Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 111
Filtrar
1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(5): 1022-1036, 2021 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443509

RESUMEN

In this study, we report the semisynthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of thirty-four derivatives of the fungal depsidone antibiotic, unguinol. Initially, the semisynthetic modifications were focused on the two free hydroxy groups (3-OH and 8-OH), the three free aromatic positions (C-2, C-4 and C-7), the butenyl side chain and the depsidone ester linkage. Fifteen first-generation unguinol analogues were synthesised and screened against a panel of bacteria, fungi and mammalian cells to formulate a basic structure activity relationship (SAR) for the unguinol pharmacophore. Based on the SAR studies, we synthesised a further nineteen second-generation analogues, specifically aimed at improving the antibacterial potency of the pharmacophore. In vitro antibacterial activity testing of these compounds revealed that 3-O-(2-fluorobenzyl)unguinol and 3-O-(2,4-difluorobenzyl)unguinol showed potent activity against both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 0.25-1 µg mL-1) and are promising candidates for further development in vivo.

2.
Vet Pathol ; : 300985820973459, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461422

RESUMEN

Pneumonia has been reported in both free-ranging and captive koalas and a number of causative agents have been described. Between 2016 and 2019, 16 free-ranging and 1 captive koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) from the Mount Lofty Ranges of South Australia were identified with pyogranulomatous lobar pneumonia, which involved the left caudal lobe in 14/17 (82%) cases. Within lesions, numerous gram-positive or gram-variable, non-acid-fast filamentous bacteria were observed in association with Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Culture yielded growth of anaerobic bacteria, which were unidentifiable by MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) analysis in 5/5 cases. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene identified a novel Actinomyces species in 4 samples, confirming a diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycosis. Concurrent examination of resin lung casts from healthy koalas suggested greater laminar flow of air to the left caudal lung lobe in koalas. Actinomyces spp. have been reported as commensals of the oral microbiome in other species, and an association with similar pulmonary lesions in other species. Considering the predilection for involvement of the left caudal lung lobe, aspiration is suggested as the likely cause in some cases of pulmonary actinomycosis in koalas. Pulmonary actinomycosis has not been previously described in koalas and further work needs to be undertaken in order to classify this organism within the Actinomyces genus.

3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109042, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461002

RESUMEN

The development of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is a growing public health concern. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from the Australian commercial egg layer industry. S. enterica subspecies enterica (n=307) isolated from Australian commercial layer flock environments (2015-2018) were obtained from reference, research and State Government laboratories from six Australian states. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution. Antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types (STs) were identified in significant isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three main serotypes were detected, S. Typhimurium (n=61, 19.9%), S. Senftenburg (n=45, 14.7%) and S. Agona (n=37, 12.1%). AST showed 293/307 (95.4%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents and all isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to streptomycin (2.3%, n=7), sulfisoxazole (2.0%, n=6), chloramphenicol (1.3%, n=4) and tetracycline (1.0%, n=3). Very low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to ampicillin (2/307; 0.7%) and cefoxitin (2/307; 0.7%). Two isolates (S. Havana and S. Montevideo), exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline and possessed corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA4, aac(6')-Iaa, sul1, tetB). One S. Typhimurium isolate was resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and possessed both tetA and blaTEM-1B. WGS also identified these isolates as belonging to ST4 (S. Montevideo), ST578 (S. Havana) and ST19 (S. Typhimurium). The absence of resistance to highest priority critically important antimicrobials as well as the extremely low level of AMR generally among Australian commercial egg layer Salmonella isolates likely reflect Australia's conservative antimicrobial registration policy in food-producing animals and low rates of antimicrobial use within the industry.

