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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647515

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of combination immunomodulatory therapy with systemic corticosteroids and tocilizumab (TCZ) for aged patients with COVID-19-associated cytokine release syndrome remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study including consecutive patients ≥65 years that developed severe COVID-19 between March 3 and May 1, 2020 and were treated with corticosteroids at various doses (methylprednisolone [0.5 mg/Kg/12 hours to 250 mg/24 hours]), either alone ("CS group") or associated to intravenous tocilizumab (400-600 mg, one to three doses) ("CS-TCZ group"). Primary outcome was all-cause mortality by day +14, whereas secondary outcomes included mortality by day +28 and clinical improvement (discharge and/or a ≥2-point decrease on a six-point ordinal scale) by day +14. Propensity score (PS)-based adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) were applied. RESULTS: Overall, 181 and 80 patients were included in the CS and CS-TCZ groups. All-cause 14-day mortality was lower in the CS-TCZ group, both in the PS-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17 - 0.68; P-value = 0.002) and IPTW-weighted models (odds ratio [OR]: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.68; P-value = 0.001). This protective effect was also observed for 28-day mortality (PS-adjusted HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.72; P-value = 0.003). Clinical improvement by day +14 was higher in the CS-TCZ group in the IPTW analysis only (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.49 - 3.41; P-value <0.001). The occurrence of secondary infection was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of corticosteroids and TCZ was associated with better outcomes among patients ≥65 years with severe COVID-19.

2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359150

RESUMEN

RATIONALE OBJECTIVE: A previous study that evaluated associations of kidney biopsy findings with disease progression in patients with C3 glomerulopathy proposed a prognostic Histologic Index (C3G-HI) that has not yet been validated. Our objective was to validate performance of the C3G-HI in a new patient population. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. SETTING PARTICIPANTS: 111 patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria of C3G between January 1995 and December 2019, from 33 nephrology departments belonging to the Spanish Group for the Study of Glomerular Diseases (GLOSEN). PREDICTORS: Demographic, clinical parameters, the C3G-HI Total Activity Score and the C3G-HI Total Chronicity Score. OUTCOME: Time to kidney failure. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Intraclass correlation coefficients and the kappa statistic were used to summarize inter-rater reproducibility for assessment of histopathology on kidney biopsies. The nonlinear relationships of risk of kidney failure with the Total Activity Score and the Total Chronicity Score were modeled using Cox proportional hazards analysis that incorporated cubic splines. RESULTS: The study group included 93 patients with C3 glomerulonephritis and 18 with dense-deposit disease. Participants had an overall mean age of 35±22 years. Forty-eight patients (43%) developed kidney failure after a mean follow-up of 65±27 months. The overall inter-rater reproducibility was very good for the Total Activity Score (ICC=0.63), and excellent for Total Chronicity Score (ICC=0.89). Baseline eGFR, 24-hour proteinuria and treatment with immunosuppression were the main determinants of kidney failure in a model with only clinical variables., Only tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were identified as predictors in a model with histological variables. When the Total Activity Score and Total Chronicity Score were added to the model, only the latter was identified as an independent predictor of kidney failure. LIMITATIONS: Only a subset of the kidney biopsies was centrally reviewed. Residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: We validated the performance of C3G-HI as a predictor of kidney failure in patients with C3G. The total chronicity score was the principal histologic correlate of kidney failure.

3.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13501, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185971

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might increase the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Although several case reports and small series have been reported in the general population, scarce information is available regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated IPA in the setting of solid organ transplantation. We describe a case of a kidney transplant recipient with severe COVID-19 that was subsequently diagnosed with probable IPA on the basis of the repeated isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus in sputum cultures, repeatedly increased serum (1 â†’ 3)-ß-d-glucan levels, and enlarging cavitary nodules in the CT scan. The evolution was favorable after initiation of isavuconazole and nebulized liposomal amphotericin B combination therapy and the withdrawal of immunosuppression.

