

RESUMEN

Randomized controlled trials face cost, logistic, and generalizability limitations, including difficulty engaging racial/ethnic minorities. Real-world data (RWD) from pragmatic trials, including electronic health record (EHR) data, may produce intervention evaluation findings generalizable to diverse populations. This case study of Project IMPACT describes unique barriers and facilitators of optimizing RWD to improve health outcomes and advance health equity in small immigrant-serving community-based practices. Project IMPACT tested the effect of an EHR-based health information technology intervention on hypertension control among small urban practices serving South Asian patients. Challenges in acquiring accurate RWD included EHR field availability and registry capabilities, cross-sector communication, and financial, personnel, and space resources. Although using RWD from community-based practices can inform health equity initiatives, it requires multidisciplinary collaborations, clinic support, procedures for data input (including social determinants), and standardized field logic/rules across EHR platforms.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 666, 2019 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco remains a leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., responsible for more than 440,000 deaths each year. Approximately 10% of these deaths are attributable to exposure of non-smokers to secondhand smoke (SHS). Residents living in public multi-unit housing (MUH) are at excess risk for SHS exposure compared to the general population. On November 30, 2016, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) passed a rule requiring all public housing agencies to implement smoke-free housing (SFH) policies in their housing developments by July 30, 2018. METHODS: As part of a larger natural experiment study, we designed a protocol to evaluate indoor SHS levels before and after policy implementation through collection of repeat indoor air samples in non-smoking apartments and common areas of select high-rise NYCHA buildings subject to the HUD SFH rule, and also from socio-demographically matched private-sector high-rise control buildings not subject to the rule. A baseline telephone survey was conducted in all selected buildings to facilitate rapid recruitment into the longitudinal study and assess smoking prevalence, behaviors, and attitudes regarding the SFH policy prior to implementation. Data collection began in early 2018 and will continue through 2021. DISCUSSION: The baseline survey was completed by 559 NYCHA residents and 471 comparison building residents (response rates, 35, and 32%, respectively). Smoking prevalence was comparable between study arms (15.7% among NYCHA residents and 15.2% among comparison residents). The majority of residents reported supporting a building-wide smoke-free policy (63.0 and 59.9%, respectively). We enrolled 157 NYCHA and 118 comparison non-smoking households into the longitudinal air monitoring study and performed air monitoring in common areas. Follow up surveys and air monitoring in participant households occur every 6 months for 2.5 years. Capitalizing on the opportunity of this federal policy rollout, the large and diverse public housing population in NYC, and robust municipal data sources, this study offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the policy's direct impacts on SHS exposure. Methods in this protocol can inform similar SFH policy evaluations elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Vivienda Popular/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política para Fumadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1531, 2019 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728424

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the most effective method of DNA extraction of oral mouthwash samples for use in microbiome studies that utilize next generation sequencing (NGS). Eight enzymatic and mechanical DNA extraction methods were tested. Extracted DNA was amplified using barcoded primers targeting the V6 variable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the ITS1 region of the fungal ribosomal gene cluster and sequenced using the Illumina NGS platform. Sequenced reads were analyzed using QIIME and R. The eight methods yielded significantly different quantities of DNA (p < 0.001), with the phenol-chloroform extraction method producing the highest total yield. There were no significant differences in observed bacterial or fungal Shannon diversity (p = 0.64, p = 0.93 respectively) by extraction method. Bray-Curtis beta-diversity did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between the eight extraction methods based on bacterial (R2 = 0.086, p = 1.00) and fungal (R2 = 0.039, p = 1.00) assays. No differences were seen between methods with or without bead-beating. These data indicate that choice of DNA extraction method affect total DNA recovery without significantly affecting the observed microbiome.

13.
Am J Public Health ; 109(4): 585-592, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789770

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To support efforts to improve urban population health, we created a City Health Dashboard with area-specific data on health status, determinants of health, and equity at city and subcity (census tract) levels. METHODS: We developed a Web-based resource that includes 37 metrics across 5 domains: social and economic factors, physical environment, health behaviors, health outcomes, and clinical care. For the largest 500 US cities, the Dashboard presents metrics calculated to the city level and, where possible, subcity level from multiple data sources, including national health surveys, vital statistics, federal administrative data, and state education data sets. RESULTS: Iterative input from city partners shaped Dashboard development, ensuring that measures can be compared across user-selected cities and linked to evidence-based policies to spur action. Reports from early deployment indicate that the Dashboard fills an important need for city- and subcity-level data, fostering more granular understanding of health and its drivers and supporting associated priority-setting. CONCLUSIONS: By providing accessible city-level data on health and its determinants, the City Health Dashboard complements local surveillance efforts and supports urban population health improvement on a national scale.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Equidad en Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Participación de los Interesados , Salud Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Humanos
14.
Am J Public Health ; 109(4): 634-636, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789777