4.
Food Microbiol ; 93: 103614, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912586

RESUMEN

There are growing demands globally to use safe, efficacious and environmentally friendly sanitizers for post-harvest treatment of fresh produce to reduce or eliminate spoilage and foodborne pathogens. Here, we compared the efficacy of a pH-neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (Ecas4 Anolyte; ECAS) with that of an approved peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer (Ecolab Tsunami® 100) in reducing the total microbial load and inoculated Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria innocua populations on post-harvest baby spinach leaves over 10 days. The impact of both sanitizers on the overall quality of the spinach leaves during storage was also assessed by shelf life and vitamin C content measurements. ECAS at 50 ppm and 85 ppm significantly reduced the bacterial load compared to tap water-treated or untreated (control) leaves, and at similar levels (approx. 10-fold reduction) to those achieved using 50 ppm of Ecolab Tsunami® 100. While there were no obvious deleterious effects of treatment with 50 ppm Tsunami® 100 or ECAS at 50 ppm and 85 ppm on plant leaf appearance, tap water-treated and untreated leaves showed some yellowing, bruising and sliming. Given its safety, efficacy and environmentally-friendly characteristics, ECAS could be a viable alternative to chemical-based sanitizers for post-harvest treatment of fresh produce.

5.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283306

RESUMEN

The pharmacokinetics of fluoroquinolones in chelonians are well described but this does not extend to pradofloxacin, a broad-spectrum veterinary fluoroquinolone available as an oral suspension for cats and dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the single-dose pharmacokinetic profile of pradofloxacin oral suspension at 7.5 mg/kg in eastern long-necked turtles (Chelodina longicollis). Eight treated turtles were sampled at multiple time points up to 168 hr. Plasma concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pradofloxacin was quantifiable for up to 48 hr after drug administration. The Tmax (9.0 hr) and T½ to 48 hr (13.16 hr) were longer, and the Cmax (0.2 µg/ml) and AUC0-24 (2.2 hr*µg/ml) lower, than previously reported in cats and dogs. Pradofloxacin was measurable in tank water samples for up to 48 hr. No adverse effects were observed in six turtles administered 7.5 mg/kg sid for 7 days. Using mammalian MIC data, the AUC0-24 /MIC ratios for a range of bacterial isolates suggest that this dose of pradofloxacin in turtles is unlikely to be effective against many bacterial pathogens.

6.
Vet Microbiol ; 250: 108850, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011663

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and population structure of bovine mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and compare them to human isolates obtained from Western Australian hospitals and overseas strains to determine relatedness to human isolates from a zoonotic or reverse zoonotic aspect. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 202 S. aureus isolates of which 166 isolates underwent whole genome sequencing. Only resistance to penicillin (12.4%) and erythromycin (0.5%) was identified and of note, no resistance was demonstrated to oxacillin. Genomic characterisation identified 14 multilocus sequence types (STs), with most isolates belonging to clonal complexes 97, 705, and 1. Four distinct clades based on virulence gene composition were identified. The four clades were predominantly ST based, consisting of ST352, ST97, ST81/ST1, and ST705. Core genome comparison of the bovine and human S. aureus isolates demonstrated defined clustering by ST, with the Australian bovine S. aureus isolates clustering together according to their ST separately from human isolates. In addition, a bovine specific cluster comprising Australian ST151 and ST705 isolates, and ST151 isolates from Irish dairy cattle was clearly delineated. Examination of a detailed ST352 phylogeny provided evidence for geographical clustering of Australian strains into a distinct grouping separate from international strains. This study has identified Australian S. aureus isolates have limited genetic diversity and are genetically distinct from human and international bovine S. aureus isolates. Current first line therapies for bovine mastitis in Australian dairy cattle remain appropriate.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1968, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983008

