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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866327

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An important problem limiting treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is the occurrence of adverse events with isoniazid. We combined populations from phase 2 and phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trials, to establish risk factors for adverse events during latent tuberculosis infection treatment. METHODS: We did a post-hoc safety analysis based on data from two open-label, randomised controlled trials done in health-care facilities in Australia, Benin, Brazil, Canada, Ghana, Guinea, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and South Korea. Participants were consenting adults (aged ≥18 years) with a positive latent tuberculosis infection diagnostic test, indication for treatment, and without contraindications to rifampicin or isoniazid. Patients were centrally randomly assigned 1:1 to 4 months of daily 10 mg/kg rifampicin or 9 months of daily 5 mg/kg isoniazid. The primary outcome evaluated was adverse events (including grade 1-2 rash and all events of grade 3-5) resulting in permanent discontinuation of study medication and judged possibly or probably related to study drug by a masked, independent, three-member adjudication panel (trial registration: NCT00170209; NCT00931736). FINDINGS: Participants were recruited from April 27, 2004, up until Jan 31, 2007 (phase 2), and Oct 1, 2009, up until Dec 31, 2014 (phase 3). The safety populations for each group comprised 3205 individuals receiving isoniazid and 3280 receiving rifampicin. Among those receiving isoniazid, 86 (2·7%) of 3205 had grade 1-2 rash or any grade 3-5 adverse events, more than the 50 (1·5%) of 3280 who had these events with rifampicin (risk difference -1·2%, 95% CI -1·9 to -0·5). Age was associated with adverse events in adults receiving isoniazid. Compared with individuals aged 18-34 years, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for adverse events was 1·8 (95% CI 1·1-3·0) for individuals aged 35-64 years and 3·0 (1·2-6·8) for individuals aged 65-90 years. With rifampicin, adverse events were associated with inconsistent medication adherence (adjusted OR 2·0, 1·1-3·6) and concomitant medication use (2·8, 1·5-5·2), but not age, with an adjusted OR of 1·1 (0·6-2·1) for individuals aged 35-64 years and 1·7 (0·5-4·7) for individuals aged 65-90 years. One treatment-related death occurred in the isoniazid group. INTERPRETATION: In patients without a contraindication, rifampicin is likely to be the safest latent tuberculosis infection treatment option. With more widespread use of rifampicin, rare, but serious adverse events might be seen. However, within these randomised trials, rifampicin was safer than isoniazid and adverse events were not associated with older age. Therefore, rifampicin should become a primary treatment option for latent tuberculosis infection based on its safety. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(9): e00145719, 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508695
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 78, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553381

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize data about the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) among refugees around the world. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from the search in seven bibliographic databases. Studies on the prevalence of SV among refugees and asylum seekers of any country, sex or age, whether in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, were eligible. RESULTS: Of the 2,906 titles found, 60 articles were selected. The reported prevalence of SV was largely variable (0% to 99.8%). Reports of SV were collected in all continents, with 42% of the articles mentioning it in refugees from Africa (prevalence from 1.3% to 100%). The rape was the most reported SV in 65% of the studies (prevalence from 0% to 90.9%). The main victims were women in 89% of the studies, all the way, especially when still in the countries of origin. The SV was perpetrated particularly by intimate partners, but also by agents of supposed protection. Few studies have reported SV in men and children; the prevalence reached up to 39.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Approximately one-third of the studies (32%) were carried out in refugee camps and more than half (52%) in health services using mental health assessment tools. No study has addressed the most recent migratory crisis. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: SV is a prevalent problem affecting refugees of both sexes, of all ages, throughout the migratory journey, particularly those from Africa. Protection measures are urgently needed, and further studies, with more appropriate tools, may better measure the current magnitude of the problem.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 532, 2019 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362728

