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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240906, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091061

RESUMEN

Although physical function decline is common with aging, the burden of this impairment remains underestimated in patients living with HIV (PLHIV), particularly in the older people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). PLHIV aged ≥50 years old and on ART since ≥6 months were included (N = 333) from three clinics (two in Côte d'Ivoire, one in Senegal) participating in the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa collaboration. Physical function was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), the unipodal balance test and self-reported questionnaires. Grip strength was also assessed. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with SPPB performance specifically. Median age was 57 (54-61) years, 57.7% were female and 82.7% had an undetectable viral load. The mean SPPB score was 10.2 ±1.8. Almost 30% had low SPPB performance with the 5-sit-to-stand test being the most altered subtest (64%). PLHIV with low SPPB performance also had significantly low performance on the unipodal balance test (54.2%, p = 0.001) and low mean grip strength (but only in men (p = 0.005)). They also showed some difficulties in daily life activities (climbing stairs, walking one block, both p<0.0001). Age ≥60 years (adjusted OR (aOR) = 3.4; CI95% = 1.9-5.9,), being a female (aOR = 2.1; CI95% = 1.1-4.1), having an abdominal obesity (aOR = 2.1; CI95% = 1.2-4.0), a longer duration of HIV infection (aOR = 2.9; CI95% = 1.5-5.7), old Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (i.e., AZT: zidovudine, ddI: didanosine, DDC: zalcitabine, D4T: stavudine) in current ART (aOR = 2.0 CI95% = 1.1-3.7) were associated with low SPPB performance. As in western countries, physical function limitation is now part of the burden of HIV disease complications of older PLHIV living in West Africa, putting this population at risk for disability. How to screen those impairments and integrate their management in the standards of care should be investigated, and specific research on developing adapted daily physical activity program might be conducted.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 442, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Depression has a negative impact on both mental and physical health and is mainly associated with suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes. To encourage successful aging and the achievement of the 3 × 90 objectives in older PLHIV, the psychological domain must not be neglected. In this context and as data are scarce in West Africa, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the factors associated with severe depressive symptoms in older PLHIV living in this region of the world. METHODS: Data from PLHIV aged ≥50 years and on ART since ≥6 months were collected in three clinics (two in Côte d'Ivoire, one in Senegal) participating in the West Africa International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D), and associated factors were identified using logistic regressions. RESULTS: The median age of the 334 PLHIV included in the study was 56.7 (53.5-61.1), 57.8% were female, and 87.1% had an undetectable viral load. The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms was 17.9% [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 13.8-22.0]. PLHIV with severe depressive symptoms were more likely to be unemployed (adjusted Odd Ratio (aOR) = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.7), and to be current or former tobacco smokers (aOR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) but were less likely to be overweight or obese (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.8). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms is high among older PLHIV living in West Africa. Unemployed PLHIV and tobacco smokers should be seen as vulnerable and in need of additional support. Further studies are needed to describe in more details the reality of the aging experience for PLHIV living in SSA. The integration of screening and management of depression in the standard of care of PLHIV is crucial.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237772, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853246

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV and has been associated with suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes. Integrating substance use services into HIV care is a promising strategy to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: We report on substance use education, screening, and referral practices from two surveys of HIV care and treatment sites participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. HIV care and treatment sites participating in IeDEA are primarily public-sector health facilities and include both academic and community-based hospitals and health facilities. A total of 286 sites in 45 countries participated in the 2014-2015 survey and 237 sites in 44 countries participated in the 2017 survey. We compared changes over time for 147 sites that participated in both surveys. RESULTS: In 2014-2015, most sites (75%) reported providing substance use-related education on-site (i.e., at the HIV clinic or the same health facility). Approximately half reported on-site screening for substance use (52%) or referrals for substance use treatment (51%). In 2017, the proportion of sites providing on-site substance use-related education, screening, or referrals increased by 9%, 16%, and 8%, respectively. In 2017, on-site substance use screening and referral were most commonly reported at sites serving only adults (compared to only children/adolescents or adults and children/adolescents; screening: 86%, 37%, and 59%, respectively; referral: 76%, 47%, and 46%, respectively) and at sites in high-income countries (compared to upper middle income, lower middle income or low-income countries; screening: 89%, 76%, 68%, and 45%, respectively; referral: 82%, 71%, 57%, and 34%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although there have been increases in the proportion of sites reporting substance use education, screening, and referral services across IeDEA sites, gaps persist in the integration of substance use services into HIV care, particularly in relation to screening and referral practices, with reduced availability for children/adolescents and those receiving care within resource-constrained settings.


