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1.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infertility affects 48.5 million couples worldwide with a prevalence estimated at 3.5-16.7% in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and as high as 30-40% in Sub-Saharan Africa. ART services are not accessible to the majority of these infertile couples due to the high cost of treatments in addition to cultural, religious and legal barriers. Infertility and childlessness, particularly in LMIC, have devastating consequences, which has resulted in considerable interest in developing affordable IVF procedures. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the safety, efficiency and ability to replicate techniques under different field conditions, and how to integrate more affordable ART options into existing infrastructures. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review was performed to investigate the current availability of IVF in LMIC and which other ART options are under development. This work will unfold the landscape of available and potential ART services in LMIC and is a key element in positioning infertility more broadly in the Global Public Health Agenda. SEARCH METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of articles and gray literature on IVF and other ART options in LMIC published between January 2010 and January 2020. We selected studies on IVF and other ART treatments for infertile couples of reproductive age (18-44 years) from LMIC. The review was limited to articles published after 2010, based on the recent evolution in the field of ART practices in LMIC over the last decade. Citations from high-income countries, including data prior to 2010 and focusing on specialized ART procedures, were excluded. The literature search included PubMed, Popline, CINHAL, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus. No restrictions were applied with regard to study design or language. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, and extracted data. A search for gray literature was performed using the 'Google' search engine and specific databases (worldcat.org, greylit.org). In addition, the reference lists of included studies were assessed. OUTCOMES: The search of the electronic databases yielded 3769 citations. After review of the titles and abstracts, 283 studies were included. The full texts were reviewed and a further 199 articles were excluded. The gray literature search yielded 586 citations, most of which were excluded after screening the title, and the remaining documents were excluded after full-text assessment due to duplicate entries, not from LMIC, not relevant or no access to the full document. Eighty-four citations were included as part of the review and separated into regions. The majority of the studies were observational and qualitative studies. In general, ART services are available and described in several LMIC, ranging from advanced techniques in China to basic introduction of IVF in some African countries. Efforts to provide affordable ART treatments are described in feasibility studies and efficacy studies; however, most citations were of low to very low quality. We found no studies from LMIC reporting the implementation of low-cost ART that is effective, accessible and affordable to most of those in need of the services. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The World Health Organization is in a unique position to provide much needed guidance for infertility management in LMIC. This review provides insight into the landscape of ART in LMIC in various regions worldwide, which will guide efforts to improve the availability, quality, accessibility and acceptability of biomedical infertility care, including ART in these countries.

2.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 180, 2020 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050933

RESUMEN

This narrative review was conducted to synthesize and summarize available up-to-date evidence on current health status, including both non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases, of migrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union countries in the Russian Federation. Epidemiological and sociological studies with one or more determinants of the health, as well as relevant qualitative studies characterizing risk factors, well-being indicators, and lifestyles of migrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union countries in Russia published from 2004 to 2019 in Russian and English languages were included in the review. Despite significant limitations of the available research literature in the field, some patterns in migrants' health in Russia and issues that need to be addressed were identified. In particular, the syndemic epidemics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, additively increasing negative health consequences, including cardiovascular diseases and chronic digestive system diseases, high rates of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, respiratory diseases and a growing percentage of new tuberculosis cases among migrants from the former Soviet Union countries are all of great concern. Possibly, the burden of these co-occurring morbidities is linked to commonly reported issues among this population group, such as poor nutrition and living conditions, high prevalence of unskilled manual labour, non-compliance with sanitary norms, lack of basic vaccinations, lack of basic knowledge about safe sexual practices and risky sexual behaviour, low healthcare seeking behaviour and limited access to health care. Importantly, these findings may urge the government to increase efforts and promote international collaboration in combating the threat of infectious diseases. Additionally, it was found that migrants had higher levels of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, and those who stayed in the receiving country 5 years or more had a higher level of somatic pathology than those whose stay was less than 5 years. In order to ensure an adequate health system response and fulfil the main Universal Health Coverage principle of "leaving no one behind", a robust monitoring system of the health status of refugees and migrants and an integrated legal framework for the standardized and more inclusive routine care for this population in Russia is urgently needed.