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the 2006 policy restricting use of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in New York City restaurants on change in serum TFA concentrations in New York City adults. METHODS: Two cross-sectional population-based New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 2004 (n = 212) and 2013-2014 (n = 247) provided estimates of serum TFA exposure and average frequency of weekly restaurant meals. We estimated the geometric mean of the sum of serum TFAs by year and restaurant meal frequency by using linear regression. RESULTS: Among those who ate less than 1 restaurant meal per week, geometric mean of the sum of serum TFAs declined 51.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 42.7, 58.3)-from 44.6 (95% CI = 39.7, 50.1) to 21.8 (95% CI = 19.3, 24.5) micromoles per liter. The decline in the geometric mean was greater (P for interaction = .04) among those who ate 4 or more restaurant meals per week: 61.6% (95% CI = 55.8, 66.7) or from 54.6 (95% CI = 49.3, 60.5) to 21.0 (95% CI = 18.9, 23.3) micromoles per liter. CONCLUSIONS: New York City adult serum TFA concentrations declined between 2004 and 2014. The indication of greater decline in serum TFAs among those eating restaurant meals more frequently suggests that the municipal restriction on TFA use was effective in reducing TFA exposure. Public Health Implications. Local policies focused on restaurants can promote nutritional improvements.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Ácidos Grasos Trans/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York , Encuestas Nutricionales , Ácidos Grasos Trans/efectos adversos
15.
Public Health Rep ; 134(2): 164-171, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763150

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Researchers have identified associations between neighborhood-level factors (eg, income level, tobacco retailer density) and smoking behavior, but few studies have assessed these factors in urban environments. We explored the effect of tobacco retailer density, neighborhood poverty, and housing type (multiunit and public) on smoking in a large urban environment (New York City). METHODS: We used data on smoking prevalence and individual sociodemographic characteristics from the 2011-2013 New York City Community Health Survey, data on tobacco retailers from the 2012 New York City Department of Consumer Affairs, data on neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and population density from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey, and data on multiunit and public housing from the 2012 New York City Primary Land Use Tax Lot Output data set. We used aggregate neighborhood-level variables and ordinary least squares regression, geographic weighted regression, and multilevel models to assess the effects of tobacco retailer density and neighborhood poverty on smoking prevalence, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education) and neighborhood population density. We also assessed interactions between tobacco retailer density and poverty and each housing type on smoking. RESULTS: Neighborhood poverty positively and significantly modified the association between tobacco retailer density and prevalence of neighborhood smoking ( ß = 0.003, P = .01) when we controlled for population density, sociodemographic characteristics, and types of housing. Neighborhood poverty was positively associated with the prevalence of individual smoking ( ß = 0.0099, P < .001) when we adjusted for population density, sociodemographic characteristics, and type of housing. CONCLUSION: More research is needed to determine all the environmental factors associated with smoking prevalence in a densely populated urban environment.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Fumar Cigarrillos/etnología , Vivienda/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos
16.
Acad Med ; 94(6): 813-818, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570494

RESUMEN

The Triple Aim framework for advancing health care transformation elevated population health improvement as a central goal, together with improving patient experiences and reducing costs. Though population health improvement is often viewed in the context of clinical care delivery, broader-reaching approaches that bridge health care delivery, public health, and other sectors to foster area-wide health gains are gathering momentum. Academic medical centers (AMCs) across the United States are poised to play key roles in advancing population health and have begun to structure themselves accordingly. Yet, few frameworks exist to guide these efforts. Here, the authors offer a generalizable approach for AMCs to promote population health across the domains of research, education, and practice. In 2012, NYU School of Medicine, a major AMC dedicated to high-quality care of individual patients, launched an academic Department of Population Health with a strongly applied approach. A rigorous research agenda prioritizes scalable initiatives to improve health and reduce inequities in populations defined by race, ethnicity, geography, and/or other factors. Education targets population-level thinking among future physicians and research leadership among graduate trainees. Four key mission-bridging approaches offer a framework for population health departments in AMCs: engaging community, turning information into insight, transforming health care, and shaping policy. Challenges include tensions between research, practice, and evaluation; navigating funding sources; and sustaining an integrated, interdisciplinary approach. This framework of discipline-bridging, partnership-engaging inquiry, as it diffuses throughout academic medicine, holds great promise for realigning medicine and public health.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/organización & administración , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Salud Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros Médicos Académicos/normas , Curriculum , Reforma de la Atención de Salud/métodos , Humanos , Liderazgo , Modelos Educacionales , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública/normas , Facultades de Medicina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
J Urban Health ; 95(6): 832-836, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987768

