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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248018, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657185

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents living with HIV have poor treatment outcomes, including lower rates of viral suppression, than other age groups. Emerging evidence suggests a connection between improved mental health and increased adherence. Strengthening the focus on mental health could support increased rates of viral suppression. In sub-Saharan Africa clinical services for mental health care are extremely limited. Additional mechanisms are required to address the unmet mental health needs of this group. We consider the role that community-based peer supporters, a cadre operating at scale with adolescents, could play in the provision of lay-support for mental health. METHODS: We conducted qualitative research to explore the experiences of peer supporters involved in delivering a peer-led mental health intervention in Zimbabwe as part of a randomized control trial (Zvandiri-Friendship Bench trial). We conducted 2 focus group discussions towards the end of the trial with 20 peer supporters (aged 18-24) from across 10 intervention districts and audio recorded 200 of the peer supporters' monthly case reviews. These data were thematically analysed to explore how peer supporters reflect on what was required of them given the problems that clients raised and what they themselves needed in delivering mental health support. RESULTS: A primary strength of the peer support model, reflected across the datasets, is that it enables adolescents to openly discuss their problems with peer supporters, confident that there is reciprocal trust and understanding derived from the similarity in their lived experiences with HIV. There are potential risks for peer supporters, including being overwhelmed by engaging with and feeling responsible for resolving relationally and structurally complex problems, which warrant considerable supervision. To support this cadre critical elements are needed: a clearly defined scope for the manageable provision of mental health support; a strong triage and referral system for complex cases; mechanisms to support the inclusion of caregivers; and sustained investment in training and ongoing supervision. CONCLUSION: Extending peer support to explicitly include a focus on mental health has enormous potential. From this empirical study we have developed a framework of core considerations and principles (the TRUST Framework) to guide the implementation of adequate supportive infrastructure in place to enhance the opportunities and mitigate risks.

2.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 14(1): 89, 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292389

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The global shortage of mental health workers is a significant barrier to the implementation and scale-up of mental health services. Partially as a result of this shortage, approximately 85% of people with mental, neurological and substance-use disorders in low- and middle-income countries do not receive care. Consequently, developing and implementing scalable solutions for mental health capacity-building has been identified as a priority in global mental health. There remains limited evidence to inform best practices for capacity building in global mental health. As one in a series of four papers on factors affecting the implementation of mental health projects in low- and middle-income countries, this paper reflects on the experiences of global mental health grantees funded by Grand Challenges Canada, focusing on the barriers to and drivers of capacity-building. METHODS: Between June 2014 and May 2017, current or former Grand Challenges Canada Global Mental Health grantees were recruited using purposive sampling. N = 29 grantees participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, representing projects in Central America and the Caribbean (n = 4), South America (n = 1), West Africa (n = 4), East Africa (n = 6), South Asia (n = 11) and Southeast Asia (n = 3). Based on the results of a quantitative analysis of project outcomes using a portfolio-level Theory of Change framework, six key themes were identified as important to implementation success. As part of a larger multi-method study, this paper utilized a framework analysis to explore the themes related to capacity-building. RESULTS: Study participants described barriers and facilitators to capacity building within three broad themes: (1) training, (2) supervision, and (3) quality assurance. Running throughout these thematic areas were the crosscutting themes of contextual understanding, human resources, and sustainability. Additionally, participants described approaches and mechanisms for successful capacity building. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of capacity building to global mental health research and implementation, its relationship to stakeholder engagement and service delivery, and the implications for funders, implementers, and researchers alike. Investment in formative research, contextual understanding, stakeholder engagement, policy influence, and integration into existing systems of education and service delivery is crucial for the success of capacity building efforts.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963795

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience a high burden of mental health disorder which is a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence. In Zimbabwe, trained, mentored peer supporters living with HIV (Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters - CATS) have been found to improve adherence, viral suppression and psychosocial well-being among ALHIV. The Friendship Bench is the largest integrated mental health programme in Africa. We hypothesise that combining the CATS programme and Friendship Bench will improve mental health and virological suppression among ALHIV compared with the CATS programme alone. Methods: We will conduct a cluster-randomised controlled trial in 60 clinics randomised 1:1 in five provinces. ALHIV attending the control arm clinics will receive standard CATS support and clinic support following the Ministry of Health guidelines. Those attending the intervention arm clinics will receive Friendship Bench problem-solving therapy, delivered by trained CATS. Participants with the signs of psychological distress will be referred to the clinic for further assessment and management. The primary outcome is HIV virological failure (≥1000 copies/ml) or death at 48 weeks. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of adolescents with common mental disorder symptoms (defined as Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ-14) score ≥8), proportion with depression symptoms (defined as Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥11), symptom severity (mean SSQ-14 and PHQ-9 scores) and EQ-5D score for health-related quality of life. Conclusions: This trial evaluates the effectiveness of peer-delivery of mental health care on mental health and HIV viral load among ALHIV. If effective this intervention has the potential to be scaled-up to improve these outcomes.Trial registration: PACTR201810756862405. 08 October 2018.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100333, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637890

