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Epidemiol Infect ; 146(11): 1452-1460, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961436


Since April 2014 all presumptive Salmonella isolates received by Public Health England (PHE) have been characterised using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and the genomic data generated used to identify clusters of infection. To inform the implementation and development of a national gastrointestinal infection surveillance system based on WGS we have retrospectively identified genetically related clusters of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium infection over a one year period and determined the distribution of these clusters by PHE operational levels. Using a constrained WGS cluster definition based on single nucleotide polymorphism distance, case frequency and temporal spread we demonstrate that the majority of clusters spread to multiple PHE operational levels. The greatest investigative burden is on national level staff investigating small, geographically dispersed clusters. We also demonstrate that WGS identifies long-running, slowly developing clusters that may previously have remained undetected. This analysis also indicates likely increased workload for local health protection teams and will require an operational strategy to balance limited human resources with the public health importance of investigating small, geographically contained clusters of highly related cases. While there are operational challenges to its implementation, integrated cluster detection based on WGS from local to international level will provide further improvements in the identification of, response to and control of clusters of Salmonella spp. with public health significance.

Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enteritidis/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella typhimurium/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Análisis por Conglomerados , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Humanos , Análisis Multivariante , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Regresión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
Euro Surveill ; 22(19)2017 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537550


Invasive group A streptococcal infection has a 15% case fatality rate and a risk of secondary transmission. This retrospective study used two national data sources from England; enhanced surveillance (2009) and a case management system (2011-2013) to identify clusters of severe group A streptococcal disease. Twenty-four household pairs were identified. The median onset interval between cases was 2 days (range 0-28) with simultaneous onset in eight pairs. The attack rate during the 30 days after first exposure to a primary case was 4,520 per 100,000 person-years at risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 2,900-6,730) a 1,940 (95% CI: 1,240-2,880) fold elevation over the background incidence. The theoretical number needed to treat to prevent one secondary case using antibiotic prophylaxis was 271 overall (95% CI: 194-454), 50 for mother-neonate pairs (95% CI: 27-393) and 82 for couples aged 75 years and over (95% CI: 46-417). While a dramatically increased risk of infection was noted in all household contacts, increased risk was greatest for mother-neonate pairs and couples aged 75 and over, suggesting targeted prophylaxis could be considered. Offering prophylaxis is challenging due to the short time interval between cases emphasising the importance of immediate notification and assessment of contacts.

Profilaxis Antibiótica/métodos , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/prevención & control , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/transmisión , Streptococcus pyogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus pyogenes/fisiología , Virulencia
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 17: 35-42, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456684


BACKGROUND: We describe trends of malaria in London (2000-2014) in order to identify preventive opportunities and we estimated the cost of malaria admissions (2009/2010-2014/2015). METHODS: We identified all cases of malaria, resident in London, reported to the reference laboratory and obtained hospital admissions from Hospital Episode Statistics. RESULTS: The rate of malaria decreased (19.4[2001]-9.1[2014] per 100,000). Males were over-represented (62%). Cases in older age groups increased overtime. The rate was highest amongst people of Black African ethnicity followed by Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi ethnicities combined (103.3 and 5.5 per 100,000, respectively). The primary reason for travel was visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in their country of origin (69%), mostly sub-Saharan Africa (92%). The proportion of cases in VFRs increased (32%[2000]-50%[2014]) and those taking chemoprophylaxis decreased (36%[2000]-14%[2014]). The overall case fatality rate was 0.3%. We estimated the average healthcare cost of malaria admissions to be just over £1 million per year. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted that people of Black African ethnicity, travelling to sub-Saharan Africa to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin remain the most affected with also a decline in chemoprophylaxis use. Malaria awareness should focus on this group in order to have the biggest impact but may require new approaches.

Malaria , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Quimioprevención/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Londres/epidemiología , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/economía , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
J Infect Dis ; 201 Suppl 1: S73-7, 2010 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20225951


Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) is an international, independent medical nongovernmental organization. One way in which MSF acts to improve patient care is to assist in the identification and development of adapted and appropriate tools for use in resource-limited settings. One strategy to achieve this goal is through active collaborations with scientists and developers, to make some of the field needs known and to help define the medical strategy behind the implementation of new diagnostic tests. Tests used in the field need to be effective in often extreme conditions and must also deliver high-quality, reliable results that can be used in the local context. In this article, we discuss some patient and health care provider needs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load measurement in resource-limited settings. This is just one of the areas in which effective, quality tools are desperately needed, not only by MSF and other international nongovernmental organizations, but also by many other health service providers. We hope that, by clearly defining the needs of patients in MSF clinics-as well as we can assess this-and by explaining why these tools are needed, how they should perform, and how their results can be integrated into a program, we will encourage the development of such tools and hasten their implementation in areas where they are so urgently needed.

Infecciones por VIH/virología , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Carga Viral/métodos , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos
Recurso de Internet en Inglés | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-14183


It presents a commentary about alternatives ways to develop diagnostic tools for the infection diseases, neglected diseases, especially malaria, but the long list of diseases with no field-adapted diagnostic tools includes leishmaniasis, shigella, typhoid and bacterial meningitis. It approaches the needs and the Doctors without Borders’s action. Document in PDF format, required Acrobat Reader.

Malaria , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Endémicas