RESUMEN

Depression is responsible for a large burden of disability in the USA. We estimated the prevalence of depression in the New York City (NYC) adult population in 2013-14 and examined associations with demographics, health behaviors, and employment status. Data from the 2013-14 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a population-based examination study, were analyzed, and 1459 participants met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. We defined current symptomatic depression by a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10. Overall, 8.3% of NYC adults had current symptomatic depression. New Yorkers with current symptomatic depression were significantly more likely to be female, Latino, and unemployed yet not looking for work; they were also significantly more likely to have less than a high school education and to live in a high-poverty neighborhood. Socioeconomic inequalities in mental health persist in NYC and highlight the need for better diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ciudades/epidemiología , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
19.
J Urban Health ; 95(6): 826-831, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987771

RESUMEN

National examination surveys provide trend information on diabetes prevalence, diagnoses, and control. Few localities have access to such information. Using a similar design as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), two NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NYC HANES) were conducted over a decade, recruiting adults ≥ 20 years using household probability samples (n = 1808 in 2004; n = 1246 in 2013-2014) and physical exam survey methods benchmarked against NHANES. Participants had diagnosed diabetes if told by a health provider they had diabetes, and undiagnosed diabetes if they had no diagnosis but a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl or A1C ≥ 6.5%. We found that between 2004 and 2014, total diabetes prevalence (diagnosed and undiagnosed) in NYC increased from 13.4 to 16.0% (P = 0.089). In 2013-2014, racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes burden had widened; diabetes was highest among Asians (24.6%), and prevalence was significantly lower among non-Hispanic white adults (7.7%) compared to that among other racial/ethnic groups (P < 0.001). Among adults with diabetes, the proportion of cases diagnosed increased from 68.3 to 77.3% (P = 0.234), and diagnosed cases with very poor control (A1C > 9%), decreased from 26.9 to 18.0% (P = 0.269), though both were non-significant. While local racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes prevalence persist, findings suggest modest improvements in diabetes diagnosis and management.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/tendencias , Población Urbana/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ciudades/epidemiología , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
J Urban Health ; 95(6): 801-812, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987772

RESUMEN

While gender and racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have each been well characterized, few studies have comprehensively examined how patterns of major CVD risk factors vary and intersect across gender and major racial/ethnic groups, considered together. Using data from New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014-a population-based, cross-sectional survey of NYC residents ages 20 years and older-we measured prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and diabetes across gender and race/ethnicity groups for 1527 individuals. We used logistic regression with predicted marginal to estimate age-adjusted prevalence ratio by gender and race/ethnicity groups and assess for potential additive and multiplicative interaction. Overall, women had lower prevalence of CVD risk factors than men, with less hypertension (p = 0.040), lower triglycerides (p < 0.001), higher HDL (p < 0.001), and a greater likelihood of a heart healthy lifestyle, more likely not to smoke and to follow a healthy diet (p < 0.05). When further stratified by race/ethnicity, however, the female advantage was largely restricted to non-Latino white women. Non-Latino black women had significantly higher risk of being overweight or obese, having hypertension, and having diabetes than non-Latino white men or women, or than non-Latino black men (p < 0.05). Non-Latino black women also had higher total cholesterol compared to non-Latino black men (184.4 vs 170.5 mg/dL, p = 0.010). Despite efforts to improve cardiovascular health and narrow disparities, non-Latino black women continue to have a higher burden of CVD risk factors than other gender and racial/ethnic groups. This study highlights the importance of assessing for intersectionality between gender and race/ethnicity groups when examining CVD risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Encuestas Nutricionales , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ciudades/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
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