Asunto(s)
Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias/organización & administración , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Brechas de la Práctica Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Derivación y Consulta/organización & administración , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(2): 389-395, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829726

RESUMEN

In highly endemic settings for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection such as Senegal, access to HBV prevention and care is rapidly evolving. In this context, all medical practitioners should have baseline knowledge on HBV infection and promote access to vaccination, screening, and care. A knowledge and attitudes survey on HBV infection was conducted among a randomly selected sample of medical practitioners in Senegal. Participants were asked to fill-out a questionnaire on the HBV epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. A 60-item knowledge score was computed; the lower quartile of the observed score was used to define poor knowledge. Factors associated with poor knowledge were assessed using a logistic regression model. A total of 127 medical practitioners completed the questionnaire. Only 14 (11.0%) participants knew that HBV vaccine could be safely administered to pregnant women and 65 (51.2%) to newborns. Older practitioners (> 40 years) as well as general practitioners (compared with specialists) were more likely to have a poor knowledge score with odds ratios (ORs) of 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-9.2) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.0-7.3), respectively. Practitioners who declared not to recommend HBV screening frequently during their consultation were more likely to present a poor knowledge score [OR: 3.0; (95% CI 1.1-8.2)]. As universal HBV screening is being promoted in countries with endemic HBV infection, our finding that poor screening attitudes were associated with a poor knowledge is of concern. There is a need to raise awareness of medical practitioners in Senegal toward universal HBV screening and early vaccination of newborns.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B/administración & dosificación , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Senegal/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/psicología
5.
Liver Int ; 37(8): 1116-1121, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28561454

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: While universal screening of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended in high burden countries, little is known about the proportion of HBV-infected persons in need of antiviral therapy in these settings. METHODS: Prisoners in Senegal and Togo as well as female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Cote d'Ivoire were screened for HBV infection. All HBsAg-positive participants underwent transient elastography, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBV viral load (VL) quantification. Individuals with cirrhosis or those aged >30 years with an HBV replication ≥20 000 IU/mL and elevated ALT were considered eligible for antiviral therapy. RESULTS: Of 1256 participants, 110 (8.8%) were HBsAg positive; their median age was 30 years [interquartile range: 25-33] and 96 (86.5%) were men. Three individuals (2.7%) had cirrhosis, while 28 (29.5%) of 94 participants with available measurements had an HBV VL ≥20 000 IU/mL. Overall, 11 (10.0%) subjects were considered eligible for immediate antiviral treatment (2.1% of participants in Dakar, 7.7% in Abidjan and 21.6% in Lome, P=.001) and 59 (53.4%) for close monitoring due to the presence of significant liver fibrosis, elevated ALT or significant HBV replication. CONCLUSIONS: Among vulnerable populations in West Africa, a minority of HBV-infected individuals were eligible for immediate antiviral therapy. Prospective cohort studies are necessary to evaluate anti-HBV treatment eligibility facing the significant proportion of individuals with active chronic HBV infection.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B Crónica/epidemiología , Adulto , África Occidental/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 19(1): 21424, 2017 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362065