4.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423944

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To provide an in-depth systematic assessment of the global epidemiology of gonorrhoea infection in infertile populations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted up to 29 April 2019 on international databases and WHO regional databases, and reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. All prevalence measures of gonorrhoea infection among infertile populations, based on primary data, qualified for inclusion. Infertile populations were broadly defined to encompass women/men undergoing infertility evaluation or treatment (infertility clinic attendees and partners). Pooled mean prevalence by relevant strata was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. Associations with prevalence and sources of heterogeneity were explored using metaregression. Risk of bias was assessed using four quality domains. FINDINGS: A total of 147 gonorrhoea prevalence studies were identified from 56 countries. The pooled mean prevalence of current gonorrhoea infection was estimated globally at 2.2% (95% CI 1.3% to 3.2%), with the highest prevalence in Africa at 5.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 9.3%). The mean prevalence was higher for populations with tubal factor infertility (3.6%, 95% CI 0.9%-7.7%) and mixed cause and unexplained infertility (3.6%, 95% CI 0.0% to 11.6%) compared with other diagnoses, such as ovarian and non-tubal infertility (0.1%, 95% CI 0.0% to 0.8%), and for secondary (2.5%, 95% CI 0.2% to 6.5%) compared with primary (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0% to 1.7%) infertility. Metaregression identified evidence of variations in prevalence by region and by infertility diagnosis, higher prevalence in women than men and a small-study effect. There was a trend of declining prevalence by about 3% per year over the last four decades (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea prevalence in infertile populations is several folds higher than that in the general population, with even higher prevalence in women with tubal factor infertility and in individuals with secondary infertility. These findings support the potential role of gonorrhoea in infertility and suggest that some infertility is possibly preventable by controlling gonorrhoea transmission. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102934.

5.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(3): e15569, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual well-being is fundamental to physical and emotional health, and the ability to achieve it depends on access to comprehensive sexuality information and high-quality sexual health care from evidence-informed, nonjudgmental providers. Adequate and timely delivery of these components to individuals who are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and unintended pregnancies promotes sexual health and mitigates consequences arising from risky sexual behavior. Brief interventions that allow health care providers to improve the information available to clients and motivate and help them to develop risk-reduction skills are seen as efficient ways to improve knowledge, change client behavior, and reduce provider stigma regarding sexual health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate five aspects of feasibility (acceptability, willingness, safety, satisfaction, and process) of a brief sexuality-related communication (BSC) intervention based on motivational interviewing and behavior change techniques in primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: This protocol outlines a multisite, multiphase study of feasibility of a BSC intervention in primary health care settings in LMICs that will be examined across four phases of the study. Phases I through III involve the collection of formative, qualitative data to examine provider and client perceptions of the feasibility of the intervention, adaptation of the intervention guide, and training providers on how to implement the final version of the BSC intervention. During phase IV, the feasibility of the intervention will be tested in a nonrandomized pre-post test trial where providers and clients will be followed for 6 months and participate in multiphase data collection. RESULTS: Phase I is currently underway in Moldova, and phases I and II were completed in Peru in late 2019. Results are expected for the feasibility study in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This feasibility study will determine whether the implementation of brief intervention programs aimed at improving sexual health outcomes is possible in the constraints of LMIC health systems and will add to our understanding of factors shaping clinical practice among primary care providers. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/15569.

7.
J Homosex ; : 1-19, 2019 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483215

RESUMEN

Data for MSM continue to show a high risk of acquiring HIV-STIs. Within this population, outness seems to have an impact on both risk-taking and on health seeking behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic, behavioral characteristics, testing behaviors, and outness level among MSM using data from a multi-center bio-behavioral cross-sectional study carried out in 13 EU cities. A multilevel analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with being open ("out") versus not being open ("in"). A total of 4,901 MSM were enrolled in the study and were classified as "out" in 71% of the cases. MSM "out" were more likely to report HIV testing and being reached by HIV prevention programs compared to MSM who were "in." The results confirm the key role of outness in relation to different healthy and risky behavior, ranging from testing to party-drug use.