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis elimination requires treatment of latently infected high-risk persons, such as contacts of index cases. Identification and referral of tuberculosis contacts for investigation are major barriers in the contact cascade-of-care. These tasks rely heavily on auxiliary primary healthcare workers in many low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to understand their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding contact investigation in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional KAP survey on tuberculosis transmission and prevention among 135 auxiliary healthcare workers in three tuberculosis high-burden Brazilian cities. Trained interviewers applied a translated version of a previously applied questionnaire. Open answers were classified in pre-defined objective categories and analysed quantitatively. Answers were further classified as satisfactory or not according to criteria set by a panel of three specialists. RESULTS: Although 66% had received tuberculosis training in the past 10 years, only 19% were trained for tuberculosis prevention. 64% could not clearly distinguish latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from active tuberculosis; 63% did not know how to diagnose LTBI and 52% did not know how to prevent progression to active tuberculosis. Most believed that it is important to investigate adult (99%) and child (96%) contacts for LTBI. However, not all invite contacts - children (81%) or adults (71%) - to the clinic, despite only 24% perceiving difficulties for investigation. CONCLUSIONS: Gaps in KAP among auxiliary health workers have been reported in other areas, such as obstetrics and other infectious diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first KAP survey on tuberculosis transmission and prevention among auxiliary health care workers, and relevant gaps were also found. Knowledge gaps were notably related to LTBI management, including how to recognize it and prevent progression to active tuberculosis through treatment, despite most recognizing the importance of investigating contacts. Auxiliary healthcare workers in three Brazilian high-burden cities have important knowledge gaps despite their perception of the importance of tuberculosis prevention among contacts. They need to incorporate contact referral as one of their tasks to enable progress toward the target of tuberculosis elimination.


Asunto(s)
Técnicos Medios en Salud/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Tuberculosis/transmisión , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Tuberculosis Latente/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
5.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025831, 2019 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898826

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is an important component of the End-TB strategy. However, the number of individuals who successfully complete LTBI treatment remains low as there are losses at all steps in the LTBI 'cascade-of-care'. The reasons for these losses are variable and highly dependent on the setting. We have planned a trial of a standardised public health approach to strengthen the management of household contacts (HHCs) of newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB. Assessing costs related to approach is a secondary objective of the study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster randomised trial will be conducted in 24 randomisation units (health facilities or groups of health facilities) in five countries. In Phase 1, at intervention sites, we will conduct a standardised assessment of the current LTBI programme, with a focus on cascade-of-care endpoints. Standardised open-ended questionnaires on practices, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding TB prevention are then administered to key patient groups and healthcare workers. At each site, local stake-holders will review study findings and select solutions based on their acceptability, cost and effectiveness. In Phase 2, intervention clinics will implement the selected solutions, along with contact measurement registries and regular in-service LTBI management training. Control sites will continue their usual LTBI care with no explicit evaluation, strengthening or training activities. The primary study outcome is the number of HHC initiating LTBI treatment per newly diagnosed active TB patient, within 3 months of diagnosis of the index patient. An intention-to-treat analysis will be performed, using a Poisson regression approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval from the MUHC ethical review board (ERB) was obtained in November 2015. During the study standardised tools will be developed and made publicly available. Key study findings and novel methodologic contributions will be detailed in publications and other dissemination activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02810678; Pre-Results.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(2): e191-e199, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683238