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Liver fibrosis is often the first stage of liver disease in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in industrialized countries. However, little is known about liver fibrosis and its correlates among PLWHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The study was undertaken in three HIV referral clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal and Togo. Enrolled PLWHIV underwent a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis combining liver stiffness measure (LSM) with transient elastography and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Significant liver fibrosis was defined as LSM ≥7.1 kPa. Patients were screened for alcohol use (alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT)-C questionnaire), hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen, hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) antibody and anti-hepatitis C (HCV) antibody. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with significant liver fibrosis. RESULTS: A total of 807 PLWHIV were screened at a median age of 43 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36-50). Their median CD4 count was 393 cells/mm3 (IQR: 234-563) and 682 (84.5%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The prevalence of significant fibrosis was 5.3% (3.8-6.7). Infections with HBV and HCV were identified in 74 (9.2%) and nine (1.1%) participants. Main factors associated with liver fibrosis were alcohol use (AUDIT-C >6): (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, confidence interval (CI): 1.2-14.0), (Ref. AUDIT-C <4) and HBV infection (OR = 2.9, CI: 1.2-7.2). Of the 74 patients positively screened for HBV, 50.0% were on a tenofovir-based ART regimen. Overall, 10% of HIV/HBV coinfected patients were detected with a positive HDV antibody with a higher prevalence in patients with a significant liver fibrosis (43.0%) compared to others (6.3%) (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Considering the WHO recommendations to screen for HBV infection and treat co-infected patients with tenofovir-based ART, screening of alcohol use and brief interventions to prevent alcohol abuse should be implemented in West Africa, especially in HBV/HIV co-infected patients.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Hepatitis Viral Humana/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Coinfección/epidemiología , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis Viral Humana/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Senegal/epidemiología , Togo/epidemiología
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16: 249, 2016 06 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prisoners represent a vulnerable population for blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections which can potentially lead to liver fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors among inmates in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Screening of liver fibrosis was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of male inmates incarcerated in Lome, Togo and in Dakar, Senegal using transient elastography. A liver stiffness measurement ≥9.5 KPa was retained to define the presence of a severe liver fibrosis. All included inmates were also screened for HIV, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. Substances abuse including alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use were assessed during face-to-face interviews. Odds Ratio (OR) estimates were computed with their 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) to identify factors associated with severe liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Overall, 680 inmates were included with a median age of 30 years [interquartile range: 24-35]. The prevalence of severe fibrosis was 3.1 % (4.9 % in Lome and 1.2 % in Dakar). Infections with HIV, HBV and HCV were identified in 2.6 %, 12.5 % and 0.5 % of inmates, respectively. Factors associated with a severe liver fibrosis were HIV infection (OR = 7.6; CI 1.8-32.1), HBV infection (OR = 4.8; CI 1.8-12.8), HCV infection (OR = 52.6; CI 4.1-673.8), use of traditional medicines (OR = 3.7; CI 1.4-10.1) and being incarcerated in Lome (OR = 3.3; CI 1.1-9.8) compared to Dakar. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection and viral hepatitis infections were identified as important and independent determinants of severe liver fibrosis. While access to active antiviral therapies against HIV and viral hepatitis expands in Africa, adapted strategies for the monitoring of liver disease need to be explored, especially in vulnerable populations such as inmates.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , África Occidental/epidemiología , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Coinfección/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , ADN Viral/sangre , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad , Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Hepatitis C/sangre , Hepatitis C/inmunología , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/inmunología , Humanos , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Senegal/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo , Togo/epidemiología , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 18: 19888, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26004637

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Data on the extent of drug use and associated HIV, hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection in West Africa are lacking. The objectives of ANRS12244 UDSEN study were to estimate the size of the heroin and/or cocaine drug user (DU) population living in the Dakar area (Senegal), and assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), including behavioural determinants in this population, in order to set up an integrated prevention and treatment programme for DUs. DESIGN AND METHODS: A capture-recapture method was applied for population size estimation, whereas the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used to recruit a sample of DUs living in the Dakar area and determine HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence. Behavioural data were gathered during face-to-face interviews, and blood samples were collected on dried blood spots for analysis in a central laboratory. Data analysis was performed using the RDS analysis tool, and risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Access to laboratory results was organized for the participants. RESULTS: The size of the DU population in the Dakar area was estimated to reach 1324 (95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1281-1367)). Based on the 506 DUs included in the study, the HIV, HCV and HBV prevalence were 5.2% (95% CI: 3.8-6.3), 23.3% (95% CI: 21.2-25.2) and 7.9% (95% CI: 5.2-11.1), respectively. In people who inject drugs (PWID), prevalence levels increased to 9.4% for HIV and 38.9% for HCV (p=0.001 when compared to those who never injected). Women were more at risk of being HIV infected (prevalence: 13.04% versus 2.97% in males, p=0.001). Being PWID was a risk factor for HCV and HIV infection (odds ratio, OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.3, and OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.7-10.7, respectively), whereas older age and female sex were additional risk factors for HIV infection (10% increase per year of age, p=0.03 and OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.6-156, respectively). No specific determinant was associated with the risk of HBV infection. CONCLUSIONS: High HIV and HCV prevalence were estimated in this population of DUs (including non-injectors) living in the Dakar area, Senegal, whereas HBV prevalence was close to that of the global Senegalese population, reflecting a risk of infection independent of drug use. Women seem to be highly vulnerable and deserve targeted interventions for decreasing exposure to HIV, while behavioural risk factors for HIV and HCV include the use of unsafe injections, reflecting the urgent need for developing harm reduction interventions and access to opioid substitution therapy services.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/etiología , Reducción del Daño , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/etiología , Hepatitis C/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones
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