RESUMEN

Escherichia coli sequence types 131 (ST131) and 1193 are multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogens that have recently spread epidemically among humans and are occasionally isolated from companion animals. This study characterized a nationwide collection of fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ R ) E. coli isolates from extraintestinal infections in Australian cats and dogs. For this, 59 cat and dog FQ R clinical E. coli isolates (representing 6.9% of an 855-isolate collection) underwent PCR-based phylotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Isolates from commensal-associated phylogenetic groups A (14/59, 24%) and B1 (18/59, 31%) were dominant, with ST224 (10/59, 17%), and ST744 (8/59, 14%) predominating. Less prevalent were phylogenetic groups D (12/59, 20%), with ST38 (8/59, 14%) predominating, and virulence-associated phylogenetic group B2 (7/59, 12%), with ST131 predominating (6/7, 86%) and no ST1193 isolates identified. In a WGS-based comparison of 20 cat and dog-source ST131 isolates with 188 reference human and animal ST131 isolates, the cat and dog-source isolates were phylogenetically diverse. Although cat and dog-source ST131 isolates exhibited some minor sub-clustering, most were closely related to human-source ST131 strains. Furthermore, the prevalence of ST131 as a cause of FQ R infections in Australian companion animals was relatively constant between this study and the 5-year-earlier study of Platell et al. (2010) (9/125 isolates, 7.2%). Thus, although the high degree of clonal commonality among FQ R clinical isolates from humans vs. companion animals suggests the possibility of bi-directional between-species transmission, the much higher reported prevalence of ST131 and ST1193 among FQ R clinical isolates from humans as compared to companion animals suggests that companion animals are spillover hosts rather than being a primary reservoir for these lineages.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1556, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849325

RESUMEN

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecalis/faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp.), have become a public health threat worldwide. Development of new antimicrobial classes and the use of drugs in combination are potential strategies to treat MDR ESKAPE pathogen infections and promote optimal antimicrobial stewardship. Here, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of robenidine analog NCL195 alone or in combination with different concentrations of three outer membrane permeabilizers [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), and polymyxin B (PMB)] was further evaluated against clinical isolates and reference strains of key Gram-negative bacteria. NCL195 alone was bactericidal against Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MIC/MBC = 32 µg/mL) and demonstrated synergistic activity against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp. strains in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of EDTA, PMBN, or PMB. The additive and/or synergistic effects of NCL195 in combination with EDTA, PMBN, or PMB are promising developments for a new chemical class scaffold to treat Gram-negative infections. Tokuyasu cryo ultramicrotomy was used to visualize the effect of NCL195 on bioluminescent S. aureus membrane morphology. Additionally, NCL195's favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile was further explored in in vivo safety studies in mice and preliminary efficacy studies against Gram-positive bacteria. Mice administered two doses of NCL195 (50 mg/kg) by the intraperitoneal (IP) route 4 h apart showed no adverse clinical effects and no observable histological effects in major organs. In bioluminescent Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. aureus murine sepsis challenge models, mice that received two 50 mg/kg doses of NCL195 4 or 6 h apart exhibited significantly reduced bacterial loads and longer survival times than untreated mice. However, further medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical development to improve potency, solubility, and selectivity is required before efficacy testing in Gram-negative infection models.

9.
Vet Microbiol ; 248: 108783, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827920

RESUMEN

This study investigated the prevalence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-associated sequence types (STs) from phylogenetic group B2 among 449 fluoroquinolone-susceptible dog clinical isolates from Australia. Isolates underwent PCR-based phylotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to determine clonal relatedness. Of the 317 so-identified group B2 isolates, 77 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS), whereas the remainder underwent PCR-based screening for ST complexes (STc) STc12, STc73, STc372, and ST131. The predominant ST was ST372 according to both WGS (31 % of 77) and ST-specific PCR (22 % of 240), followed by (per WGS) ST73 (17 %), ST12 (7 %), and ST80 (7 %). A WGS-based phylogenetic comparison of ST73 isolates from dogs, cats, and humans showed considerable overall phylogenetic diversity. Although most clusters were species-specific, some contained closely related human and animal (dog > cat) isolates. For dogs in Australia these findings both confirm ST372 as the predominant E. coli clonal lineage causing extraintestinal infections and clarify the importance of human-associated group B2 lineage ST73 as a cause of UTI, with some strains possibly being capable of bi-directional (i.e., dog-human and human-dog) transmission.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727082

