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1.
Nature ; 559(7713): 236-240, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995867

RESUMEN

Controlled transport of water molecules through membranes and capillaries is important in areas as diverse as water purification and healthcare technologies1-7. Previous attempts to control water permeation through membranes (mainly polymeric ones) have concentrated on modulating the structure of the membrane and the physicochemical properties of its surface by varying the pH, temperature or ionic strength3,8. Electrical control over water transport is an attractive alternative; however, theory and simulations9-14 have often yielded conflicting results, from freezing of water molecules to melting of ice14-16 under an applied electric field. Here we report electrically controlled water permeation through micrometre-thick graphene oxide membranes17-21. Such membranes have previously been shown to exhibit ultrafast permeation of water17,22 and molecular sieving properties18,21, with the potential for industrial-scale production. To achieve electrical control over water permeation, we create conductive filaments in the graphene oxide membranes via controllable electrical breakdown. The electric field that concentrates around these current-carrying filaments ionizes water molecules inside graphene capillaries within the graphene oxide membranes, which impedes water transport. We thus demonstrate precise control of water permeation, from ultrafast permeation to complete blocking. Our work opens up an avenue for developing smart membrane technologies for artificial biological systems, tissue engineering and filtration.

2.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15844, 2017 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621311

RESUMEN

Van der Waals (vdW) interaction between two-dimensional crystals (2D) can trap substances in high pressurized (of order 1 GPa) on nanobubbles. Increasing the adhesion between the 2D crystals further enhances the pressure and can lead to a phase transition of the trapped material. We found that the shape of the nanobubble can depend critically on the properties of the trapped substance. In the absence of any residual strain in the top 2D crystal, flat nanobubbles can be formed by trapped long hydrocarbons (that is, hexadecane). For large nanobubbles with radius 130 nm, our atomic force microscopy measurements show nanobubbles filled with hydrocarbons (water) have a cylindrical symmetry (asymmetric) shape which is in good agreement with our molecular dynamics simulations. This study provides insights into the effects of the specific material and the vdW pressure on the microscopic details of graphene bubbles.

3.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12168, 2016 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385262

RESUMEN

Van der Waals assembly of two-dimensional crystals continue attract intense interest due to the prospect of designing novel materials with on-demand properties. One of the unique features of this technology is the possibility of trapping molecules between two-dimensional crystals. The trapped molecules are predicted to experience pressures as high as 1 GPa. Here we report measurements of this interfacial pressure by capturing pressure-sensitive molecules and studying their structural and conformational changes. Pressures of 1.2±0.3 GPa are found using Raman spectrometry for molecular layers of 1-nm in thickness. We further show that this pressure can induce chemical reactions, and several trapped salts are found to react with water at room temperature, leading to two-dimensional crystals of the corresponding oxides. This pressure and its effect should be taken into account in studies of van der Waals heterostructures and can also be exploited to modify materials confined at the atomic interfaces.

4.
Opt Lett ; 41(11): 2604-7, 2016 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244425

RESUMEN

This Letter reports on an etched fiber Bragg grating (eFBG) sensor coated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) having enhanced sensitivity for physical parameters such as strain and temperature. The synergetic effect of the changes in grating pitch and refractive index of RGO with change in temperature or strain enhances the shift in Bragg wavelength (λB). The RGO-coated eFBG sensors exhibit a strain sensitivity of 5.5 pm/µÏµ (∼5 times that of bare fiber Bragg gratings) and temperature sensitivity of 33 pm/°C (∼3 times that of bare fiber Bragg gratings). The resolutions of ∼1 µÏµ and ∼0.3°C have been obtained for strain and temperature respectively, using RGO-coated eFBG sensors.

5.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 104(4): 732-49, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482196

RESUMEN

Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites are being studied for biomedical applications. Polymer nanocomposites can be processed differently to generate planar two-dimensional (2D) substrates and porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. The objective of this work was to investigate potential differences in biological response to graphene in polymer composites in the form of 2D substrates and 3D scaffolds. Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating 1% of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). GO increased modulus and strength of PCL by 44 and 22% respectively, whereas RGO increased modulus and strength by 22 and 16%, respectively. RGO increased the water contact angle of PCL from 81° to 87° whereas GO decreased it to 77°. In 2D, osteoblast proliferated 15% more on GO composites than on PCL whereas RGO composite showed 17% decrease in cell proliferation, which may be attributed to differences in water wettability. In 3D, initial cell proliferation was markedly retarded in both GO (36% lower) and RGO (55% lower) composites owing to increased roughness due to the presence of the protruding nanoparticles. Cells organized into aggregates in 3D in contrast to spread and randomly distributed cells on 2D discs due to the macro-porous architecture of the scaffolds. Increased cell-cell contact and altered cellular morphology led to significantly higher mineralization in 3D. This study demonstrates that the cellular response to nanoparticles in composites can change markedly by varying the processing route and has implications for designing orthopedic implants such as resorbable fracture fixation devices and tissue scaffolds using such nanocomposites.


Asunto(s)
Sustitutos de Huesos/química , Fijación de Fractura , Grafito/química , Nanocompuestos/química , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Andamios del Tejido/química , Animales , Línea Celular , Ratones , Osteoblastos/citología , Poliésteres/química , Porosidad
6.
J Biophotonics ; 9(7): 760-9, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26266873

RESUMEN

An enhanced optical detection of D-glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) has been established in this study using etched fiber Bragg gratings (eFBG) coated with aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The read out, namely the shift in Bragg wavelength (ΔλB ) is highly sensitive to changes that occur due to the adsorption of glucose (or HbA1c ) molecules on the eFBG sensor coated with APBA-RGO complex through a five-membered cyclic ester bond formation between glucose and APBA molecules. A limit of detection of 1 nM is achieved with a linear range of detection from 1 nM to 10 mM in the case of D-glucose detection experiments. For HbA1c , a linear range of detection varying from 86 nM to 0.23 mM is achieved. The observation of only 4 pm (picometer) change in ΔλB even for the 10 mM lactose solution confirms the specificity of the APBA-RGO complex coated eFBG sensors to glucose molecules.


Asunto(s)
Glucosa/análisis , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Grafito/química , Óxidos/química , Límite de Detección
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 65: 251-6, 2015 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461166

RESUMEN

An accurate and highly sensitive sensor platform has been demonstrated for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The CRP detection has been carried out by monitoring the shift in Bragg wavelength (ΔλB) of an etched FBG (eFBG) coated with an anti-CRP antibody (aCRP)-graphene oxide (GO) complex. The complex is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A limit of detection of 0.01mg/L has been achieved with a linear range of detection from 0.01mg/L to 100mg/L which includes clinical range of CRP. The eFBG sensor coated with only aCRP (without GO) show much less sensitivity than that of aCRP-GO complex coated eFBG. The eFBG sensors show high specificity to CRP even in the presence of other interfering factors such as urea, creatinine and glucose. The affinity constant of ∼1.1×10(10)M(-1) has been extracted from the data of normalized shift (ΔλB/λB) as a function of CRP concentration.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Tecnología de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Anticuerpos Inmovilizados/química , Grafito/química , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Fibras Ópticas , Óxidos/química
8.
Bioconjug Chem ; 24(9): 1612-23, 2013 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23909622