RESUMEN

Background: There is a lack of data from low- and middle-income countries on whether anxiety independently predicts a more chronic course for depression. Methods: We undertook secondary data analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial in Zimbabwe which had tested the effectiveness of the Friendship Bench intervention for common mental disorders compared to enhanced usual care. Inclusion for the current study was participants from the trial who had probable major depression at baseline, defined as scoring => 11 on the locally validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). This emerged to be 354 of the original 573 (61.78%) of the original trial sample. Anxiety was measured using the locally validated cut-point on the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Persistent depression was defined as scoring => 11 on the PHQ-9 at six-months follow-up. Analysis in Stata 15 used random-effects logistic regression to adjust for clustering by clinic. Outcomes: Of the 354 participants who were eligible for treatment, 329 (92·9%) completed 6-month follow-up assessment. 37% of the trial sample had persistent depression at 6-months follow-up; 59% in the control arm and 17% in the intervention arm. Co-morbid anxiety present at trial baseline was independently associated with persistent depression after adjusting for age, gender and baseline depression severity (adjusted OR = 2·83, 95% CI 1·32-6·07). There was no evidence of effect modification by trial arm. Baseline depression severity also predicted persistent depression. Interpretation Treatment for depression in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) should be directed towards those with greatest need. This includes people with co-morbid anxiety and greater depression severity at initial assessment who are less likely to remit at six months. Advice on coping with anxiety, psychological treatments which target common anxiety symptoms such as fear, avoidance, excessive worry and intrusive thoughts, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) should be made more widely available in LMIC and offered to those with persistent mixed depression and anxiety.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231872, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374724

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is highly prevalent among patients newly starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Malawi and many other countries. Untreated depression at ART initiation can disrupt the HIV care continuum. Effective approaches for depression screening and treatment exist for low-resource settings, but they are rarely applied. Identifying effective implementation strategies are critical. METHODS: A pilot program integrated depression screening and treatment into routine HIV care using existing staff at two public health clinics in Malawi in two phases; a screening-only "control" phase and an active "intervention" phase. During the intervention phase, providers prescribed antidepressants or referred patients for Friendship Bench problem-solving therapy. We evaluated the program's impact on retention in HIV care, viral suppression, and depression remission at 6 months using tabular comparisons and log-binomial models to estimate adjusted risk ratios and mean differences among the intervention group relative to the control group. RESULTS: Nearly all consenting participants were screened for depression appropriately and 25% had mild to severe depressive symptoms. During the intervention phase, 86% of participants with mild depressive symptoms started Friendship Bench therapy and 96% of participants with moderate to severe depressive symptoms started antidepressants. Few participants in the intervention group received consistent depression treatment over their first 6 months in care. In the adjusted main analysis, program exposure did not demonstrably affect most HIV or mental health outcomes, though the probability of currently being on ART at 6 months was significantly lower among the intervention group than the control group [RR 0.6(95%CI: 0.4-0.9)]. CONCLUSIONS: While it is feasible to integrate depression screening and treatment initiation into ART initiation, providing ongoing depression treatment over time is challenging. Similar implementation science studies focused on maintaining depression management will be increasingly important as we strive to understand and test the best ways to implement evidence-based depression treatment within HIV care.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Depresión/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Adulto , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/terapia , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Salud Mental , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos Piloto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/organización & administración , Inducción de Remisión , Integración de Sistemas , Resultado del Tratamiento , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto Joven
6.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 57(1): 161-172, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180824

RESUMEN

This study investigated the experience of lay health workers (LHWs) delivering problem-solving therapy (PST) for common mental disorders (CMD) as well as clients' views of the PST program referred to as the Friendship Bench (FB). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with LHWs (n = 5) and clients living with HIV (PLWH) (n = 10). Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. LHWs described a severe form of CMD amongst PLWH with a history of trauma, naming it kufungisisa kwe njodzi (excessive thinking due to trauma), a local cultural equivalent of PTSD. The term kufungisisa (thinking too much) has been used as the local equivalent for CMD. Trauma or njodzi was seen both as a circumscribed event and as linked to ongoing pervasive experiences such as living with HIV, stigma, and poverty. Although LHWs recognized symptoms of PTSD such as intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal, they did not know how to address these specifically and chose to address them as a severe form of kufungisisa. There is a need to integrate aspects of PTSD management within care packages for CMD delivered by LHWs.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 53, 2019 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704428

