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Ultramicroscopy ; 176: 31-36, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012570


Functionalisation of two-dimensional (2-D) materials via low energy ion implantation could open possibilities for fabrication of devices based on such materials. Nanoscale patterning and/or electronically doping can thus be achieved, compatible with large scale integrated semiconductor technologies. Using atomic resolution High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy supported by image simulation, we show that sites and chemical nature of individual implants/ dopants in graphene, as well as impurities in hBN, can uniquely and directly be identified on grounds of their position and their image intensity in accordance with predictions from Z-contrast theories. Dopants in graphene (e.g., N) are predominantly substitutional. In other 2-Ds, e.g. dichalcogenides, the situation is more complicated since implants can be embedded in different layers and substitute for different elements. Possible configurations of Se-implants in MoS2 are discussed and image contrast calculations performed. Implants substituting for S in the top or bottom layer can undoubtedly be identified. We show, for the first time, using HAADF contrast measurement that successful Se-integration into MoS2 can be achieved via ion implantation, and we demonstrate the possibility of HAADF image contrast measurements for identifying impurities and dopants introduced into in 2-Ds.

Science ; 353(6299): 575-9, 2016 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493182


Chirality is a fundamental property of electrons with the relativistic spectrum found in graphene and topological insulators. It plays a crucial role in relativistic phenomena, such as Klein tunneling, but it is difficult to visualize directly. Here, we report the direct observation and manipulation of chirality and pseudospin polarization in the tunneling of electrons between two almost perfectly aligned graphene crystals. We use a strong in-plane magnetic field as a tool to resolve the contributions of the chiral electronic states that have a phase difference between the two components of their vector wave function. Our experiments not only shed light on chirality, but also demonstrate a technique for preparing graphene's Dirac electrons in a particular quantum chiral state in a selected valley.

Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(10): 808-13, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25194946


Recent developments in the technology of van der Waals heterostructures made from two-dimensional atomic crystals have already led to the observation of new physical phenomena, such as the metal-insulator transition and Coulomb drag, and to the realization of functional devices, such as tunnel diodes, tunnel transistors and photovoltaic sensors. An unprecedented degree of control of the electronic properties is available not only by means of the selection of materials in the stack, but also through the additional fine-tuning achievable by adjusting the built-in strain and relative orientation of the component layers. Here we demonstrate how careful alignment of the crystallographic orientation of two graphene electrodes separated by a layer of hexagonal boron nitride in a transistor device can achieve resonant tunnelling with conservation of electron energy, momentum and, potentially, chirality. We show how the resonance peak and negative differential conductance in the device characteristics induce a tunable radiofrequency oscillatory current that has potential for future high-frequency technology.

Nano Lett ; 14(6): 3270-6, 2014 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24844319


Hexagonal boron nitride is the only substrate that has so far allowed graphene devices exhibiting micrometer-scale ballistic transport. Can other atomically flat crystals be used as substrates for making quality graphene heterostructures? Here we report on our search for alternative substrates. The devices fabricated by encapsulating graphene with molybdenum or tungsten disulfides and hBN are found to exhibit consistently high carrier mobilities of about 60 000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). In contrast, encapsulation with atomically flat layered oxides such as mica, bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, and vanadium pentoxide results in exceptionally low quality of graphene devices with mobilities of ∼1000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We attribute the difference mainly to self-cleansing that takes place at interfaces between graphene, hBN, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Surface contamination assembles into large pockets allowing the rest of the interface to become atomically clean. The cleansing process does not occur for graphene on atomically flat oxide substrates.

J Chem Phys ; 125(17): 174713, 2006 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17100467


In this work, the spectroscopic properties of surface functionalized nanodiamond particles are investigated via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalization of the nanodiamond surface was achieved chemically using strong acid treatment method. The size dependent C=O stretching frequency (between 1680 and 1820 cm(-1)) are studied for particle diameter sizes from the 5 to 500 nm range. The surface C=O stretching frequencies at approximately 1820 cm(-1), for large particle size (500 nm), down shifted to 1725 cm(-1) (5 nm) with decreasing particle sizes. We attributed the shift as a result of hydrogen bond formation between the COOH groups in the carboxylated nanodiamond surfaces. Particle size was characterized with dynamic light scattering method and surface morphology of the particles was investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The influence of pH value on C=O stretching frequency is also analyzed. This finding affords useful information for the studying of surface functionalized nanodiamonds with implications for their interaction with biomolecules.

Monóxido de Carbono/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Tamaño de la Partícula , Dispersión de Radiación , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier