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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(25): 255709, 2020 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182596

RESUMEN

We report on Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and density functional theory (DFT) investigations of charge transfers in vertical heterojunctions between tungsten diselenide (WSe2) layers and graphene on silicon carbide substrates. The experimental data reveal the existence of an interface dipole, which is shown by DFT to originate from the neutralization of the graphene n-doping by an electron transfer towards the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layer. The relative vacuum level shift probed by KPFM between the TMD and the substrate stays constant when passing from monolayer to bilayer graphene, which confirms that the Schottky-Mott model can be rigorously applied to these interfaces by taking into account the charge transfer from the substrate to the TMD. DFT calculations show that the first TMD layer absorbs almost all the excess charges contained in the graphene, and that the second TMD layer shall not play a significant role in the electrostatics of the system. Negatively charged defect at the TMD edges contribute however to the electrostatic landscape probed by KPFM on both TMD layers.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(2): 027201, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004027

RESUMEN

Relating magnetotransport properties to specific spin textures at surfaces or interfaces is an intense field of research nowadays. Here, we investigate the variation of the electrical resistance of Ge(111) grown epitaxially on semi-insulating Si(111) under the application of an external magnetic field. We find a magnetoresistance term that is linear in current density j and magnetic field B, hence, odd in j and B, corresponding to a unidirectional magnetoresistance. At 15 K, for I=10 µA (or j=0.33 A m^{-1}) and B=1 T, it represents 0.5% of the zero field resistance, a much higher value compared to previous reports on unidirectional magnetoresistance (UMR). We ascribe the origin of this magnetoresistance to the interplay between the externally applied magnetic field and the pseudomagnetic field generated by the current applied in the spin-splitted subsurface states of Ge(111). This unidirectional magnetoresistance is independent of the current direction with respect to the Ge crystal axes. It progressively vanishes, either using a negative gate voltage due to carrier activation into the bulk (without spin-splitted bands), or by increasing the temperature due to the Rashba energy splitting of the subsurface states lower than ∼58k_{B}. We believe that UMR could be used as a powerful probe of the spin-orbit interaction in a wide range of materials.

3.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9553, 2017 08 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842573

RESUMEN

In this letter, we discuss the shift observed in spintronics from the current-perpendicular-to-plane geometry towards lateral geometries, illustrating the new opportunities offered by this configuration. Using CoFe-based all-metallic LSVs, we show that giant magnetoresistance variations of more than 10% can be obtained, competitive with the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance. We then focus on the interest of being able to tailor freely the geometries. On the one hand, by tailoring the non-magnetic parts, we show that it is possible to enhance the spin signal of giant magnetoresistance structures. On the other hand, we show that tailoring the geometry of lateral structures allows creating a multilevel memory with high spin signals, by controlling the coercivity and shape anisotropy of the magnetic parts. Furthermore, we study a new device in which the magnetization direction of a nanodisk can be detected. We thus show that the ability to control the magnetic properties can be used to take advantage of all the spin degrees of freedom, which are usually occulted in current-perpendicular-to-plane devices. This flexibility of lateral structures relatively to current-perpendicular-to-plane structures is thus found to offer a new playground for the development of spintronic applications.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(16): 167402, 2017 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474919

RESUMEN

We exploit the spin-Hall effect to generate a uniform pure spin current in an epitaxial n-doped Ge channel, and we detect the electrically induced spin accumulation, transverse to the injected charge current density, with polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy at a low temperature. We show that a large spin density up to 400 µm^{-3} can be achieved at the edges of the 100-µm-wide Ge channel for an applied electric field lower than 5 mV/µm. We find that the spin density linearly decreases toward the center of the Ge bar, due to the large spin diffusion length, and such a decay is much slower than the exponential one observed in III-V semiconductors, allowing very large spin accumulations over a length scale of tens of micrometers. This lays the foundation for multiterminal spintronic devices, where different spin voltages can be exploited as inputs for magnetologic gates on the same Ge platform.

