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1.
Rev. Psicol. Saúde ; 11(1): 89-98, jan.-abr. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990426

RESUMEN

O Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) é uma desordem do neurodesenvolvimento, caracterizada por déficits na comunicação social e presença de padrões de comportamento repetitivos. Como uma condição usualmente crônica, o TEA normalmente requer atenção de equipes interdisciplinares por afetar o desenvolvimento de forma global. Recentemente, o Ministério da Saúde publicou dois documentos que estabelecem a linha de cuidado e as diretrizes para sua reabilitação na rede pública de saúde brasileira. O presente artigo caracteriza e analisa a linha de cuidado proposta e as abordagens terapêuticas recomendadas. A análise permitiu verificar que os documentos reafirmam que pessoas com TEA são indivíduos com os mesmos direitos de pessoas com deficiência, seu cuidado deve ocorrer de maneira multidisciplinar pela Rede de Atenção Psicossocial, mas faltou clareza quanto aos critérios de escolha das abordagens terapêuticas e o local em que estas seriam oferecidas. Algumas implicações para o tratamento do TEA são discutidas.


Autism Spectrum Disorder (TEA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by deficits in social communication and by the presence of repetitive patterns of behavior. As a chronic condition, TEAD usually requires attention from interdisciplinary teams as it affects development in many areas. Recently, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS) published two documents establishing the guidelines for attention and rehabilitation of people with TEA in the national public health system. This article aims to characterize and analyze these guidelines and the recommended therapeutic approaches. The analysis showed the recognition of the TEA as a condition with the same rights as people with disabilities. The care approach is essentially multidisciplinary and supported by the Psychosocial Attention Network, but the criteria for recommending the therapeutic approaches and the place where therapies would be offered are not clear. Some implications for TEA treatment are discussed.


El Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) es un desorden del neurodesarrollo, caracterizado por déficits en la comunicación social y presencia de patrones de comportamiento repetitivo. Como una condición usualmente crónica, el TEA normalmente requiere atención de equipos interdisciplinares pues afecta el desarrollo de manera global. Recientemente, el Ministerio de Salud publicó dos documentos que establecen la línea de cuidado y las directrices para su rehabilitación en la red pública de salud brasileña. El presente artículo caracteriza y analiza la línea de cuidado propuesta y las intervenciones terapéuticas recomendadas. El análisis permitió verificar que los documentos reafirman que personas con TEA son individuos con los mismos derechos que personas con discapacidad, y su cuidado debe realizarse de manera multidisciplinar por la Red de Atención Psicosocial, pero faltó aclarar en lo que se refiere a los criterios de elección de las intervenciones terapéuticas y el local donde dichos tratamientos serían ofrecidos. También se discuten algunas implicaciones para el tratamiento del TEA.

3.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 109(2): 394-407, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424422

RESUMEN

Generalized equivalence classes are stimulus classes that consist of equivalent stimuli and other physically similar class-member stimuli. The present study evaluated whether preschool children would form equivalence classes among photos of abstract objects (2D) and show equivalence generalization to the corresponding objects (3D), printed photos (2D stimuli), and to black-and-white drawn pictures (2D stimuli). Six typically developing children were taught arbitrary relations to establish three 3-member equivalence classes with 2D stimuli presented on a computer screen. AB-AC baseline relations (for half of the participants) and AB-BC relations (for the other half) were taught using a multiple-probe design to assess taught and tested relations. After class formation, three types of generalization probes were conducted: generalization to 3D stimuli, generalization between 2D (printed photos) and 3D stimuli, and generalization to drawn pictures (2D). All of the participants formed the equivalence classes. Two participants met the criterion for all three generalization probe types. Two participants presented mixed results across tests, and two participants did not exhibit equivalence generalization. The results demonstrated equivalence generalization from 2D to 3D stimuli in preschool children, although the variability across participants suggests that such generalization cannot be assumed a priori.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Aprendizaje por Asociación , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa
4.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 48(3): 675-9, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173638