8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 6: e25343, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468679

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain prevalent and are increasing in several populations. Appropriate STI diagnosis is crucial to prevent the transmission and sequelae of untreated infection. We reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of syndromic case management and existing point-of-care tests (POCTs), including those in the pipeline, to diagnose STIs in resource-constrained settings. METHODS: We prioritized updating the systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of vaginal discharge from 2001 to 2015 to include studies until 2018. We calculated the absolute effects of different vaginal flowcharts and the diagnostic performance of POCTs on important outcomes. We searched the peer-reviewed literature for previously conducted systematic reviews and articles from 1990 to 2018 on the diagnostic accuracy of syndromic management of vaginal and urethral discharge, genital ulcer and anorectal infections. We conducted literature reviews from 2000 to 2018 on the existing POCTs and those in the pipeline. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of urethral discharge and genital ulcer disease syndromes is relatively adequate. Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections limit the use of vaginal discharge and anorectal syndromes. The pooled diagnostic accuracy of vaginal syndromic case management for CT/NG is low, resulting in high numbers of overtreatment and missed treatment. The absolute effect of POCTs was reduced overtreatment and missed treatment. Findings of the reviews on syndromic case management underscored the need for low-cost and accurate POCTs for the identification, first, of CT/NG, and, second, of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and NG and MG resistance/susceptibility testing. Near-patient POCT molecular assays for CT/NG/TV are commercially available. The prices of these POCTs remain the barrier for uptake in resource-constrained settings. This is driving the development of lower cost solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO syndromic case management guidelines should be updated to raise the quality of STI management through the integration of laboratory tests. STI screening strategies are needed to address asymptomatic STIs. POCTs that are accurate, rapid, simple and affordable are urgently needed in resource-constrained settings to support the uptake of aetiological diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Recursos en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Trichomonas vaginalis
9.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e025808, 2019 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122971

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A key target of the WHO's 'Global Health Sector Strategy on sexually transmitted infections, 2016-2021' is achieving 90% reduction in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea for short) incidence globally by 2030. Though untreated, gonorrhoea has been linked to infertility, the epidemiology of this infection in infertile populations remains poorly understood and somewhat a neglected area of reproductive health. Our proposed systematic review aims to fill this gap by characterising comprehensively gonorrhoea infection in infertile populations globally. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All available studies of gonorrhoea infection in infertile populations, including infertility clinic attendees, will be systematically reviewed informed by Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Findings will be reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data sources will be searched using broad index terms exploded to cover all subheadings and free text terms with no language or year restriction. Any epidemiological measure in infertile populations based on primary data will be eligible for inclusion. Measures based on different assay types will be extracted as separate studies for different analyses. Only one biospecimen type per assay type will be considered based on a predefined priority order. Samples including fewer than 10 participants or assessing infection in the upper genital tract will be excluded. Quality assessments will be conducted for all measures included in the review. Meta-analyses will be implemented using DerSimonian-Laird random effect models to estimate the mean prevalence of gonorrhoea in infertile populations globally, and stratified by WHO region, assay type, sex, infertility type, infertility diagnosis, among other factors. Detailed heterogeneity assessment will be performed, and potential sources of between-study heterogeneity will be explored using meta-regression. Review will be conducted from 26 March 2018 to 28 July 2019. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: An institutional review board clearance is not required as all data are publicly available. The findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and international scientific meetings/workshops with key stakeholders. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102934.


Asunto(s)
Gonorrea/epidemiología , Infertilidad/epidemiología , Salud Global , Humanos , Incidencia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(2): e001349, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139454

RESUMEN

Background: Self-collection of samples for diagnostic testing offers the advantages of patient autonomy, confidentiality and convenience. Despite data showing their feasibility and accuracy, there is a need to better understand how to implement such interventions for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To support WHO guidelines on self-care interventions, we conducted a systematic review to investigate whether self-collection of samples should be made available as an additional approach to deliver STI testing services. Methods: Peer-reviewed studies were included if they compared individuals who self-collected samples for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and/or trichomonas testing to individuals who had samples collected by clinicians on the following outcomes: uptake/frequency of STI testing, social harms/adverse events, positive yield (case finding), linkage to clinical assessment/treatment and reported sexual risk behaviour. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and EMBASE for articles published through July 2018. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and the Evidence Project tool for non-RCTs. Meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models to generate pooled estimates of relative risk (RR). Results: Eleven studies, including five RCTs and six observational studies with a total of 202 745 participants, met inclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in Australia, Denmark and the USA. Meta-analysis found that programmes offering self-collection of samples increased overall uptake of STI testing services (RR: 2.941, 95% CI 1.188 to 7.281) and case finding (RR: 2.166, 95% CI 1.043 to 4.498). No studies reported measuring STI testing frequency, social harms/adverse events, linkage to care or sexual risk behaviour. Discussion: While greater diversity in study designs, outcomes and settings would strengthen the evidence base, findings from this review suggest that self-collection of STI samples could be an effective additional strategy to increase STI testing uptake. Prospero registration number: PROSPERO CRD42018114866.