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF, the most widely used automated nucleic acid amplification test for tuberculosis, is available in more than 130 countries. Although diagnostic accuracy is well documented, anticipated improvements in patient outcomes have not been clearly identified. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to examine improvements in patient outcomes associated with Xpert MTB/RIF. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry from inception to Feb 1, 2018, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of Xpert MTB/RIF with sputum smear microscopy as tests for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults (aged 18 years or older). We excluded studies of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and studies in which mortality was not assessed. We used a two-stage approach for our primary analysis and a one-stage approach for the sensitivity analysis. To assess the primary outcome of cumulative 6-month all-cause mortality, we first performed logistic regression models (random effects for cluster randomised trials, with robust SEs for multicentre studies) for each trial, and then pooled the odds ratio (OR) estimates by a fixed-effects (inverse variance) or random-effects (Der Simonian Laird) meta-analysis. We adjusted for age and gender, and stratified by HIV status and previous tuberculosis-treatment history. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42014013394. FINDINGS: Our search identified 387 studies, of which five RCTs were eligible for analysis. 8567 adult clinic attendees (4490 [63·5%] of 7074 participants for whom data were available were HIV-positive) were tested for tuberculosis with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert group) versus sputum smear microscopy (sputum smear group), across five low-income and middle-income countries (South Africa, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Tanzania). The primary outcome (reported in three studies) occurred in 182 (4·5%) of 4050 patients in the Xpert group and 217 (5·3%) of 4093 patients in the smear group (pooled adjusted OR 0·88, 95% CI 0·68-1·14 [p=0·34]; for HIV-positive individuals OR 0·83, 0·65-1·05 [p=0·12]). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a lower rate of death (12·73 per 100 person-years in the Xpert group vs 16·38 per 100 person-years in the sputum smear group) for HIV-positive patients (hazard ratio 0·76, 95% CI 0·60-0·97; p=0·03). The risk of bias was assessed as reasonable and the statistical heterogeneity across studies was low (I2<20% for the primary outcome). INTERPRETATION: Despite individual patient data analysis from five RCTs, we were unable to confidently rule in nor rule out an Xpert MTB/RIF-associated reduction in mortality among outpatients tested for tuberculosis. Reduction in mortality among HIV-positive patients in a secondary analysis suggests the possibility of population-level impact. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

7.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 78, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043317

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To synthesize data about the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) among refugees around the world. METHODS A systematic review was conducted from the search in seven bibliographic databases. Studies on the prevalence of SV among refugees and asylum seekers of any country, sex or age, whether in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, were eligible. RESULTS Of the 2,906 titles found, 60 articles were selected. The reported prevalence of SV was largely variable (0% to 99.8%). Reports of SV were collected in all continents, with 42% of the articles mentioning it in refugees from Africa (prevalence from 1.3% to 100%). The rape was the most reported SV in 65% of the studies (prevalence from 0% to 90.9%). The main victims were women in 89% of the studies, all the way, especially when still in the countries of origin. The SV was perpetrated particularly by intimate partners, but also by agents of supposed protection. Few studies have reported SV in men and children; the prevalence reached up to 39.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Approximately one-third of the studies (32%) were carried out in refugee camps and more than half (52%) in health services using mental health assessment tools. No study has addressed the most recent migratory crisis. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS SV is a prevalent problem affecting refugees of both sexes, of all ages, throughout the migratory journey, particularly those from Africa. Protection measures are urgently needed, and further studies, with more appropriate tools, may better measure the current magnitude of the problem.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Sintetizar dados da literatura sobre a prevalência de violência sexual em refugiados. MÉTODOS Conduzimos uma revisão sistemática a partir da busca em sete bases bibliográficas. Foram elegíveis estudos em inglês, francês, espanhol e português com dados sobre a prevalência de violência sexual em refugiados e requerentes de asilo, de qualquer país, sexo ou idade. RESULTADOS Dos 2.906 títulos encontrados, 60 artigos foram incluídos. A prevalência foi amplamente variável (0% a 99,8%). Houve relatos de violência sexual em todos os continentes, com 42% dos artigos mencionando-a em refugiados provenientes da África (prevalências de 1,3% a 100%). O estupro foi a ocorrência mais relatada em 65% dos estudos (prevalências de 0% a 90,9%). As principais vítimas foram mulheres em 89% dos estudos, em todo o trajeto, principalmente nos países de origem. A violência foi perpetrada particularmente por parceiros íntimos, mas também por agentes de suposta proteção. Poucos estudos relataram-na em homens e crianças, com prevalências atingindo até 39,3% e 90,9%, respectivamente. Cerca de 1/3 dos estudos (32%) foram realizados em campos de refugiados ou locais de acolhimento, e mais da metade (52%) em serviços de saúde, utilizando instrumentos de avaliação de saúde mental. Nenhum estudo abordou a crise migratória mais recente. Não foi realizada meta-análise devido à heterogeneidade metodológica dos estudos. CONCLUSÕES A violência sexual é um problema prevalente que atinge refugiados de ambos os sexos, de todas as idades, em particular aqueles provenientes da África, durante todo o percurso migratório. Medidas de proteção são urgentemente necessárias, e novos estudos, com instrumentos mais apropriados, poderão mensurar melhor a magnitude atual do problema.

10.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 10(3): 298-301, dez. 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-986483

RESUMEN

As avaliações econômicas são elaboradas com base em modelos teóricos que procuram representar a realidade. Seu objetivo é a alocação eficiente dos recursos disponíveis para a saúde, sendo, portanto, uma exigência para a incorporação de tecnologias em saúde. A literatura sobre falhas e diferenças de métodos que mudem os resultados de estudos de custo-efetividade é escassa. Neste artigo, foi utilizado o desenho de estudo de caso para ilustrar como a escolha de parâmetros e a definição de pressupostos incorporados aos modelos de análise de decisão podem influenciar os resultados e as conclusões das análises de custo-efetividade e custo-utilidade e, por consequência, a alocação de recursos de saúde. Para tanto, pautamo-nos na discussão de três casos, nos quais observamos que a escolha da estimativa da prevalência, da especificidade de um teste e do horizonte temporal gerou resultados de custo-efetividade divergentes. O que motiva as diferentes escolhas pode ser muito diverso; alertamos para o risco das escolhas baseadas em interesses de promover a nova tecnologia


Economic evaluations are based on theoretical models that seek to represent reality. Its objective is the efficient allocation of resources available for health, and it is therefore a requirement for the incorporation of health technologies. There is scarce literature on flaws and methodological choices that can change the results of cost-effectiveness analyses. In this article, we discuss how the choice of parameters and the definition of assumptions incorporated into decision analysis models can influence the results and conclusions of the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyzes and, consequently, the allocation of health resources. In order to do so, we discuss three cases, where we observed that the choice of prevalence estimation, test specificity and the time horizon generated divergent cost-effectiveness results. What motivates the different choices can be very diverse; we here warn of the risk of interest-based choices of promoting a new technology


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Evaluación en Salud , Análisis Costo-Beneficio
11.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207400, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440022

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prison inmates can transmit tuberculosis, including drug-resistant strains, to correctional facility workers and the community. In this systematic literature review, we investigated the magnitude of active and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and associated risk factors among correctional facility workers. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL, and SCOPUS databases (January 1, 1989-December 31, 2017) for studies with the MeSH terms "prison" (and similar) AND "tuberculosis", without language restriction. We searched for gray literature in Google Scholar and conference proceedings. Stratified analyses according to tuberculosis burden were performed. RESULTS: Of the 974 titles identified, 15 (nine good, six fair quality) fulfilled the inclusion criteria (110,393 correctional facility workers; six countries; 82,668 active tuberculosis; 110,192 LTBI). Pooled LTBI prevalence and incidence rates were 26% (12-42, I2 = 99.0%) and 2% (1-3, I2 = 98.6%), respectively. LTBI prevalence reached 44% (12-79, I2 = 99.0%) in high-burden countries. Active tuberculosis was reported only in low-burden countries (incidence range, 0.61-450/10,000 correctional facility workers/year). LTBI-associated risk factors included job duration, older age, country of birth, current tobacco smoking, reported contact with prisoners, and BCG vaccination. CONCLUSION: Despite the risk of bias and high heterogeneity, LTBI was found to be prevalent in correctional facility workers, mainly in high-burden countries. LTBI risk factors suggest both occupational and community exposure. Active tuberculosis occurrence in low-burden countries suggests higher vulnerability from recent infection among correctional facility workers in these countries. Systematic surveillance and infection control measures are necessary to protect these highly vulnerable workers.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis Latente , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Prisiones , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Femenino , Humanos , Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Latente/transmisión , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/transmisión
12.
Eur Respir J ; 52(5)2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166325