RESUMEN

The effects of class-specific compound consequences embedded in an identity-matching task to establish arbitrary emergent relations were evaluated. A 3-year-old child with autism was taught identity relations between lowercase letters (Set 1) and uppercase letters (Set 2). A compound stimulus that consisted of an auditory component (dictated letter name) and a visual component (an uppercase letter for Set 1 or lowercase letter for Set 2) followed correct responses. All targeted arbitrary relations emerged (uppercase-lowercase, lowercase-uppercase, dictated name/uppercase, and dictated name/lowercase), suggesting that this procedure may be useful for teaching.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Aprendizaje Discriminativo/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Preescolar , Humanos , Masculino , Lectura
5.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 102(1): 139-49, 2014 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24965883

RESUMEN

Empirical studies have demonstrated that class-specific contingencies may engender stimulus-reinforcer relations. In these studies, crossmodal relations emerged when crossmodal relations comprised the baseline, and intramodal relations emerged when intramodal relations were taught during baseline. This study investigated whether auditory-visual relations (crossmodal) would emerge after participants learned a visual-visual baseline (intramodal) with auditory stimuli presented as specific consequences. Four individuals with autism learned AB and CD relations with class-specific reinforcers. When A1 and C1 were presented as samples, the selections of B1 and D1, respectively, were followed by an edible (R1) and a sound (S1). Selections of B2 and D2 under the control of A2 and C2, respectively, were followed by R2 and S2. Probe trials tested for visual-visual AC, CA, AD, DA, BC, CB, BD, and DB emergent relations and auditory-visual SA, SB, SC, and SD emergent relations. All of the participants demonstrated the emergence of all auditory-visual relations, and three of four participants showed emergence of all visual-visual relations. Thus, the emergence of auditory-visual relations from specific auditory consequences suggests that these relations do not depend on crossmodal baseline training. The procedure has great potential for applied technology to generate auditory-visual discriminations and stimulus classes in the context of behavior-analytic interventions for autism.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Aprendizaje Discriminativo , Percepción Visual , Estimulación Acústica , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa
6.
Psychol. neurosci. (Impr.) ; 7(2): 207-220, Jan.-June 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-718339

RESUMEN

This study established a simple simultaneous discrimination between a pair of two-element compound visual stimuli in children (Experiment 1) and bees (Melipona quadrifasciata, Experiment 2). The contingencies required discriminative control by the compound and the question was whether the accurate stimulus control reached at this level would hold for each individual element of the compound. After baseline reached stability, probe trials assessed stimulus control by each single element of both S+ and S-. Average data showed that children (Exp. 1) tended to show stimulus control by a single element of the S+ compound. In Experiment 2 three of four bees showed stimulus control by both elements of S+ and did not respond or responded only infrequently to the elements of the S-. The children's decline in discrimination accuracy in probe trials, along with its maintenance during the baseline, replicated previous findings showing the development of restricted stimulus control (RSC). The precise stimulus control shown by the bees indicated that all elements correlated with reinforcement acquired stimulus control over their behavior; this confirms the extensive literature on visual discriminative learning in bees, but due to the small number of subjects it is premature to say that bees do not develop RSC...


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Condicionamiento Operante , Aprendizaje Discriminativo , Abejas , Preescolar
7.
Psychol. neurosci. (Impr.) ; 7(2): 207-220, Jan.-June 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: psi-62647

RESUMEN

This study established a simple simultaneous discrimination between a pair of two-element compound visual stimuli in children (Experiment 1) and bees (Melipona quadrifasciata, Experiment 2). The contingencies required discriminative control by the compound and the question was whether the accurate stimulus control reached at this level would hold for each individual element of the compound. After baseline reached stability, probe trials assessed stimulus control by each single element of both S+ and S-. Average data showed that children (Exp. 1) tended to show stimulus control by a single element of the S+ compound. In Experiment 2 three of four bees showed stimulus control by both elements of S+ and did not respond or responded only infrequently to the elements of the S-. The children's decline in discrimination accuracy in probe trials, along with its maintenance during the baseline, replicated previous findings showing the development of restricted stimulus control (RSC). The precise stimulus control shown by the bees indicated that all elements correlated with reinforcement acquired stimulus control over their behavior; this confirms the extensive literature on visual discriminative learning in bees, but due to the small number of subjects it is premature to say that bees do not develop RSC.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Aprendizaje Discriminativo , Condicionamiento Operante , Abejas , Preescolar
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