RESUMEN

To date, the necessary pharmacokinetic information has been limited to establish suitable therapeutic plans for freshwater crocodiles. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of the oxytetracycline long-acting formulation (OTC-LA) in the freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus siamensis, following a single intramuscular (i.m.) administration at three different dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 216 h after i.m. administration at the three different dosages. The plasma concentrations of OTC were measured using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The Cmax (± SD) values of OTC were 2.15 ± 0.51 µg/mL, 7.68 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.08 ± 2.09 µg/mL at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The elimination half-life values were 33.59 ± 2.51 h, 38.42 ± 5.47 h and 38.04 ± 1.98 h at dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index, the susceptibility break-point and plasma protein binding, a dosage once every two weeks of 10 mg/kg b.w. OTC intramuscularly might be suitable for initiating the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in freshwater crocodiles. However, further PK/PD studies are warranted to confirm whether the dose rates used in this study can produce longer-term antimicrobial success for diseases caused by susceptible bacteria in freshwater crocodiles.

11.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 43(5): 499-507, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420646

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and pharmacodynamic profiles of four ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin and salinomycin) against staphylococcal isolates from clinical cases of human and veterinary staphylococcal infections, and to determine the effect of methicillin resistance on the antimicrobial activity of ionophores. Broth microdilution MIC testing was used to determine antimicrobial activity against 156 staphylococcal isolates of human and veterinary origin. Pharmacodynamic profiles were examined using time-kill kinetics profiles against an ATCC type strain of Staphylococcus aureus and a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. All tests were performed in accordance with CLSI guidelines. All four ionophores demonstrated antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci at concentrations similar to those observed for methicillin-susceptible isolates of the same species. Testing of human and veterinary MRSA isolates also showed that MIC values were not influenced by the host origin of the isolates. Pharmacodynamic profiles were similar for both isolates tested across all four ionophores, with similar reductions in viable cell counts being observed over an 18- to 24-hr period. Lasalocid, monensin, narasin and salinomycin all demonstrated antimicrobial activity against staphylococcal isolates of human and veterinary origins, with activity being unaffected by methicillin resistance status, although some Staphylococcus species-specific effects were observed that require further investigation.

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 245: 108685, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456818

RESUMEN

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) can cause urinary tract and other types of infection in cats, but the relationship of cat ExPEC to human ExPEC remains equivocal. This study investigated the prevalence of ExPEC-associated sequence types (STs) from phylogenetic group B2 among fluoroquinolone-susceptible cat clinical isolates. For this, 323 fluoroquinolone-susceptible cat clinical E. coli isolates from Australia underwent PCR-based phylotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to determine clonal relatedness. Of the 274 group B2 isolates, 53 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS), whereas 221 underwent PCR-based screening for (group B2) sequence type complexes (STc) STc12, STc73, ST131, and STc372. Group B2 was the dominant phylogenetic group (274/323, 85 %), whereas within group B2 ST73 dominated, according to both WGS (43 % of 53; followed by ST127, ST12, and ST372 [4/53, 8 % each]) and ST-specific PCR (20 % of 221). In WGS-based comparisons of cat and reference human ST73 isolates, cat isolates had a relatively conserved virulence gene profile but were phylogenetically diverse. Although in the phylogram most cat and human ST73 isolates occupied host species-specific clusters within serotype-specific clades (O2:H1, O6:H1, O25:H1, O50/O2:H1), cat and human isolates were intermingled within two serotype-specific clades: O120:H31 (3 cat and 2 human isolates) and O22:H1 (3 cat and 5 human isolates). These findings confirm the importance of human-associated group B2 lineages as a cause of urinary tract infections in cats. The close genetic relationship of some cat and human ST73 strains suggests bi-directional transmission may be possible.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 263, 2020 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937823