4.
Nephron ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147587

RESUMEN

Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most common manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), affecting approximately 40% of patients with lupus. It represents a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, and 10% of patients with LN will develop end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Therefore, there are a number of areas for improvement in the field of LN such as the search for new clinical biomarkers with a more accurate correlation with lupus activity and the redefinition of the histological classification into different subgroups in order to guide a personalized treatment. Although the role of protocol repeat kidney biopsies in LN is controversial, recent publications suggest that repeat histological assessment can be useful in guiding therapeutic decisions that may yield toward precision medicine. In the last decade, LN therapy has remained largely unchanged, with a probability of achieving complete or partial remission not exceeding 60-70%. Thus, optimization of old treatment strategies and search for new agents are urgently needed in order to improve outcomes such as mortality or development of ESKD. Future trials should focus in addressing unanswered issues such as the appropriate dose and duration of immunosuppressive treatment, timing of steroid withdrawal, and drug toxicity. In addition, data are still lacking regarding pregnancy and kidney transplantation in LN and knowledge about these important areas is essential for the management of a subset of patients with SLE. In summary, several major gaps are still present in the therapeutic approach and follow-up of patients with LN. The development of new clinical trial designs will be crucial in the search to improve long-term outcomes.

5.
Lupus ; : 961203320965703, 2020 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081588

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies with protocol biopsies have shown a mismatch between clinical and histological remission in lupus nephritis (LN). We aimed to evaluate histological changes in repeat kidney biopsies by clinical indication in patients with LN. METHODS: We analyzed 107 patients with LN in which a kidney biopsy was performed between 2008 and 2018. Of those, we included 26 (24.2%) who had ≥2 kidney biopsies. Classification was done according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society. RESULTS: Mean time between biopsies was 71.5 ± 10.7 months. 73.1% of patients presented a change of class at repeat biopsy; 38.4% to a higher class and 34.6% to a lower class. A significant increase in glomerulosclerosis (% GS) (3.8% vs 18.7%, p = 0.006), interstitial fibrosis (3.8% vs 26.9%, p = 0.021), tubular atrophy (15.4% vs 57.7%, p = 0.001) and chronicity index (CI) (1 vs 3, p < 0.001) was observed at repeat biopsy. Subjects who developed chronic kidney disease progression had a lower rate of complete remission at 12 months (0% vs 37.5%, p = 0.02), higher % GS at first biopsy (7.9% vs 1.2%, p = 0.02) and higher CI (4 vs 2, p = 0.006), tubular atrophy (90% vs 37.6%, p = 0.008), interstitial fibrosis (50% vs 12.5%, p = 0.036) and vascular lesions (60% vs 18.8%, p = 0.031) at second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Our major finding was that patients with LN showed a significant increase in % GS, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and vascular lesions in repeat biopsies performed by clinical indication. This suggest that a second kidney biopsy may provide valuable and useful information regarding kidney disease progression.

6.
Clin Transplant ; 34(11): e14072, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862472

RESUMEN

A potential benefit of immunomodulatory agents such as tocilizumab (TCZ) has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe pulmonary involvement. However, this therapy has been scarcely studied in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Herein, we describe the clinical course and outcome of 10 KT patients with severe COVID-19 that were treated with TCZ. Mean age of the study group was 54 ± 10 years (70% females), and 30% of the cases were within 6 months from transplant. Mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued in all cases upon admission, whereas baseline steroids were maintained and tacrolimus dose was reduced. Initial treatment included hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, and prophylactic anticoagulation. Before treatment with TCZ, 3 patients were receiving high-flow oxygen, 4 patients low-flow oxygen and 1 case non-invasive ventilation. All patients received a single dose of intravenous TCZ within a mean time of 7 ± 4 days since admission. During a median follow-up of 16 days (IQR: 10-29), 7 patients (70%) gradually improved and were finally discharged while three cases (30%) did not exhibited clinical improvement and ultimately died. In conclusion, although treatment with TCZ could be associated with improved clinical outcomes in a subset of KT recipients with COVID-19, further studies are warranted before drawing firm conclusions.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672860

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to a massive cytokine release. The use of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been proposed in this hyperinflammatory phase, although supporting evidence is limited. We retrospectively analyzed 88 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia that received at least one dose of intravenous TCZ in our institution between 16 and 27 March 2020. Clinical status from day 0 (first TCZ dose) through day 14 was assessed by a 6-point ordinal scale. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (hospital discharge and/or a decrease of ≥2 points on the 6-point scale) by day 7. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement by day 14 and dynamics of vital signs and laboratory values. Rates of clinical improvement by days 7 and 14 were 44.3% (39/88) and 73.9% (65/88). Previous or concomitant receipt of subcutaneous interferon-ß (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.94; P = .041) and serum lactate dehydrogenase more than 450 U/L at day 0 (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06-0.99; P = .048) were negatively associated with clinical improvement by day 7. All-cause mortality was 6.8% (6/88). Body temperature and respiratory and cardiac rates significantly decreased by day 1 compared to day 0. Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2. There were no TCZ-attributable adverse events. In this observational single-center study, TCZ appeared to be useful and safe as immunomodulatory therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

