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1.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 1118-1122, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219768

RESUMEN

The article presents a review of the historical facts related to the discovery and introduction of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. The history of studying aminoquinoline preparations is associated with the discovery of the antimalarial action of the bark of the quinine tree, the isolation of quinine from other active substances - alkaloids and the determination of their structure. The structural similarity of quinine and one of the first chemically synthesized dyes - methylene blue-was an important factor at the beginning of the synthesis of molecules with antimalarial activity in the 1930s in Germany. Pamaquin (plasmoquin, plasmoсid), quinacrine (quinacrine, Atebrin, Mepacrine), sontoquine (sontochin), chloroquine, primaquine, hydroxychloroquine, and mefloquine (Lariam) were consistently introduced in medical practice. Many of these medications are no longer widely used. However, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have not lost their relevance. The scope of their use has been expanded.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos , Cinchona , Cloroquina , Corteza de la Planta , Quinina
2.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 1168-1175, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219775

RESUMEN

This article presents the results obtained during the analysis of different types of health technology assessment (HTA). In the world HTA agencies can be organized at the national (federal), regional or local levels; they can have various levels of dependence on public authorities (independent, public, dependent), various sources of financing (state, mixed). The nature of the tasks and the range of powers of the institutions for HTA differ: regulatory, organizational or advisory. They themselves can initiate HTA (proactive), or they can conduct HTA at the suggestion of the applicants and analyze the quality of the HTA reports provided (reactively). HTA can be focused on economic assessment, comparative clinical assessment, as well as balanced, both on economic and comparative clinical assessments. HTA may be conducted on drugs, medical devices, and other medical technologies. The methods for conducting HTA significantly depend on its subject. In terms of the scope of the assessment, it is possible to single out full OMT, mini-OMT and express-OMT, as well as fast-track-OMT, proposed by the HTA agency in the UK. The final users of HTA (administration, suppliers, patients) and its perceptions (instrumental, conceptual, or formal) are specified. The impact of HTA on decision-making is progressively increasing, as the number of medical technologies that should be assessed to maintain budget discipline is increasing. The versatility of HTA indicates its universality and can contribute to the further expansion of its application at various levels of medical care around the world.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos
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