11.
APMIS ; 126(12): 907-912, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456870

RESUMEN

Effective tests for diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), used point of care to inform treatment and management decisions, are urgently needed. We evaluated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV tests, examining 339 samples spiked with phenotypically and/or genetically diverse strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis, and other related species that may cross-react. The APTIMA Combo 2 test and APTIMA TV test were used as reference tests. The analytical sensitivity for all three agents in the Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV tests was ≤102 genome equivalents/reaction. The analytical specificity of both tests was high. False-positive results were identified in the Xpert® TV test when challenging with high concentrations of Trichomonas tenax, Trichomonas gallinae, Trichomonas stableri, and Trichomonas aotus. However, the clinical relevance of these cross-reactions can likely be neglected, because these species have not been identified in urogenital samples from humans. In conclusion, the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the user-friendly Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV tests on the GeneXpert system were high. The results support the use of specimens from also extra-genital sites, for example, pharynx and rectum. However, appropriate clinical validations are additionally required.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Reacciones Cruzadas , Reacciones Falso Positivas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
12.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204088, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260991

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Behaviour-change interventions have been consistently considered an essential part of comprehensive HIV, STI and unintended pregnancy prevention. In 2015, the World Health Organization reviewed and assessed existing evidence on brief behavioural interventions, leading to the publication of Brief sexuality-related communication: recommendations for a public health approach. This guideline recommends the use of brief behaviour intervention and communication programmes to promote sexual health and to prevent HIV, STIs, and unintended pregnancies in primary health services, particularly sexual and reproductive health services. OBJECTIVE: With the purpose of informing the development of a brief behaviour intervention in sexual and reproductive health, we conducted a systematic review of brief intervention to prevent HIV, STI and unintended pregnancies, to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used in health care settings. METHODS: Participants from all ages and genders were included. Brief interventions delivered in ≤ 60 minutes were included. Data was extracted, and interventions were coded following the Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 6.687 articles identified, 355 were reviewed and 37 studies were included. In effective interventions, we identified 48 behaviour change techniques (BCTs). A core set of 8 frequently used behaviour change techniques was identified: "Problem solving", "Feedback on behaviour", "Social support (unspecified)", "Instructions on how to perform the behaviour", "Information about health consequences", "Information about social and environmental consequences", "Demonstration of the behaviour" and "Credible source". CONCLUSIONS: The technical content of brief behaviour interventions was identified in a reliable and standardized way providing preliminary indications on potentially effective techniques to achieve behaviour change.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Embarazo no Planeado/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Sesgo de Publicación , Factores de Riesgo
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 368, 2018 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reducing the number of people with undiagnosed HIV infection is a major goal of HIV control and prevention efforts in Europe and elsewhere. We analysed data from a large multi-city European bio-behavioural survey conducted among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) for previously undiagnosed HIV infections, and aimed to characterise undiagnosed MSM who test less frequently than recommended. METHODS: Data on sexual behaviours and social characteristics of MSM with undiagnosed HIV infection from Sialon II, a bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey conducted in 13 European cities in 2013/2014, were compared with HIV-negative MSM. Based on reported HIV-testing patterns, we distinguished two subgroups: MSM with a negative HIV test result within 12 months prior to the study, i.e. undiagnosed incident infection, and HIV positive MSM with unknown onset of infection. Bivariate and multivariate associations of explanatory variables were analysed. Distinct multivariate multi-level random-intercept models were estimated for the entire group and both subgroups. RESULTS: Among 497 participants with HIV-reactive specimens, 234 (47.1%) were classified as previously diagnosed, 106 (21.3%) as incident, and 58 (11.7%) as unknown onset based on self-reported status and testing history. MSM with incident HIV infection were twice as likely (odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.17-4.21) to have used recreational substances during their last anal sex encounter and four times more likely (OR = 3.94, 95%CI: 2.14-7.27) not to discuss their HIV status with the last anal sex partner(s). MSM with unknown onset of HIV infection were 3.6 times more likely (OR = 3.61, 95%CI: 1.74-7.50) to report testing for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) during the last 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of the study participants who are living with HIV were unaware of their infection. Almost two-third (65%) of those with undiagnosed HIV appeared to have acquired the infection recently, emphasizing a need for more frequent testing. Men with the identified behavioural characteristics could be considered as primary target group for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to avoid HIV infection. The increased odds of those with unknown onset of HIV infection to have had an STI test in the past year strongly suggests a lost opportunity to offer HIV testing.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente) , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Parejas Sexuales , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto Joven
14.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(1): 29-41L, 2018 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403098

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods: We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings: We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion: More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.


