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1.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112870, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052615

RESUMEN

In the Brazilian Pantanal, wildfire occurrence has increased, reaching record highs of over 40,000 km2 in 2020. Smoke from wildfires worsened the situation of isolated, as well as urban communities, already under an increasing toll of COVID-19. Here we review the impacts and the possible causes of the 2020 mega-fires and recommend improvements for public policies and fire management in this wetland. We calculated the amount of area burnt annually since 2003 and describe patterns in precipitation and water level measurements of the Paraguay River. Our analyses revealed that the 2020 wildfires were historically unprecedented, as 43% of the area (over 17,200 km2) had not been burnt previously in the last two decades. The extent of area affected in 2020 represents a 376% increase compared to the annual average of the area burnt annually in the last two decades, double than the value in 2019. Potential factors responsible for this increase are (i) severe drought decreased water levels, (ii) the fire corridor was located in the Paraguay River flood zone, (iii) constraints on firefighters, (iv) insufficient fire prevention strategy and agency budget reductions, and (v) recent landscape changes. Climate and land use change will further increase the frequency of these extreme events. To make fire management more efficient and cost-effective, we recommend the implementation of an Integrated Fire Management program in the Pantanal. Stakeholders should use existing traditional, local ecological, and scientific knowledge to form a collective strategy with clear, achievable, measurable goals, considering the socio-ecological context. Permanent fire brigades, including indigenous members, should conduct year-round fire management. Communities should cooperate to create a collaborative network for wildfire prevention, the location and characteristics (including flammability) of infrastructures should be (re)planned in fire-prone environments considering and managing fire-catalysed transitions, and depending on the severity of wildfires. The 2020 wildfires were tackled in an ad-hoc fashion and prioritisation of areas for urgent financial investment, management, protection, and restoration is necessary to prevent this catastrophe from happening again.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Incendios Forestales , Biodiversidad , Brasil , Bosques , Humanos , Paraguay , SARS-CoV-2 , Humedales
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20201604, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852672

RESUMEN

The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Conocimiento
3.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 7(1): 44-47, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845014

RESUMEN

We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange.

5.
Acta Trop ; 172: 217-222, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502644

RESUMEN

In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals. Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil are remarkably frequent, probably due to the abundance of its regional mastofauna. The recent record of L. braziliensis in bats from this state indicates the need to clarify the role of these mammals in the transmission cycle. In this study we evaluated the presence of Leishmania parasites in the skin of different species of bats, using PCR directed to Leishmania spp. kDNA for screening followed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the hsp70 gene for the identification of parasite species. Leishmania species identification was confirmed by PCR directed to the G6PD gene of L. braziliensis, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Samples from 47 bats were processed, of which in three specimens (6.38%) was detected the presence of Leishmania sp. kDNA. PCR/RFLP and sequencing identified the species involved in the infection as L. braziliensis in all of them. This is the first report of Leishmania braziliensis in bats from Pantanal ecosystem and the first record of this species in Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris, bats with a wide distribution in South America. These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/parasitología , Leishmania braziliensis/aislamiento & purificación , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/veterinaria , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , ADN de Cinetoplasto/genética , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/parasitología , Humedales , Zoonosis
7.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0130075, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26102202

RESUMEN

Ecological communities are structured by both deterministic and stochastic processes. We investigated phylogenetic patterns at regional and local scales to understand the influences of seasonal processes in shaping the structure of anuran communities in the southern Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We assessed the phylogenetic structure at different scales, using the Net Relatedness Index (NRI), the Nearest Taxon Index (NTI), and phylobetadiversity indexes, as well as a permutation test, to evaluate the effect of seasonality. The anuran community was represented by a non-random set of species with a high degree of phylogenetic relatedness at the regional scale. However, at the local scale the phylogenetic structure of the community was weakly related with the seasonality of the system, indicating that oriented stochastic processes (e.g. colonization, extinction and ecological drift) and/or antagonist forces drive the structure of such communities in the southern Pantanal.


Asunto(s)
Anuros/clasificación , Filogenia , Estaciones del Año , Procesos Estocásticos , Animales , Ecosistema
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(6): 763-8, 2011 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22012234

RESUMEN

This work reports a survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy pampas deer were captured in the dry season and surveyed using PCR, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (n = 51) and by both techniques (n = 47). PCR detected infections in two pampas deer and MAT detected infections in three. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the PCR-amplified fragment detected in deer was identified as Leptospira interrogans. Serovars Pomona and Butembo were detected using MAT and the highest titre was 200 for serovar Pomona. Epidemiological aspects of the findings are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Ciervos/microbiología , Leptospira interrogans/aislamiento & purificación , Leptospirosis/veterinaria , Pruebas de Aglutinación/veterinaria , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Leptospira interrogans/inmunología , Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona/inmunología , Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona/aislamiento & purificación , Leptospirosis/diagnóstico , Leptospirosis/epidemiología , Masculino , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Estaciones del Año , Humedales
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(6): 763-768, Sept. 2011. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-602063

