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Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036211


Taxation policies are the most cost-effective measure to reduce overall tobacco consumption. However, cigarettes in Lithuania are among the cheapest in the European Union. The threat of the illicit trade is often used to compromise evidence-based policies, pricing policies particularly. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of illicit cigarette consumption in Lithuania and identify the main characteristics of illicit cigarette smokers. The national cross-sectional survey with direct observation of the latest purchased pack of cigarettes was conducted between August and September 2019. In total, 1050 smokers aged ≥18 were interviewed face-to-face. The illicit share of the total consumption of cigarettes per year was 10.7% with 9.7% of smokers showing or describing illicit cigarette packs compared to 17% reported by industry-funded studies. Older smokers, smokers with lower education and heavy smokers were more likely to regularly purchase illicit cigarettes. The average price of an illicit pack was almost two times lower than licit. Although the illicit trade of tobacco products is a serious policy challenge, the threat of an increase in illicit trade should not delay tobacco taxation improvements.

Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429171


Since the early 1990s, Lithuania has experienced an increasing level of alcohol consumption and a heavy burden of alcohol-related harm, which is associated with the development of alcohol policies. The aim of this analysis was to provide a chronology of change of Lithuanian alcohol control legislation and to present several other detailed examples of the political processes. The data were collected using document reviews. During the last three decades, the Lithuanian alcohol control policies have undergone several cycles of stricter control and liberalizations. Some of the limitations of the study are the exceptional focus on the public health perspective and the inclusion of policies targeting the population as a whole. The strength of the study is in providing a detailed background for future policy effectiveness studies. Some of the recent periods when a series of 'best buy' interventions were implemented during a short period are of particular importance, constituting a natural experiment, whose effects need to be studied in more detail in the future.

Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol , Política Pública , Control Social Formal , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Lituania , Salud Pública
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(1)2019 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669687


Background and objective: Body mass index (BMI) is one of the key indicators used to measure the growth of children. It could be affected by the children's nutrition, which is essential for the proper development of the child. Nutrition of children could be affected by many environmental factors, for example, the socioeconomic environment of the family. The aim of this study was to identify the associations between the BMI of seven- and eight-year-old children, dietary behaviour and nutrition-related parenting practices. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out as part of the World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (WHO COSI). Data were collected using two instruments: objective anthropometric measurements and a questionnaire. The target participant group was 3969 Lithuanian first-formers. Factor analysis was used to summarise questions from the family form. Linear regression analysis was used to identify the associations between various factors and the BMI value of the children. The association between two groups of factors was analysed using Spearman correlation. Results: Factors of dietary behaviour like unhealthy food and proteins were significantly positively associated with BMI in children, while consumption of plant-based, dairy and confectionery items was significantly negatively associated with BMI. Factors of nutrition-related parenting practices like control of unhealthy food, food as a reward or punishment, and mealtime were significantly positively associated with BMI, while encouragement, pressure to eat, and liberal attitude were significantly negatively associated with BMI. The strongest associations were between control of unhealthy food and unhealthy food; cost of and preferences for food and plant-based food; variety of food and proteins; variety of food and plant-based food compared to other associations. Conclusions: The dietary behaviour and nutrition-related parenting practices were associated with BMI in children.

Índice de Masa Corporal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles/fisiología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Responsabilidad Parental , Obesidad Pediátrica/etiología , Antropometría , Dulces/efectos adversos , Niño , Productos Lácteos , Dieta Saludable , Proteínas en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Comida Rápida/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Lituania , Masculino , Productos de la Carne/efectos adversos , Valor Nutritivo , Castigo , Recompensa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Productos Vegetales