9.
Nephron ; 144(6): 261-271, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229730

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, great advances have been made in the field of membranous nephropathy (MN). The autoimmune nature of the disease has been confirmed with the description of diverse antigens, and few but very important prospective trials regarding treatment alternatives have been published, changing profoundly the way we understand this entity. Nowadays, an individualized therapeutic scheme based on clinical and serologic data appears to be the most appropriate method to manage patients with MN. Although there is still a long way to go, it is expected that future scientific progress will enable a patient-centered medicine based on concept-driven therapies. SUMMARY: MN is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in white adults. Approximately one-third of patients achieve spontaneous remission, one-third remain stable, and one-third have an aggressive course with persistent NS and deterioration of renal function. About 80% of patients have circulating autoantibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor 1. Numerous therapies have been described including alkylating agents, rituximab, and calcineurin inhibitors, but new drugs are currently being explored. Here, we review the most important aspects regarding MN with an emphasis on results of the most recent clinical trials and pathophysiologic advances. Key Messages: 1. Evolving pathophysiologic concepts and recently published clinical trials have deeply changed our view of MN. 2. Most patients with MN present autoantibodies against diverse glomerular antigens. 3. Currently, an individual patient-centered management based on clinical and serologic markers is the most adequate approach to treat patients with MN.

10.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(4): 687-696, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049336

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Advances in life expectancy have led to an increase in the number of elderly people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Scarce information is available on the outcomes of kidney transplantation (KT) in extremely elderly patients based on an allocation policy prioritizing donor-recipient age matching. METHODS: We included recipients ≥75 years that underwent KT from similarly aged deceased donors at our institution between 2002 and 2015. Determinants of death-censored graft and patient survival were assessed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We included 138 recipients with a median follow-up of 38.8 months. Median (interquartile range) age of recipients and donors was 77.5 (76.3-79.7) and 77.0 years (74.7-79.0), with 22.5% of donors ≥80 years. Primary graft non-function occurred in 8.0% (11/138) of patients. Cumulative incidence rates for post-transplant infection and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) were 70.3% (97/138) and 15.2% (21/138), respectively. One- and 5-year patient survival were 82.1 and 60.1%, respectively, whereas the corresponding rates for death-censored graft survival were 95.6 and 93.1%. Infection was the leading cause of death (46.0% of fatal cases). The occurrence of BPAR was associated with lower 1-year patient survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64-10.82; P = 0.003]. Diabetic nephropathy was the only factor predicting 5-year death-censored graft survival (HR = 4.82, 95% CI 1.08-21.56; P = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: ESRD patients ≥75 years can access KT and remain dialysis free for their remaining lifespan by using grafts from extremely aged deceased donors, yielding encouraging results in terms of recipient and graft survival.


Asunto(s)
Rechazo de Injerto/etiología , Supervivencia de Injerto , Fallo Renal Crónico/cirugía , Trasplante de Riñón/efectos adversos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Donantes de Tejidos/provisión & distribución , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Rechazo de Injerto/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(4): 667-673, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820840

RESUMEN

The role of viral load in the outcome of patients requiring hospital admission due to influenza is not well established. We aim to assess if there is an association between the viral load and the outcome in hospitalized patients with a confirmed influenza virus infection. A retrospective observational study including all adult patients who were hospitalized in our center with a confirmed influenza virus infection from January to May 2016. Viral load was measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) value on upper respiratory tract samples. Its value was categorized into three groups (low Ct, ≤ 20; intermediate Ct, > 20-30; and high Ct, > 30). Two hundred thirty-nine patients were included. Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 was isolated in 207 cases (86.6%). The mean Ct value was 26.69 ± 5.81. The viral load was higher in the unvaccinated group when compared with the vaccinated patients (Ct 25.17 ± 5.55 vs. 27.58 ± 4.97, p = 0.004). Only 27 patients (11.29%) presented a high viral load. Patients with a high viral load more often showed abnormal findings on chest X-ray (p = 0.015) and lymphopenia (p = 0.097). By contrast, there were no differences between the three groups (according to viral load), in associated pneumonia, respiratory failure, need for mechanical ventilation, sepsis, or in-hospital mortality. Our findings suggest that in patients admitted to the hospital with confirmed influenza virus infection (mostly A/H1N1pdm09), a high viral load is associated with a higher presence of abnormal findings on chest X-ray but not with a significant worse prognosis. In these cases, standardized quantitative PCR could be useful.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/complicaciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Pronóstico , Radiografía , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagen , Tórax/virología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
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