RESUMEN

This work reports a survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy pampas deer were captured in the dry season and surveyed using PCR, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (n = 51) and by both techniques (n = 47). PCR detected infections in two pampas deer and MAT detected infections in three. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the PCR-amplified fragment detected in deer was identified as Leptospira interrogans. Serovars Pomona and Butembo were detected using MAT and the highest titre was 200 for serovar Pomona. Epidemiological aspects of the findings are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Ciervos/microbiología , Leptospira interrogans/aislamiento & purificación , Leptospirosis/veterinaria , Pruebas de Aglutinación/veterinaria , Brasil/epidemiología , Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona/inmunología , Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona/aislamiento & purificación , Leptospira interrogans/inmunología , Leptospirosis/diagnóstico , Leptospirosis/epidemiología , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Estaciones del Año , Humedales
10.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(1): 173-175, jan.-mar. 2011. ilus, mapas
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-599693

RESUMEN

The largest New World bat, Vampyrum spectrum, is a locally rare top predator, which occurs from Mexico to South America. Here, we report for the first time its occurrence in the southern Pantanal floodplain, basing our records on specimens that are also the first to be reported for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted bat surveys in two sites 120 km apart, in the Aquidauana and Nhecolândia regions. Among 2,498 bat captures, two individuals of V. spectrum were mist-netted, one at each site. These records expand southward the distribution range of V. spectrum, and in addition to other records in the Northern Pantanal border and Bolivia support that V. spectrum is widely distributed in the upper Paraguay basin.


O maior morcego do Novo Mundo, Vampyrum spectrum, é um predador de topo localmente raro que ocorre do México à América do Sul. Reportamos aqui pela primeira vez sua ocorrência na região sul da planície inundável do Pantanal, tomando como base espécimes que também são os primeiros registrados para o Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Realizamos inventários em dois sítios distantes 120 km, nas regiões de Aquidauana e Nhecolândia. Dentre 2498 capturas de morcegos, dois indivíduos de V. spectrum foram registrados, um em cada sítio. Esses registros expandem a distribuição de V. spectrum para o sul, e somados a outros registros na borda Norte do Pantanal e na Bolívia sustentam que V. spectrum é amplamente distribuída na bacia do alto Paraguai.

11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 19(3): 186-8, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20943025

RESUMEN

Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR); and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%). This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%), and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 °C ± 0.20) was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 °C ± 0.12), suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.


Asunto(s)
Anaplasma marginale/aislamiento & purificación , Anaplasmosis/diagnóstico , Anaplasmosis/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Ciervos/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Anaplasma marginale/genética , Animales , Brasil , Bovinos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(3): 186-188, July-Sept. 2010. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-604667

RESUMEN

Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR); and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3 percent). This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3 percent), and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 ºC ± 0.20) was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 ºC ± 0.12), suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.


O estudo epizootiológico de Anaplasma marginale em regiões que existem vários reservatórios, co-existência de espécies de riquétsias patógenas e vetores comuns é uma tarefa complicada. Com o objetivo de obter o diagnóstico dessa riquétsia em bovinos e veado campeiro do Pantanal brasileiro foi avaliada uma reação da polimerase em cadeia em tempo real (PCR-TR) com o fluoróforo intercalante de fita dupla de DNA Sybr Green e iniciadores baseados na seqüência do gene msp5 de A. marginale comparando-a a uma PCR convencional (PCR-C) e ao exame parasitológico de esfregaço fino de sangue corado com Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Ambas PCRs apresentaram bom desempenho no diagnóstico de A. marginale nos bovinos, o qual foi superior ao exame parasitológico. O PCR-TR detectou sete veados campeiros positivos (16,3 por cento), o que foi significativamente maior comparado ao PCR-C identificando um animal como positivo (2,3 por cento), e ao exame parasitológico não encontrou nenhum animal positivo. A média da temperatura de dissociação das reações positivas para amostras de bovinos (81,72 ºC ± 0,20) foi idêntica àquelas dos cervídeos ( 81,72 ºC ± 0,12), o que sugere que ambas espécies animais foram infectadas por A. marginale. Concluímos que PCR-TR pode ser utilizada para diagnóstico e estudos epizootiológicos de A. marginale em bovinos e cervídeos. Apesar da pequena amostragem de veado campeiro os resultados indicam que essa espécie de animal selvagem tem importância na epizootiologia do Anaplasma no Pantanal brasileiro.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bovinos , Anaplasma marginale/aislamiento & purificación , Anaplasmosis/diagnóstico , Anaplasmosis/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Ciervos/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Anaplasma marginale/genética , Brasil , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Factores de Tiempo
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