RESUMEN

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) displays features of both an endogenous and exogenous virus and is linked to neoplasia and immunosuppression in koalas. This study explores the apparent differences in the nature and impact of KoRV infection between geographically and genetically separated "northern" and "southern" koala populations, by investigating the disease status, completeness of the KoRV genome and the proviral (DNA) and viral (RNA) loads of 71 northern and 97 southern koalas. All northern animals were positive for all KoRV genes (gag, pro-pol and env) in both DNA and RNA forms, whereas many southern animals were missing one or more KoRV genes. There was a significant relationship between the completeness of the KoRV genome and clinical status in this population. The proviral and viral loads of the northern population were significantly higher than those of the southern population (P < 0.0001), and many provirus-positive southern animals failed to express any detectable KoRV RNA. Across both populations there was a positive association between proviral load and neoplasia (P = 0.009). Potential reasons for the differences in the nature of KoRV infection between the two populations are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Retroviridae/patología , Retroviridae/genética , Envejecimiento/genética , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , ADN/metabolismo , Femenino , Productos del Gen env/genética , Productos del Gen env/metabolismo , Productos del Gen gag/genética , Productos del Gen gag/metabolismo , Productos del Gen pol/genética , Productos del Gen pol/metabolismo , Masculino , Phascolarctidae , Provirus/genética , ARN Viral/sangre , Retroviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Retroviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Retroviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Retroviridae/virología , Carga Viral
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1043-1047, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673887

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma species cause wide ranges of infectious diseases in human and animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by a high-resolution melting curve assay (HRM) for rapid differentiation of Mycoplasma species isolated from clinical cases of bovine and porcine respiratory disease. Lung samples from suspected cases to respiratory infections from cows and pigs were cultured on specific media, and the extracted DNA were tested by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for Mycoplasma. A set of universal primers specific for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was designed and used for RT-PCR and HRM. The HRM analysis was able to differentiate between five different species of Mycoplasmas, namely, M. hyopneumoniae, M. bovis, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and other uncultured Mycoplasma. All results were confirmed based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This rapid and reliable assay was as a simple alternative to PCR and sequencing, differentiating bovine and porcine mycoplasmas in species level.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Cartilla de ADN , Femenino , Mycoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Enfermedades Respiratorias/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Respiratorias/microbiología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico
16.
Vet Dermatol ; 31(2): 138-145, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710159

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance represents a serious human and animal health risk. Good antimicrobial stewardship is essential to prolong the lifespan of existing antibiotics, and new strategies are required to combat infections in man and animals. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the in vitro interaction of ionophores (narasin or monensin) with antimicrobial adjuvants (N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Tris-EDTA or disodium EDTA) against bacterial strains representing pathogens associated with canine otitis externa (OE). ANIMAL/ISOLATES: American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains Staphylococcus aureus 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853 and P. aeruginosa biofilm producer PAO1, and a clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis from a case of canine OE were tested. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A 2D microdilution checkerboard method was used, allowing calculation of fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), dose reduction index (DRI) and plotting of isobolograms. RESULTS: The combination of narasin with either Tris-EDTA or disodium EDTA produced additive effects (FICI = 0.75) against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa biofilm producer ATCC PAO1. An additive effect (FICI = 0.53-0.75) was found against S. aureus ATCC 29213 when narasin or monensin were combined with NAC. The highest DRI (32-fold) was found with monensin/NAC where the MIC of monensin was reduced from 4 to 0.125 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The combination of narasin with Tris-EDTA or disodium EDTA is a promising strategy to inhibit the intrinsic resistance elements of Gram-negative bacteria. These novel combinations potentially could be useful as a multimodal approach to treat mixed infections in canine OE.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Farmacéuticos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Monensina/farmacología , Otitis Externa/veterinaria , Piranos/farmacología , Animales , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Perros , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ionóforos/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Otitis Externa/tratamiento farmacológico , Otitis Externa/microbiología , Proteus mirabilis/efectos de los fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224281, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644602