Asunto(s)
Disforia de Género/psicología , Identidad de Género , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Percepción , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 187, 2018 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378541

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to test some of the draft sexual health indicators developed by the World Health Organization as part of a comprehensive indicator framework to monitor progress in universal access to reproductive health. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies among people who inject drugs were conducted in Catalonia (n = 734) and Barnaul (n = 500). 'Sexual competency' was measured using three indicators: sexual satisfaction, sexual safety, and sexual autonomy. Individual social norms on sexuality were also collected. The construct validity of the sexual safety and sexual autonomy items were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression models explored factors associated with sexual dissatisfaction. RESULTS: In Catalonia, sexual competency was higher among males than females who inject drugs (60.4% versus 33.3%). In both Catalonia and Barnaul, differences by sex in social norms on sexuality were seen. Mean scores on sexual safety (4.15 in Catalonia and 3.54 in Barnaul) were lower among participants who reported not using condoms. Mean scores on sexual autonomy (4.42 in Catalonia and 3.97 in Barnaul) were lower among those who had experienced some form of sexual assault. Perceived sexual safety, sexual autonomy, and social norms on sexuality were associated with sexual dissatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The sexual health indicators tested are valid, feasible, and reliable tools to monitor and evaluate sexual health programs and activities. The results confirm that sexual satisfaction depends on safe sexual experiences, free from coercion and violence. Social norms and individual perceptions about sexual health need to be considered when developing national disease prevention programs.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción Personal , Proyectos Piloto , Federación de Rusia , Sexualidad/psicología , Normas Sociales , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Euro Surveill ; 23(49)2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621823

RESUMEN

IntroductionThe HIV epidemic represents an important public health issue in Europe particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). Global AIDS Monitoring indicators (GAM) have been widely and jointly promoted as a set of crucial standardised items to be adopted for monitoring and responding to the epidemic.MethodsThe Sialon II study, implemented in 13 European cities (2013-14), was a complex multi-centre integrated bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey targeted at MSM, with a concomitant collection of behavioural and biological (oral fluid or blood specimens) data. Rigorous sampling approaches for hard-to-reach populations were used (time-location sampling and respondent-driven sampling) and GAM indicators were calculated; sampling frames were adapted to allow weighted estimates of GAM indicators.Results4,901 MSM were enrolled. HIV prevalence estimates ranged from 2.4% in Stockholm to 18.0% in Bucharest. When exploring city-level correlations between GAM indicators, prevention campaigns significantly correlated with levels of condom use and level of HIV testing among MSM.ConclusionThe Sialon II project has made an important contribution to the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV epidemic across Europe, integrating the use of GAM indicators within a second generation HIV surveillance systems approach and in participatory collaboration with MSM communities. It influenced the harmonisation of European data collection procedures and indicators via GAM country reporting and contributed essential knowledge informing the development and implementation of strategic, evidence-based HIV prevention campaigns for MSM.


Asunto(s)
Serodiagnóstico del SIDA/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Necesidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Sexo Seguro , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sexo Inseguro
18.
Sex Transm Infect ; 93(S4): S16-S21, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223959

