Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 4 de 4
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Nature ; 597(7876): 366-369, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526704

RESUMEN

Southeast Australia experienced intensive and geographically extensive wildfires during the 2019-2020 summer season1,2. The fires released substantial amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere3. However, existing emission estimates based on fire inventories are uncertain4, and vary by up to a factor of four for this event. Here we constrain emission estimates with the help of satellite observations of carbon monoxide5, an analytical Bayesian inversion6 and observed ratios between emitted carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide7. We estimate emissions of carbon dioxide to be 715 teragrams (range 517-867) from November 2019 to January 2020. This is more than twice the estimate derived by five different fire inventories8-12, and broadly consistent with estimates based on a bottom-up bootstrap analysis of this fire episode13. Although fires occur regularly in the savannas in northern Australia, the recent episodes were extremely large in scale and intensity, burning unusually large areas of eucalyptus forest in the southeast13. The fires were driven partly by climate change14,15, making better-constrained emission estimates particularly important. This is because the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide may become increasingly dependent on fire-driven climate-carbon feedbacks, as highlighted by this event16.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Imágenes Satelitales , Incendios Forestales/estadística & datos numéricos , Atmósfera/química , Australia , Teorema de Bayes , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Cambio Climático , Eucalyptus , Bosques , Pradera , Incertidumbre
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1379, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992727

RESUMEN

Production of oil and natural gas in North America is at an all-time high due to the development and use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Methane emissions associated with this industrial activity are a concern because of the contribution to climate radiative forcing. We present new measurements from the space-based TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) launched in 2017 that show methane enhancements over production regions in the United States. In the Uintah Basin in Utah, TROPOMI methane columns correlated with in-situ measurements, and the highest columns were observed over the deepest parts of the basin, consistent with the accumulation of emissions underneath inversions. In the Permian Basin in Texas and New Mexico, methane columns showed maxima over regions with the highest natural gas production and were correlated with nitrogen-dioxide columns at a ratio that is consistent with results from in-situ airborne measurements. The improved detail provided by TROPOMI will likely enable the timely monitoring from space of methane emissions associated with oil and natural gas production.

3.
Atmos Meas Tech ; 13(11): 6113-6140, 2020 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122664

RESUMEN

Airborne and ground-based Pandora spectrometer NO2 column measurements were collected during the 2018 Long Island Sound Tropospheric Ozone Study (LISTOS) in the New York City/Long Island Sound region, which coincided with early observations from the Sentinel-5P TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) instrument. Both airborne- and ground-based measurements are used to evaluate the TROPOMI NO2 Tropospheric Vertical Column (TrVC) product v1.2 in this region, which has high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in NO2. First, airborne and Pandora TrVCs are compared to evaluate the uncertainty of the airborne TrVC and establish the spatial representativeness of the Pandora observations. The 171 coincidences between Pandora and airborne TrVCs are found to be highly correlated (r 2 =0.92 and slope of 1.03), with the largest individual differences being associated with high temporal and/or spatial variability. These reference measurements (Pandora and airborne) are complementary with respect to temporal coverage and spatial representativity. Pandora spectrometers can provide continuous long-term measurements but may lack areal representativity when operated in direct-sun mode. Airborne spectrometers are typically only deployed for short periods of time, but their observations are more spatially representative of the satellite measurements with the added capability of retrieving at subpixel resolutions of 250m×250m over the entire TROPOMI pixels they overfly. Thus, airborne data are more correlated with TROPOMI measurements (r 2 = 0.96) than Pandora measurements are with TROPOMI (r 2 = 0.84). The largest outliers between TROPOMI and the reference measurements appear to stem from too spatially coarse a priori surface reflectivity (0.5°) over bright urban scenes. In this work, this results during cloud-free scenes that, at times, are affected by errors in the TROPOMI cloud pressure retrieval impacting the calculation of tropospheric air mass factors. This factor causes a high bias in TROPOMI TrVCs of 4%-11%. Excluding these cloud-impacted points, TROPOMI has an overall low bias of 19%-33% during the LISTOS timeframe of June-September 2018. Part of this low bias is caused by coarse a priori profile input from the TM5-MP model; replacing these profiles with those from a 12 km North American Model-Community Multiscale Air Quality (NAMCMAQ) analysis results in a 12%-14% increase in the TrVCs. Even with this improvement, the TROPOMI-NAMCMAQ TrVCs have a 7%-19% low bias, indicating needed improvement in a priori assumptions in the air mass factor calculation. Future work should explore additional impacts of a priori inputs to further assess the remaining low biases in TROPOMI using these datasets.

4.
Atmos Meas Tech ; 10(5): 1957-1986, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657582

RESUMEN

The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an imaging spectrograph flying on NASA's EOS Aura satellite since July 15, 2004. OMI is primarily used to map trace gas concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, obtaining mid-resolution (0.4-0.6 nm) UV-VIS (264-504 nm) spectra at multiple (30-60) simultaneous fields of view. Assessed via various approaches that include monitoring of radiances from selected ocean, land, ice and cloud areas, as well as measurements of line profiles in the Solar spectra, the instrument shows low optical degradation and high wavelength stability over the mission lifetime. In the regions relatively free from the slowly unraveling 'row anomaly' the OMI irradiances have degraded by 3-8%, while radiances have changed by 1-2%. The long-term wavelength calibration of the instrument remains stable to 0.005-0.020 nm.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...