RESUMEN

The World Health Organisation has defined "highest priority critically important antimicrobials" (CIAs) as those requiring the greatest control during food production. Evidence demonstrating that restricted antimicrobial usage prevents the emergence of resistance to CIA's amongst pathogenic and commensal organisms on a production system-wide scale would strengthen international efforts to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Therefore, in a designed survey of all major chicken-meat producers in Australia, we investigated the phenotypic AMR of E. coli (n = 206) and Salmonella (n = 53) from caecal samples of chickens at slaughter (n = 200). A large proportion of E. coli isolates (63.1%) were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. With regards to CIA resistance, only two E.coli isolates demonstrated resistance to fluoroquinolones, attributed to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA. Antimicrobial resistance was observed for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (8.7%), streptomycin (9.7%), ampicillin (14.1%), tetracycline (19.4%) and cefoxitin (0.5%). All Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline. A low frequency of Salmonella isolates exhibited resistance to streptomycin (1.9%), ampicillin (3.8%), and cefoxitin (11.3%). AMR was only observed among Salmonella Sofia serovars. None of the Salmonella isolates exhibited a multi-class-resistant phenotype. Whole genome sequencing did not identify any known resistance mechanisms for the Salmonella isolates demonstrating resistance to cefoxitin. The results provide strong evidence that resistance to highest priority CIA's is absent in commensal E. coli and Salmonella isolated from Australian meat chickens, and demonstrates low levels of resistance to compounds with less critical ratings such as cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Apart from regulated exclusion of CIAs from most aspects of livestock production, vaccination against key bacterial pathogens and stringent biosecurity are likely to have contributed to the favorable AMR status of the Australian chicken meat industry. Nevertheless, industry and government need to proactively monitor AMR and antimicrobial stewardship practices to ensure the long-term protection of both animal and human health.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Carne/microbiología , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Australia , Pollos/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiología de Alimentos , Salmonella/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
18.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(6): 524-e159, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant pathogens present a major global challenge in antimicrobial therapy and frequently complicate otitis externa in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: In vitro efficacy of oregano oil, thyme oil and their main phenolic constituents against bacterial and fungal isolates associated with canine otitis externa were investigated. It was hypothesized that the main phenolic components would have greater antimicrobial activity compared to the relative essential oil. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using broth microdilution with spot-plating technique to determine minimum inhibitory and bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs and MFCs). A time-kill kinetics assay was performed to confirm the bactericidal and fungicidal activity of the oils and their phenolic constituents. One hundred bacterial and fungal isolates, including meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 10), meticillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (n = 10), ß-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. (n = 20), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 20; including 10 isolates resistant to one or two antimicrobials), Proteus mirabilis (n = 20) and Malassezia pachydermatis (n = 20) from dogs with otitis externa were used. RESULTS: Oregano oil, thyme oil, carvacrol and thymol exhibited antibacterial activity against all bacterial and fungal isolates tested. MIC90 values ranged from 0.015 to 0.03% (146-292 µg/mL) for the Gram-positive bacteria and P. mirabilis. For P. aeruginosa and M. pachydermatis, MIC90 values ranged from 0.09 to 0.25% (800-2,292 µg/mL). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Oregano oil, thyme oil, carvacrol and thymol showed good in vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity against 100 isolates from dogs with otitis externa, including some highly drug-resistant isolates. These essential oils and their main phenolic constituents have the potential to be further investigated in vivo for the treatment of canine otitis externa.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Otitis Externa/veterinaria , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Cimenos/farmacología , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Perros , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Origanum/química , Otitis Externa/microbiología , Timol/farmacología , Thymus (Planta)/química
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104782, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586718