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2012, there was an estimated 78 million new cases of gonorrhoea globally. Untreated infection may lead to reproductive and neonatal morbidity and facilitate HIV transmission. Diagnosis and treatment are a priority for control and prevention, yet use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is limited. OBJECTIVES: To review the performance and operational characteristics of NG POCTs for diagnosis of urogenital gonorrhoea. METHODS: We compiled and synthesised findings from two separate systematic reviews which included evaluations published until August 2015. RESULTS: Six tests were included: five were immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) or optical immunoassay (OIAs) based on antigen detection; with 5-7 steps and results in 25-40 min, and one (GeneXpert CT/NG) was a 'near-patient test' based on nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT); with three steps, electricity required, and results in 90 min. When compared with laboratory-based NAATs as the reference tests, sensitivities of ICT and OIA-based POCTs ranged from 12.5% to 70% when cervical/vaginal swabs were tested. Specificities ranged from 89% to 99.8%. The near-patient NAAT had sensitivities of >95% and specificities of >99.8% consistently across all specimen types (urine, cervical and vaginal swabs). CONCLUSIONS: Based on a limited number of evaluations, antigen detection POCTs for NG lacked sufficient sensitivity to be used for screening. A near-patient NAAT has acceptable performance, only involved a few steps, but needs electricity, a temperature-controlled environment and has a 90 min run time. To achieve wider scale up of NG POCTs, we need strong evidence of cost-effectiveness, which should inform guidelines and ultimately increase test development, demand and reduce costs.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía de Afinidad/métodos , ADN Bacteriano/análisis , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/microbiología , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
Sex Transm Infect ; 93(S4): S22-S30, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223960

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. Most infections are asymptomatic. Untreated infection in women can lead to severe complications. Screening and treatment of at-risk populations is a priority for prevention and control. OBJECTIVES: To summarise systematic reviews of the performance characteristics of commercially available point-of-care tests (POCT) for screening and diagnosis of urogenital CT infection. METHODS: Two separate systematic reviews covering the periods 2004-2013 and 2010-2015 were conducted on rapid CT POCTs. Studies were included if tests were evaluated against a valid reference standard. RESULTS: In the first review, 635 articles were identified, of which 11 were included. Nine studies evaluated the performance of eight antigen detection rapid POCTs on 10 280 patients and two studies evaluated a near-patient nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) on 3518 patients. Pooled sensitivity of antigen detection tests was 53%, 37% and 63% for cervical swabs, vaginal swabs and male urine, and specificity was 99%, 97% and 98%, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the near-patient NAAT for all specimen types were >98% and 99.4%, respectively. The second review identified two additional studies on four antigen detection POCTs with sensitivities and specificities of 22.7%-37.7% and 99.4%-100%, respectively. A new two-step 15 min rapid POCT using fluorescent nanoparticles showed performance comparable to that of near-patient NAATs. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic reviews showed that antigen detection POCTs for CT, although easy to use, lacked sufficient sensitivity to be recommended as a screening test. A near-patient NAAT shows acceptable performance as a screening or diagnostic test but requires electricity, takes 90 min and is costly. More affordable POCTs are in development.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Estándares de Referencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 93(S4): S51-S58, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223963

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe has recently increased. Rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for syphilis can improve access to screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of two syphilis POCTs compared with laboratory tests among MSM. METHODS: The study was undertaken in Verona, Italy. Asymptomatic MSM, potentially exposed to syphilis, were enrolled prospectively. The POCTs evaluated were SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 and Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm Assay on both serum and fingerprick blood. The results of the POCTs were read by the naked eye by two independent readers and their concordance assessed. RESULTS: A total of 289 MSM were enrolled in the study. Based on laboratory tests, 35 MSM (12.1%) were TPPA-positive alone and 16 (5.5%) were both Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test (TPPA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR)-positive. The specificities of both POCTs were above 99% on both serum and fingerstick blood specimens, while sensitivities varied considerably. The sensitivity of the SD Bioline test was lower on fingerprick blood (51.4% and 54.3%, readers 1 and 2, respectively) compared with that on serum (80.0% and 82.9%). In contrast, the Chembio test exhibited similar sensitivity values for serum and fingerprick samples (57.7% and 64.0% on serum vs 65.4% and 69.2% on fingerprick for the treponemal component; 63.6% on both samples by both readers for the non-treponemal component). The positive predictive value ranged between 100% and 93.9% for the treponemal component of both syphilis POCTs, but was lower (76.3%-100%)%) for the non-treponemal component of the Chembio POCT. The negative predictive value surpassed 90% for both tests on both samples. The agreement between readers was very high (>99%). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of the syphilis POCTs was lower than expected; however, considering the prevalence of syphilis among MSM, POCTs should be recommended to improve syphilis detection among MSM.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/análisis , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Sífilis/microbiología , Sífilis/transmisión
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