RESUMEN

Ensuring adherence and support during treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health challenge. Digital health technologies could help improve treatment outcomes. We considered their potential cost and impact on treatment for active or latent TB in Brazil.Decision analysis models simulated two adult cohorts with 1) drug-susceptible active TB, and 2) multidrug-resistant TB, and two cohorts treated with isoniazid for latent TB infection (LTBI): 1) close contacts of persons with active TB, and 2) others newly diagnosed with LTBI. We evaluated four digital support strategies: two different medication monitors, synchronous video-observed therapy (VOT), and two-way short message service (SMS). Comparators were standard directly observed treatment for active TB and self-administered treatment for LTBI. Projected outcomes included costs (2016 US dollars), plus active TB cases and disability-adjusted life years averted among persons with LTBI.For individuals with active TB, medication monitors and VOT are projected to lead to substantial (up to 58%) cost savings, in addition to alleviating inconvenience and cost to patients of supervised treatment visits. For LTBI treatment, SMS and medication monitors are projected to be the most cost-effective interventions. However, all projections are limited by the scarcity of published estimates of clinical effect for the digital technologies.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Ahorro de Costo , Tuberculosis Latente/economía , Telemedicina/economía , Mensaje de Texto/economía , Tuberculosis/economía , Adulto , Brasil , Terapia por Observación Directa , Femenino , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapéutico , Tuberculosis Latente/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico
13.
N Engl J Med ; 379(5): 454-463, 2018 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been shown to be safer and to have higher completion rates than 9 months of isoniazid. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label trial, we randomly assigned 844 children (<18 years of age) with latent M. tuberculosis infection to receive either 4 months of rifampin or 9 months of isoniazid. The primary outcome was adverse events of grade 1 to 5 that resulted in the permanent discontinuation of a trial drug. Secondary outcomes were treatment adherence, side-effect profile, and efficacy. Independent review panels whose members were unaware of trial-group assignments adjudicated all adverse events and progression to active tuberculosis. RESULTS: Of the children who underwent randomization, 829 were eligible for inclusion in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 360 of 422 children (85.3%) in the rifampin group completed per-protocol therapy, as compared with 311 of 407 (76.4%) in the isoniazid group (adjusted difference in the rates of treatment completion, 13.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5 to 19.3). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of adverse events, with fewer than 5% of the children in the combined groups with grade 1 or 2 adverse events that were deemed to be possibly related to a trial drug. Active tuberculosis, including 1 case with resistance to isoniazid, was diagnosed in 2 children in the isoniazid group during 542 person-years of follow-up, as compared with no cases in the rifampin group during 562 person-years (rate difference, -0.37 cases per 100 person-years; 95% CI, -0.88 to 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Among children under the age of 18 years, treatment with 4 months of rifampin had similar rates of safety and efficacy but a better rate of adherence than 9 months of treatment with isoniazid. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00170209 .).


Asunto(s)
Antibióticos Antituberculosos/administración & dosificación , Antibióticos Antituberculosos/efectos adversos , Isoniazida/administración & dosificación , Isoniazida/efectos adversos , Tuberculosis Latente/tratamiento farmacológico , Rifampin/administración & dosificación , Rifampin/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Seguridad del Paciente , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
N Engl J Med ; 379(5): 440-453, 2018 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067931

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A 9-month regimen of isoniazid can prevent active tuberculosis in persons with latent tuberculosis infection. However, the regimen has been associated with poor adherence rates and with toxic effects. METHODS: In an open-label trial conducted in nine countries, we randomly assigned adults with latent tuberculosis infection to receive treatment with a 4-month regimen of rifampin or a 9-month regimen of isoniazid for the prevention of confirmed active tuberculosis within 28 months after randomization. Noninferiority and potential superiority were assessed. Secondary outcomes included clinically diagnosed active tuberculosis, adverse events of grades 3 to 5, and completion of the treatment regimen. Outcomes were adjudicated by independent review panels. RESULTS: Among the 3443 patients in the rifampin group, confirmed active tuberculosis developed in 4 and clinically diagnosed active tuberculosis developed in 4 during 7732 person-years of follow-up, as compared with 4 and 5 patients, respectively, among 3416 patients in the isoniazid group during 7652 person-years of follow-up. The rate differences (rifampin minus isoniazid) were less than 0.01 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.14 to 0.16) for confirmed active tuberculosis and less than 0.01 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, -0.23 to 0.22) for confirmed or clinically diagnosed tuberculosis. The upper boundaries of the 95% confidence interval for the rate differences of the confirmed cases and for the confirmed or clinically diagnosed cases of tuberculosis were less than the prespecified noninferiority margin of 0.75 percentage points in cumulative incidence; the rifampin regimen was not superior to the isoniazid regimen. The difference in the treatment-completion rates was 15.1 percentage points (95% CI, 12.7 to 17.4). The rate differences for adverse events of grade 3 to 5 occurring within 146 days (120% of the 4-month planned duration of the rifampin regimen) were -1.1 percentage points (95% CI, -1.9 to -0.4) for all events and -1.2 percentage points (95% CI, -1.7 to -0.7) for hepatotoxic events. CONCLUSIONS: The 4-month regimen of rifampin was not inferior to the 9-month regimen of isoniazid for the prevention of active tuberculosis and was associated with a higher rate of treatment completion and better safety. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00931736 .).


