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1.
Acta méd. peru ; 37(2): 186-191, abr-jun 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141994

RESUMEN

RESUMEN La enfermedad producida por el SARS-CoV-2 constituye una pandemia declarada con alta contagiosidad y letalidad en grupos de riesgo. En menos de tres meses la humanidad ha tenido que lidiar con este virus sin saber mucho de su patogenia y tratamiento. Se presentan cinco casos atendidos en el Hospital de Emergencias Villa El Salvador (HEVES) en Lima, Perú. Se destaca la importancia de la clasificación clínica en cuatro estadios: leve, moderado, severo y crítico y revisamos el tratamiento antiviral, inmunomodulador y antitrombótico consecuente a tal clasificación. La terapia antiviral con hidroxicloroquina y azitromicina obtuvo resultados favorables en cuatro casos: sobre todo, cuando se inició en los primeros días de enfermedad. Sin embargo, su eficacia es aún controversial y se esperan resultados de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Mientras tanto, su uso en fase temprana de la enfermedad, en estadios leves o moderados, debería mantenerse.


ABSTRACT The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a pandemic characterized for being highly contagious and lethal in groups at risk. In less than three months, mankind had to fight against this virus without knowing its pathogenicity and therapy. We present the experience with five cases seen in the Hospital de Emergencias Villa el Salvador in Lima, Peru, and we emphasize the importance of the clinical classification of the disease in four stages: mild, moderate, severe, and critical. We reviewed the current antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antithrombotic therapy approaches. Antiviral therapy using hydroxichloroquine and azithromycin led to favorable outcomes in four cases, particularly when it was early instituted. Nonetheless, its efficacy is still controversial and results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited. Meanwhile, its use during the early phases of mild or moderate disease should be maintained.

2.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 34(2): 239-244, 2017.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177382

RESUMEN

The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a Peruvian public hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with complete lipid profile after receiving at least six months of HAART. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the criteria of the NCEP-ATP III. We reviewed 2 975 clinical histories, and included 538 (18.1%) in the analysis. The frequency of dyslipidemia was 74.7%. HAART regimens which include protease inhibitors (PI) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; confidence interval at 95% [CI 95%]: 1.11-1.33) and to be older than 40 years (OR: 1.17; CI 95%: 1.05-1.28) were associated with dyslipidemia, adjusted by viral load, CD4 lymphocyte level and gender. In conclusion, dyslipidemia was very common in our sample and was mainly associated with the use of PI. It is necessary to promote the dyslipidemia control as part of the comprehensive care of the patient with HIV.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/efectos adversos , Dislipidemias/inducido químicamente , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú , Adulto Joven
3.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 34(2): 323-327, 2017.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177395

RESUMEN

There is little information on the presence of the Mycobacterium avium-Intracellulare (MAC) complex in Peru. Five cases of MAC infection are described in patients with HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima - Peru. The patients presented, mainly, persistent fever, chronic diarrhea, consumptive syndrome, pancytopenia and citofagocitosis. In all of them, resistant acid-alcohol bacilli were identified in feces, so they received antituberculous treatment. The culture of feces was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, later, in all cases MAC was identified using a molecular test (genotype) in the culture of feces. Three patients received treatment for MAC right after identification; however, they all died. Before presentations similar to the reported, we suggest the use of higher performance methods (blood culture, myeloculture, molecular tests), as well as early associating drugs with activity for MAC to antitubercular scheme with the intention of improving the prognosis of this group of patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infección por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/complicaciones , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Adulto , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Perú , Adulto Joven
4.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 34(2): 323-327, abr.-jun. 2017. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-902912

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Existe poca información sobre la presencia del complejo Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAC) en el Perú. Se describen cinco casos de infección por MAC en pacientes con VIH/SIDA del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima-Perú. Los pacientes presentaron, principalmente, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica, síndrome consuntivo, pancitopenia y citofagocitosis. En todos ellos se identificó bacilos acido-alcohol resistentes en heces, por lo que recibieron tratamiento antituberculoso. El cultivo de heces fue negativo para Mycobacterium tuberculosis y, posteriormente, en todos se identificó a MAC mediante una prueba molecular (Genotype) en el cultivo de heces. Tres pacientes recibieron tratamiento para MAC luego de la identificación; sin embargo, todos fallecieron. Ante presentaciones similares a lo reportado, se sugiere el uso de métodos de mayor rendimiento (hemocultivo, mielocultivo, pruebas moleculares), así como asociar tempranamente drogas con actividad para MAC al esquema antituberculoso con la intención de mejorar el pronóstico de este grupo de pacientes.


ABSTRACT There is little information on the presence of the Mycobacterium avium-Intracellulare (MAC) complex in Peru. Five cases of MAC infection are described in patients with HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima - Peru. The patients presented, mainly, persistent fever, chronic diarrhea, consumptive syndrome, pancytopenia and citofagocitosis. In all of them, resistant acid-alcohol bacilli were identified in feces, so they received antituberculous treatment. The culture of feces was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, later, in all cases MAC was identified using a molecular test (genotype) in the culture of feces. Three patients received treatment for MAC right after identification; however, they all died. Before presentations similar to the reported, we suggest the use of higher performance methods (blood culture, myeloculture, molecular tests), as well as early associating drugs with activity for MAC to antitubercular scheme with the intention of improving the prognosis of this group of patients.

5.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 34(2): 239-244, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-991595

RESUMEN

El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia y características de la dislipidemia en pacientes con VIH en terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA) en un hospital público peruano. Se realizó un estudio transversal en pacientes que tuvieran un perfil lipídico completo luego de recibir al menos seis meses de TARGA. La dislipidemia se definió según los criterios NCEP-ATP III. Se revisaron 2975 historias clínicas, 538 (18.1%) fueron incluidas en el análisis. La frecuencia de dislipidemia fue 74.7%. Los esquemas de TARGA que incluían inhibidores de la proteasa (IP) (OR 1.22; IC95% 1,11-1,34) y la edad mayor de 40 años (OR 1.17; IC95% 1,06-1,29) mostraron asociación con dislipidemia, ajustado por carga viral, nivel de células CD4 y sexo. En conclusión, la dislipidemia fue muy frecuente en la muestra estudiada y estuvo asociada principalmente al uso de IP. Es necesario promover el control de la dislipidemia como parte de la atención integral del paciente con infección por VIH.


The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a Peruvian public hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with complete lipid profile after receiving at least six months of HAART. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the criteria of the NCEP-ATP III. We reviewed 2 975 clinical histories, and included 538 (18.1%) in the analysis. The frequency of dyslipidemia was 74.7%. HAART regimens which include protease inhibitors (PI) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; confidence interval at 95% [CI 95%]: 1.11-1.33) and to be older than 40 years (OR: 1.17; CI 95%: 1.05-1.28) were associated with dyslipidemia, adjusted by viral load, CD4 lymphocyte level and gender. In conclusion, dyslipidemia was very common in our sample and was mainly associated with the use of PI. It is necessary to promote the dyslipidemia control as part of the comprehensive care of the patient with HIV.

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