RESUMEN

Dendrimers as vectors for gene delivery were established, primarily by utilizing few prominent dendrimer types so far. We report herein studies of DNA complexation efficacies and gene delivery vector properties of a nitrogen-core poly(propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer, constituted with 22 tertiary amine internal branches and 24 primary amines at the periphery. The interaction of the dendrimer with pEGFPDNA was evaluated through UV-vis, circular dichroism (CD) spectral studies, ethidium bromide fluorescence emission quenching, thermal melting, and gel retardation assays, from which most changes to DNA structure during complexation was found to occur at a weight ratio of dendrimer:DNA ∼ 2:1. The zeta potential measurements further confirmed this stoichiometry at electroneutrality. The structure of a DNA oligomer upon dendrimer complexation was simulated through molecular modeling and the simulation showed that the dendrimer enfolded DNA oligomer along both major and minor grooves, without causing DNA deformation, in 1:1 and 2:1 dendrimer-to-DNA complexes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on dendrimer-pEGFP DNA complex showed an increase in the average z-height as a result of dendrimers decorating the DNA, without causing a distortion of the DNA structure. Cytotoxicity studies involving five different mammalian cell lines, using [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay, reveal the dendrimer toxicity profile (IC50) values of ∼400-1000 µg mL(-1), depending on the cell line tested. Quantitative estimation, using luciferase assay, showed that the gene transfection was at least 100 times higher when compared to poly(ethylene imine) branched polymer, having similar number of cationic sites as the dendrimer. The present study establishes the physicochemical behavior of new nitrogen-core PETIM dendrimer-DNA complexes, their lower toxicities, and efficient gene delivery vector properties.


Asunto(s)
ADN/administración & dosificación , Dendrímeros/química , Éteres/química , Iminas/química , Transfección , Animales , Línea Celular , ADN/química , ADN/genética , Dendrímeros/toxicidad , Éteres/toxicidad , Humanos , Iminas/toxicidad , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular
9.
Nanoscale ; 5(7): 2818-29, 2013 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23443459

RESUMEN

Heterogeneity in tumors has led to the development of combination therapies that enable enhanced cell death. Previously explored combination therapies mostly involved the use of bioactive molecules. In this work, we explored a non-conventional strategy of using carbon nanostructures (CNs) [single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO)] for potentiating the efficacy of a bioactive molecule [paclitaxel (Tx)] for the treatment of lung cancer. The results demonstrated enhanced cell death following combination treatment of SWNT/GO and Tx indicating a synergistic effect. In addition, synergism was abrogated in the presence of an anti-oxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and was therefore shown to be reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent. It was further demonstrated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay that treatment with CNs was associated with enhanced mitogen associated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that was ROS mediated. Hence, these results for the first time demonstrated the potential of SWNT/GO as co-therapeutic agents with Tx for the treatment of lung cancer.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/administración & dosificación , Portadores de Fármacos/síntesis química , Grafito/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Paclitaxel/administración & dosificación , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/química , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/administración & dosificación , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Óxidos/administración & dosificación , Óxidos/síntesis química , Óxidos/química
10.
J Chem Phys ; 134(10): 104507, 2011 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21405175

RESUMEN

We study the complexation of nontoxic, native poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The interaction was monitored by measuring the quenching of inherent fluorescence of the dendrimer. The dendrimer-nanotube binding also resulted in the increased electrical resistance of the hole doped SWNT, due to charge-transfer interaction between dendrimer and nanotube. This charge-transfer interaction was further corroborated by observing a shift in frequency of the tangential Raman modes of SWNT. We also report the effect of acidic and neutral pH conditions on the binding affinities. Experimental studies were supplemented by all atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide a microscopic picture of the dendrimer-nanotube complex. The complexation was achieved through charge transfer and hydrophobic interactions, aided by multitude of oxygen, nitrogen, and n-propyl moieties of the dendrimer.


Asunto(s)
Dendrímeros/química , Éteres/química , Iminas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Estructura Molecular , Agua/química
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 37(8): 521-3, 1989 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2621190

RESUMEN

HDL-cholesterol was estimated along with other biochemical parameters of hepatic function in infective hepatitis. Infective hepatitis was characterized by significantly decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol. Follow up studies indicated a good correlation of changes in HDL-cholesterol to severity of disease in all the cases whereas standard liver function tests showed equivocal changes in some cases. HDL-cholesterol may serve as a sensitive indicator of hepatic function in infective hepatitis.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Hepatitis Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Pruebas de Función Hepática , Adulto , Hepatitis Viral Humana/sangre , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
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