RESUMEN

Reliable assessment of the susceptibility of animal bacterial pathogens to antimicrobials is of paramount importance in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. This work aims to estimate the repeatability (intra-laboratory agreement) and reproducibility (inter-laboratory agreement) of the disc diffusion assay in veterinary laboratories to understand further if the assay has a role in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in animals. Seven major veterinary laboratories from all States in Australia participated, and each tested the same panel of isolates five times at three to four-week intervals, against six antimicrobial agents using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. The panel consisted of twenty different isolates from porcine Escherichia coli from clinical cases and a single reference strain (ATCC 25922). Laboratories were blinded to the identity of the isolates, replicates, and to each other. In total, 4200 inhibition zone diameters (mm) were collected, and analysed descriptively, graphically, and with linear mixed models. Regardless of the laboratories and isolate/antimicrobial combinations, the overall very major error rate (proportion of isolates classified as susceptible when actual status is resistant) was 1.6%; the major error rate (proportion of isolates classified as resistant when actual status is susceptible) was 1.6%; and the 'minor error' rate (proportion of isolates with intermediate susceptibility that measure fully susceptible or resistant or vice versa) was 2.4%. The variation between repeated measurements ranged between 4.4-7.2 mm depending on the antimicrobial agent assessed. The reproducibility was always more variable than the repeatability, which suggested some laboratory effects. The repeatability coefficient of disc diffusion was lowest for tetracycline (4.4 mm, 95% CI: 3.8-5.0 mm) and ampicillin (4.6 mm, 95% CI: 4.2-5.2 mm) and highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (6.6 mm, 95% CI: 5.9-7.4 mm). The reproducibility coefficient of disc diffusion was lowest for gentamicin (5.4, 95% CI: 4.0-7.2) and highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.2 mm, 95%CI: 4.5-11.7 mm). The precision of the disc diffusion assay was deemed satisfactory for use in a national surveillance program for clinical porcine E. coli isolates. However, measurement variation of the disc diffusion assay is of concern for isolates with marginal susceptibility or resistance due to increased risk of misclassification.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco/veterinaria , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Sus scrofa/microbiología , Animales , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco/métodos , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222765, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553747

RESUMEN

An electrochemically activated solution (ECAS), generated by electrolysis of a dilute sodium chloride solution in a four-chamber electrolytic cell (Ecas4), was tested as a sanitising aerosol in eliminating bacteria from the environment of a weaning room vacated 24-48h earlier, at a continuous flow pig farm. An ultrasonic humidifier was used to fill the environment with a fog (droplets with diameters of 1-5 µm) containing 0.25 ppm of hypochlorous acid. The weaning room was fogged for 3 min at 30 min intervals during five hours of aerosol disinfection. An innovative sample treatment with propidium monoazide dye in conjunction with cyclonic air sampling was optimised and adapted for discerning live/dead bacteria in subsequent molecular quantification steps. Without fogging, total bacterial load ranged from 5.06 ± 0.04 to 5.75 ± 0.04 Log10 CFU/m3. After the first hour of fogging, a 78% total bacterial reduction was observed, which further increased to > 97% after the second hour, > 99.4% after the third and 99.8% after the fourth hour, finally resulting in a 99.99% reduction from the farm environment over five hours. Unlike the current formaldehyde spray disinfection protocol, which requires a long empty period because of its hazardous properties, this economically viable and environmentally friendly disinfection protocol may significantly lower downtime. Moreover, ECAS fogging can be easily adapted to a variety of applications, including the elimination of pathogens from livestock farm air environment for disease prevention, as well as decontamination after disease outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Descontaminación/métodos , Desinfectantes/administración & dosificación , Granjas , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Aerosoles , Microbiología del Aire , Animales , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Carga Bacteriana , Desinfectantes/química , Electrólisis , Fumigación/métodos , Humidificadores , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Ácido Hipocloroso/administración & dosificación , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Porcinos/microbiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA