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1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 133: 61-71, 2020 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321175

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to develop an inventory summarizing all anchor-based minimal important difference (MID) estimates for patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) available in the medical literature. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database internal library (January 1989-October 2018). We included primary studies empirically calculating an anchor-based MID estimate for any PROM in adults and adolescents. Pairs of reviewers independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and evaluated the credibility of the MIDs. RESULTS: We identified 585 eligible studies, the majority conducted in Europe (n = 211) and North America (n = 179), reporting 5,324 MID estimates for 526 distinct PROMs. Investigators conducted their studies in the context of patients receiving surgical (n = 105, 18%), pharmacological (n = 85, 15%), rehabilitation (n = 65, 11%), or a combination of interventions (n = 194, 33%). Of all MID estimates, 59% (n = 3,131) used a global rating of change anchor. Major credibility limitations included weak correlation (n = 1,246, 23%) or no information regarding the correlation (n = 3,498, 66%) between the PROM and anchor and imprecision in the MID estimate (n = 2,513, 47%). CONCLUSION: A large number of MIDs for assisting in the interpretation of PROMs exist. The MID inventory will facilitate the use of MID estimates to inform the interpretation of the magnitude of treatment effects in clinical research and guideline development.

2.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250170

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zirconia is a relatively new dental material used for indirect dental restorations. Little is known about how dental practitioners are using this material in their practice. METHODS: A survey on zirconia restorations was developed and administered electronically through e-mail communications to the American Dental Association Clinical Evaluators (ACE) Panel on August 31, 2020. Reminders were sent to nonrespondents, and the survey closed 2 weeks after the launch date. RESULTS: When using zirconia for a restoration, respondents choose it to restore natural teeth (99%) more often than implants (76%). Almost all respondents (98%) use it for posterior crowns, whereas approximately two-thirds (61%) use it for anterior crowns. Restoration removal or replacement and shade matching and translucency were the top 2 cited disadvantages of zirconia, whereas most of the respondents (57%) cited flexural strength or fracture resistance as the biggest advantage. Fine diamonds and ceramic polishers are used most often to polish and adjust zirconia restorations, whereas coarse diamond rotary instruments and those made specifically for zirconia are most frequently used for removing these restorations. Compared with metal ceramic restorations, more than 50% of respondents experience debonding more often with zirconia restorations. CONCLUSIONS: Dentists recognize the favorable fracture resistance and flexural strength properties of zirconia, and most use similar techniques when adjusting and removing this material. Removing these restorations and shade matching are a struggle for many. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dentists may benefit from tips on the best methods to remove, shade match, and adhesively bond zirconia restorations.

3.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(10): 796-797.e2, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979959

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bonding crowns and bridges with resin cement can improve retention and reinforcement of the restoration. However, there is variation in the steps taken by different practitioners to achieve this goal. METHODS: The authors developed a survey on bonding dental crowns and bridges with resin cement and distributed it electronically to the American Dental Association Clinical Evaluators (ACE) Panel on May 22, 2020. The survey remained open for 2 weeks. Descriptive data analysis was conducted using SAS Version 9.4. RESULTS: A total of 326 panelists responded to the survey, and 86% of respondents who place crowns or bridges use resin cements for bonding. When placing a lithium disilicate restoration, an almost equal proportion of respondents etch it with hydrofluoric acid in their office or asked the laboratory to do it for them, and more than two-thirds use a silane primer before bonding. For zirconia restorations, 70% reported their restorations are sandblasted in the laboratory, and 39% use a primer containing 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate. One-half of respondents clean their lithium disilicate or zirconia restorations with a cleaning solution. Resin cements used with a primer in the etch-and-rinse mode are the most widely used. The technique used to cure and clean excess resin cement varies among respondents. CONCLUSIONS: The types of resin cements used, tooth preparation, crown or bridge preparation, and bonding technique vary among this sample. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although many dentists bond crowns and bridges on the basis of best practices, improvement in the process may be achieved by dentists communicating with their laboratory to confirm the steps performed there, ensuring an effective cleaning technique is used after try-in and verifying that the correct primer is used with their chosen restorative material.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Cementos de Resina , American Dental Association , Coronas , Cementos Dentales , Materiales Dentales , Porcelana Dental , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
4.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(7): 544-545.e2, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ability to polymerize light-activated dental materials with dental light-curing units (DLCUs) has revolutionized dentistry. However, proper DLCU use is essential for ensuring the effectiveness and performance of these materials. METHODS: The authors developed an electronic cross-sectional survey in the American Dental Association Qualtrics Research Core platform. The survey included questions about DLCU use, unit type and selection, training, maintenance, technique, and safety measures. The authors deployed the survey to 809 American Dental Association Clinical Evaluators (ACE) panelists on October 9, 2019, and sent reminder links to nonrespondents 1 week later. They conducted exploratory and descriptive analyses using SAS software Version 9.4. RESULTS: Of the 353 ACE panelists who completed the survey, most used a DLCU in their practices (99%), and light-emitting diode multiwave units were the most common type of DLCU units (55%). Dentists use DLCUs for over one-half of their appointments each day (mean [standard deviation], 59% [22%]). Regarding technique, respondents reported that they modify their curing technique on the basis of material thickness (79%) and material type or light tip-to-target distances (59%). Maintenance practices varied, with two-thirds of respondents reporting that they periodically check their DLCUs' light output. CONCLUSIONS: DLCUs are an integral part of a general dentist's daily practice, but maintenance, ocular safety, and technique varied widely among this sample. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Because clinical effectiveness requires delivery of an adequate amount of light energy at the appropriate wavelength, variation in DLCU maintenance, safety, and techniques suggest that dentists could benefit from additional guidance and training on DLCU operation.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Compuestas , Luces de Curación Dental , American Dental Association , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
5.
BMJ ; 369: m1714, 2020 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499297