5.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13857, 2016 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976747

RESUMEN

The spin-orbit coupling relating the electron spin and momentum allows for spin generation, detection and manipulation. It thus fulfils the three basic functions of the spin field-effect transistor. However, the spin Hall effect in bulk germanium is too weak to produce spin currents, whereas large Rashba effect at Ge(111) surfaces covered with heavy metals could generate spin-polarized currents. The Rashba spin splitting can actually be as large as hundreds of meV. Here we show a giant spin-to-charge conversion in metallic states at the Fe/Ge(111) interface due to the Rashba coupling. We generate very large charge currents by direct spin pumping into the interface states from 20 K to room temperature. The presence of these metallic states at the Fe/Ge(111) interface is demonstrated by first-principles electronic structure calculations. By this, we demonstrate how to take advantage of the spin-orbit coupling for the development of the spin field-effect transistor.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(9): 096602, 2016 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991190

RESUMEN

We present results on spin to charge current conversion in experiments of resonant spin pumping into the Dirac cone with helical spin polarization of the elemental topological insulator (TI) α-Sn. By angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), we first check that the Dirac cone (DC) at the α-Sn (0 0 1) surface subsists after covering Sn with Ag. Then we show that resonant spin pumping at room temperature from Fe through Ag into α-Sn layers induces a lateral charge current that can be ascribed to the inverse Edelstein effect by the DC states. Our observation of an inverse Edelstein effect length much longer than those generally found for Rashba interfaces demonstrates the potential of TIs for the conversion between spin and charge in spintronic devices. By comparing our results with data on the relaxation time of TI free surface states from time-resolved ARPES, we can anticipate the ultimate potential of the TI for spin to charge conversion and the conditions to reach it.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Estaño/química , Hierro/química , Espectroscopía de Fotoelectrones/métodos , Plata/química , Temperatura
7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(16): 165801, 2016 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988255

RESUMEN

We report on the spin transport properties in p-doped germanium (Ge-p) using low temperature magnetoresistance measurements, electrical spin injection from a ferromagnetic metal and the spin pumping-inverse spin Hall effect method. Electrical spin injection is carried out using three-terminal measurements and the Hanle effect. In the 2-20 K temperature range, weak antilocalization and the Hanle effect provide the same spin lifetime in the germanium valence band (≈1 ps) in agreement with predicted values and previous optical measurements. These results, combined with dynamical spin injection by spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect, demonstrate successful spin accumulation in Ge. We also estimate the spin Hall angle θ(SHE) in Ge-p (6-7 x 10(-4) at room temperature, pointing out the essential role of ionized impurities in spin dependent scattering.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 27(3): 035201, 2016 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26637104

RESUMEN

Spin injection and detection in Co60Fe40-based all-metallic lateral spin valves have been studied at both room and low temperatures. The obtained spin signals amplitudes have been compared to those of identical Ni80Fe20-based devices. The replacement of Ni80Fe20 by CoFe allows increasing the spin signal amplitude by up to one order of magnitude, thus reaching 50 mΩ at room temperature. The spin signal dependence with the distance between the ferromagnetic electrodes has been analyzed using both a 1D spin-transport model and finite element method simulations. The enhancement of the spin signal amplitude when using CoFe electrodes can be explained by a higher effective polarization.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(10): 106603, 2012 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23005314

RESUMEN

Electrical spin injection into semiconductors paves the way for exploring new phenomena in the area of spin physics and new generations of spintronic devices. However the exact role of interface states in the spin injection mechanism from a magnetic tunnel junction into a semiconductor is still under debate. In this Letter, we demonstrate a clear transition from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in the conduction band of n-Ge. We observe spin signal amplification at low temperature due to spin accumulation into interface states followed by a clear transition towards spin injection in the conduction band from 200 K up to room temperature. In this regime, the spin signal is reduced to a value compatible with the spin diffusion model. More interestingly, the observation in this regime of inverse spin Hall effect in germanium generated by spin pumping and the modulation of the spin signal by a gate voltage clearly demonstrate spin accumulation in the germanium conduction band.

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