Asunto(s)
Antibióticos Antituberculosos/administración & dosificación , Isoniazida/administración & dosificación , Tuberculosis Latente/tratamiento farmacológico , Rifampin/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibióticos Antituberculosos/efectos adversos , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Isoniazida/efectos adversos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rifampin/efectos adversos
15.
Int J Drug Policy ; 59: 24-27, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966805

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the homeless and people who use drugs (PWUD). The optimal test for LTBI screening is uncertain. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the homeless and drug-rehabilitation clinic clients chronically using crack in Western Brazil. Participants were interviewed and offered HIV testing plus tuberculin skin testing (TST) and QuantiFeron®-Gold-in-Tube (QFT). We considered LTBI when either TST or QFT were positive. Factors associated with LTBI were adjusted in a multivariate model. RESULTS: Among 372 subjects with at least one valid test, 216 (58%) had LTBI. TST was not read in 18.4%; QFT was indeterminate in 2.5%. TST detected 27 (26%) extra LTBI cases among 75 QFT-negative individuals. PWUD had over three-fold odds for LTBI. TST was 4.5 times more likely to be positive in BCG-vaccinated individuals. CONCLUSION: Given the high risk of progression to disease in this population, the high rates of loss to TST reading and the possibility of false-positive TST results from BCG vaccination, we endorse current CDC recommendations to use QFT for LTBI screening among the homeless and PWUD. However, because adding TST to a negative QFT increased LTBI detection considerably, TST should be considered in QFT-negative individuals.


Asunto(s)
Cocaína Crack/administración & dosificación , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Cocaína Crack/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prueba de Tuberculina , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 414, 2018 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954436

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The value of sputum smear microscopy (SSM) after 2 months of treatment in the management of pulmonary tuberculosis is controversial. We analysed second month-SSM conversion as a predictor of treatment success in Brazil. RESULTS: Overall successful outcome rate was 89.4%. The predictive value of second month-SSM conversion for successful outcomes was 85.2% 72,479/85,118), while the predictive value of non-conversion for unfavourable outcomes was 26.9% (2712/10,071). Unfavourable treatment outcomes were twice more likely among patients who did not convert (adjusted OR = 2.06; 1.97-2.16).


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Esputo/microbiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
20.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 40(3): e359-e366, 2018 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036661

RESUMEN

Background: Unsuccessful tuberculosis outcomes are frequent; bold policies are needed to end the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic to attain the third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) by 2030. We examined the effect of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and its interactions with the conditional cash transfer programme (CTP) on TB outcomes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: We performed individual-based analyses of a database resulting from deterministic and probabilistic linkages of the TB information system, FHS registries and CTP payrolls. Patients ≥15 years old treated with the standard RHZE regimen were included. The rates of successful outcomes were analysed according to coverage by FHS. Effects from the CTP and its interactions with the FHS were examined among the poorest. Results: FHS coverage increased the likelihood for successful outcomes by 14% (12-17%) among 13 482 new cases, and by 35% (25-47%) among 1880 retreatment cases. The CTP had an independent effect but no interaction with the FHS among the poorest. Conclusions: This is the first individual-based study to show a relevant protection of poor urban communities regarding patient-important health outcomes by the Brazilian FHS and CTP. These findings support strategies of universal health coverage, primary care strengthening and social protection to achieve a major SDG.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Financiación Gubernamental/métodos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antituberculosos/administración & dosificación , Brasil , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza/economía , Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
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