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop an instrument to evaluate the credibility of anchor based minimal important differences (MIDs) for outcome measures reported by patients, and to assess the reliability of the instrument. DESIGN: Instrument development and reliability study. DATA SOURCES: Initial criteria were developed for evaluating the credibility of anchor based MIDs based on a literature review (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases) and the experience of the authors in the methodology for estimation of MIDs. Iterative discussions by the team and pilot testing with experts and potential users facilitated the development of the final instrument. PARTICIPANTS: With the newly developed instrument, pairs of masters, doctoral, or postdoctoral students with a background in health research methodology independently evaluated the credibility of a sample of MID estimates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Core credibility criteria applicable to all anchor types, additional criteria for transition rating anchors, and inter-rater reliability coefficients were determined. RESULTS: The credibility instrument has five core criteria: the anchor is rated by the patient; the anchor is interpretable and relevant to the patient; the MID estimate is precise; the correlation between the anchor and the outcome measure reported by the patient is satisfactory; and the authors select a threshold on the anchor that reflects a small but important difference. The additional criteria for transition rating anchors are: the time elapsed between baseline and follow-up measurement for estimation of the MID is optimal; and the correlations of the transition rating with the baseline, follow-up, and change score in the patient reported outcome measures are satisfactory. Inter-rater reliability coefficients (ĸ) for the core criteria and for one item from the additional criteria ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Reporting issues prevented the evaluation of the reliability of the three other additional criteria for the transition rating anchors. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers, clinicians, and healthcare policy decision makers can consider using this instrument to evaluate the design, conduct, and analysis of studies estimating anchor based minimal important differences.


Asunto(s)
Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(4): 303-304.e2, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222178

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted oncovirus associated with several malignancies, including oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The 9-valent HPV vaccine can help protect against the high-risk HPV strains most commonly associated with HPV-related cancers. METHODS: The authors used an electronic survey to assess the roles of dentists and their team members in discussing the HPV vaccine, as well as administering the vaccine in a dental setting. On December 6, 2019, the authors e-mailed a survey link to the American Dental Association Clinical Evaluators (ACE) Panel (n = 813), a sample of American Dental Association member dentists. After 1 e-mail reminder, the survey closed on December 19, 2019, and the authors conducted exploratory and descriptive data analyses using SAS Version 9.4 (SAS). RESULTS: A total of 329 dentists responded to the survey, and 83 (25%) of them reported that they or their team members discuss the implications of the HPV vaccine with age-eligible patients or their parents or guardians. Dentists lead two-thirds (n = 218) of the discussions, and the clinical examination is the most frequent moment during the patient visit in which HPV-related topics are discussed. Some of the top reasons respondents mentioned for not discussing the vaccine in their practice were the perception that these discussions are best left to other health care professionals and not knowing how to address the topic with patients. If the scope of dental practice is expanded to include administering the vaccine, 125 (38%) of respondents would feel uncomfortable administering the vaccine. The most common potential barriers to administering the vaccine in a dental setting include obtaining reimbursement and vaccine management and preservation. CONCLUSIONS: The survey results suggest that dentists' comfort levels and perceived roles in discussing and administering the HPV vaccine vary. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is a need to further define the role of dentists and their team members in the promotion and administration of the HPV vaccine. Resources for dentists and dental team members may be helpful to support professional education and communication about the HPV vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , American Dental Association , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
7.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(11): 906-921.e12, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668170

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An expert panel convened by the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs and the Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated clinical recommendations for the urgent management of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis with or without symptomatic apical periodontitis, pulp necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis, or pulp necrosis and localized acute apical abscess using antibiotics, either alone or as adjuncts to definitive, conservative dental treatment (DCDT) in immunocompetent adults. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors conducted a search of the literature in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature to retrieve evidence on benefits and harms associated with antibiotic use. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to assess the certainty in the evidence and the Evidence-to-Decision framework. RESULTS: The panel formulated 5 clinical recommendations and 2 good practice statements, each specific to the target conditions, for settings in which DCDT is and is not immediately available. With likely negligible benefits and potentially large harms, the panel recommended against using antibiotics in most clinical scenarios, irrespective of DCDT availability. They recommended antibiotics in patients with systemic involvement (for example, malaise or fever) due to the dental conditions or when the risk of experiencing progression to systemic involvement is high. CONCLUSION AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Evidence suggests that antibiotics for the target conditions may provide negligible benefits and probably contribute to large harms. The expert panel suggests that antibiotics for target conditions be used only when systemic involvement is present and that immediate DCDT should be prioritized in all cases.


Asunto(s)
American Dental Association , Absceso Periapical , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Odontología Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Odontalgia
9.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(12): e179-e216, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761029

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with pulpal and periapical conditions often seek treatment for pain, intraoral swelling, or both. Even when definitive, conservative dental treatment (DCDT) is an option, antibiotics are often prescribed. The purpose of this review was to summarize available evidence regarding the effect of antibiotics, either alone or as adjuncts to DCDT, to treat immunocompetent adults with pulpal and periapical conditions, as well as additional population-level harms associated with antibiotic use. TYPE OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors updated 2 preexisting systematic reviews to identify newly published randomized controlled trials. They also searched for systematic reviews to inform additional harm outcomes. They conducted searches in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Pairs of reviewers independently conducted study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias and certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: The authors found no new trials via the update of the preexisting reviews. Ultimately, 3 trials and 8 additional reports proved eligible for this review. Trial estimates for all outcomes suggested both a benefit and harm over 7 days (very low to low certainty evidence). The magnitude of additional harms related to antibiotic use for any condition were potentially large (very low to moderate certainty evidence). CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Evidence for antibiotics, either alone or as adjuncts to DCDT, showed both a benefit and a harm for outcomes of pain and intraoral swelling and a large potential magnitude of effect in regard to additional harm outcomes. The impact of dental antibiotic prescribing requires further research.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Periodontitis Periapical , Pulpitis , Absceso , Adulto , American Dental Association , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estados Unidos
10.
Transl Behav Med ; 9(4): 819-822, 2019 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007335

RESUMEN

In response to the increasing incidence of certain oral and oropharyngeal cancers, the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) calls on healthcare providers and legislators to expand awareness of oral and oropharyngeal cancer risk factors, increase early detection, and support policies that increase utilization of dental services. SBM supports the American Dental Association's 2017 guideline for evaluating potentially malignant oral cavity disorders and makes the following recommendations to healthcare providers and legislators. We encourage healthcare providers and healthcare systems to treat oral exams as a routine part of patient examination; communicate to patients about oral/oropharyngeal cancers and risk factors; encourage HPV vaccination for appropriate patients based on recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; support avoidance of tobacco use and reduction of alcohol consumption; and follow the current recommendations for evaluating potentially malignant oral cavity lesions. Because greater evidence is needed to inform practice guidelines in the primary care setting, we call for more research in collaborative health and dental services. We encourage legislators to support policies that expand Medicaid to cover adult dental services, increase Medicaid reimbursement for dental services, and require dental care under any modification of, or replacement of, the Affordable Care Act.


Asunto(s)
Medicina de la Conducta/organización & administración , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Neoplasias de la Boca/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Adulto , American Dental Association/organización & administración , Concienciación , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Servicio Odontológico Hospitalario/métodos , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Medicaid/economía , Medicaid/legislación & jurisprudencia , Neoplasias de la Boca/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Boca/prevención & control , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislación & jurisprudencia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Primaria de Salud/normas , Factores de Riesgo , Sociedades , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 149(10): 837-849.e19, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An expert panel convened by the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs and the Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated evidence-based clinical recommendations for the arrest or reversal of noncavitated and cavitated dental caries using nonrestorative treatments in children and adults. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors conducted a systematic search of the literature in MEDLINE and Embase via Ovid, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews to identify randomized controlled trials reporting on nonrestorative treatments for noncavitated and cavitated carious lesions. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to assess the certainty in the evidence and move from the evidence to the decisions. RESULTS: The expert panel formulated 11 clinical recommendations, each specific to lesion type, tooth surface, and dentition. Of the most effective interventions, the panel provided recommendations for the use of 38% silver diamine fluoride, sealants, 5% sodium fluoride varnish, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, and 5,000 parts per million fluoride (1.1% sodium fluoride) toothpaste or gel, among others. The panel also provided a recommendation against the use of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although the recommended interventions are often used for caries prevention, or in conjunction with restorative treatment options, these approaches have shown to be effective in arresting or reversing carious lesions. Clinicians are encouraged to prioritize use of these interventions based on effectiveness, safety, and feasibility.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Adulto , American Dental Association , Niño , Odontología Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Selladores de Fosas y Fisuras , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Diente Primario , Estados Unidos
13.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 148(11): 797-813.e52, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080605

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common manifestation of malignancy in the oral cavity. Adjuncts are available for clinicians to evaluate lesions that seem potentially malignant. In this systematic review, the authors summarized the available evidence on patient-important outcomes, diagnostic test accuracy (DTA), and patients' values and preferences (PVPs) when using adjuncts for the evaluation of clinically evident lesions in the oral cavity. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors searched for preexisting systematic reviews and assessed their quality using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews tool. The authors updated the selected reviews and searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify randomized controlled trials and DTA and PVPs studies. Pairs of reviewers independently conducted study selection, data extraction, and assessment of the certainty in the evidence by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: The authors identified 4 existing reviews. DTA reviews included 37 studies. The authors retrieved 7,534 records, of which 9 DTA and 10 PVPs studies were eligible. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of adjuncts ranged from 0.39 to 0.96 for the evaluation of innocuous lesions and from 0.31 to 0.95 for the evaluation of suspicious lesions. Cytologic testing used in suspicious lesions appears to have the highest accuracy among adjuncts (sensitivity, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 0.98; specificity, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 0.99; low-quality evidence). CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Cytologic testing appears to be the most accurate adjunct among those included in this review. The main concerns are the high rate of false-positive results and serious issues of risk of bias and indirectness of the evidence. Clinicians should remain skeptical about the potential benefit of any adjunct in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Boca/diagnóstico , American Dental Association , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Boca/patología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estados Unidos
14.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 148(10): 712-727.e10, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958308

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An expert panel convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs and the Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated clinical recommendations to inform primary care clinicians about the potential use of adjuncts as triage tools for the evaluation of lesions, including potentially malignant disorders (PMDs), in the oral cavity. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: This is an update of the ADA's 2010 recommendations on the early diagnosis of PMDs and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The authors conducted a systematic search of the literature in MEDLINE and Embase via Ovid and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify randomized controlled trials and diagnostic test accuracy studies. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to assess the certainty in the evidence and to move from the evidence to the decisions. RESULTS: The panel formulated 1 good practice statement and 6 clinical recommendations that concluded that no available adjuncts demonstrated sufficient diagnostic test accuracy to support their routine use as triage tools during the evaluation of lesions in the oral cavity. For patients seeking care for suspicious lesions, immediate performance of a biopsy or referral to a specialist remains the single most important recommendation for clinical practice. In exceptional cases, when patients decline a biopsy or live in rural areas with limited access to care, the panel suggested that cytologic testing may be used to initiate the diagnostic process until a biopsy can be performed (conditional recommendation, low-quality evidence). CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors urge clinicians to remain alert and take diligent action when they identify a PMD. The authors emphasize the need for counseling because patients may delay diagnosis because of anxiety and denial.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Boca/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Odontología Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Boca/patología , Neoplasias de la Boca/patología
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