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that is highly prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH). Depression is linked to poor adherence to anti-retroviral medication while in the peri-natal period may affect birth outcomes. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to depression. Little is known about the factors associated with depression in HIV positive pregnant women in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 4 busy primary care clinics offering antenatal services during the months of June through to September in 2016. Simple random sampling was used to screen HIV positive pregnant women while they waited to be attended to at each clinic. Eligible women who gave written informed consent were screened using a locally validated screening tool-the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS: A total of 198(85%) participants were recruited out of 234 that were approached. The mean age of participants was 26.6(SD 4.5), of these, 176 (88.9%) had secondary education or more. A total of 78 (39.4%) (95% CI 32.5-46.3) met criteria for antenatal depression according to the local version of the EPDS. Factors associated with antenatal depression after multivariate analysis were intimate partner violence (IPV) [OR 3.2 (95% CI 1.5-6.7)] and previous history of depression OR 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.0)]. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of antenatal depression among HIV positive pregnant women in primary care clinics is high. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant HIV positive women are IPV and previous history of depression. There is need for routine screening for depression during the antenatal period and interventions targeting depression in this population should include components to address IPV.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , VIH , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/virología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis Multivariante , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Diagnóstico Prenatal , Prevalencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 109, 2018 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685117

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of validated tools measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We validated the Shona version of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in a primary health care clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHOD: Adults aged 18 and above attending the clinic were enrolled over a two-week period in June 2016. After obtaining written consent, trained research assistants administered the tool to eligible participants. Study participants were then interviewed independently using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5) as the gold standard by one of five doctors with training in mental health. RESULT: A total of 204 participants were assessed. Of these, 91 (44.6%) were HIV positive, 100 (49%) were HIV negative, while 13 (6.4%) did not know their HIV status. PTSD was diagnosed in 40 (19.6%) participants using the gold standard procedure. Using the PCL-5 cut-off of ≥33, sensitivity and specificity were 74.5% (95%CI: 60.4-85.7); 70.6% (95%CI: 62.7-77.7), respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72-0.83). The Shona version of the PCL-5 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). CONCLUSION: The PCL-5 performed well in this population with a high prevalence of HIV. There is need to explore ways of integrating screening tools for PTSD in interventions delivered by lay health workers in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).


Asunto(s)
Lista de Verificación/normas , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Psicometría , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
9.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 227, 2018 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation may lead to deliberate self-harm which increases the risk of death by suicide. Globally, the main cause of deliberate self-harm is depression. The aim of this study was to explore prevalence of, and risk factors for, suicidal ideation among men and women with common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms attending public clinics in Zimbabwe, and to determine whether problem solving therapy delivered by lay health workers can reduce common mental disorder symptoms among people with suicidal ideation, using secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: At trial enrolment, the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to screen for CMD symptoms. In the intervention arm, participants received six problem-solving therapy sessions conducted by trained and supervised lay health workers, while those in the control arm received enhanced usual care. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify risk factors for suicidal ideation at enrolment, and cluster-level logistic regression to compare SSQ scores at endline (6 months follow-up) between trial arms, stratified by suicidal ideation at enrolment. RESULTS: There were 573 participants who screened positive for CMD symptoms and 75 (13.1%) reported suicidal ideation at baseline. At baseline, after adjusting for confounders, suicidal ideation was independently associated with being aged over 24, lack of household income (household income yes/no; adjusted odds ratio 0.52 (95% CI 0.29, 0.95); p = 0.03) and with having recently skipped a meal due to lack of food (adjusted odds ratio 3.06 (95% CI 1.81, 5.18); p < 0.001). Participants who reported suicidal ideation at enrolment experienced similar benefit to CMD symptoms from the Friendship Bench intervention (adjusted mean difference - 5.38, 95% CI -7.85, - 2.90; p < 0.001) compared to those who had common mental disorder symptoms but no suicidal ideation (adjusted mean difference - 4.86, 95% CI -5.68, - 4.04; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Problem-solving therapy delivered by trained and supervised lay health workers reduced common mental disorder symptoms among participants with suicidal thoughts who attended primary care facilities in Zimbabwe. TRIAL REGISTRATION: pactr.org ldentifier: PACTR201410000876178.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/educación , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Psicoterapia , Ideación Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
10.
Community Ment Health J ; 53(2): 143-153, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221123

RESUMEN

There is growing evidence supporting the use of lay health workers (LHWs) to address the treatment gap for common mental disorders (CMD) through task-shifting. This study looks at the experience of LHWs delivering a problem solving therapy (PST) intervention for CMD for people living with HIV (PLWH) in a primary health care setting. Semi-structured interviews of LHWs (n = 7) and PLWH (10) who received PST were carried out using thematic content analysis. Over a 4 year period LHWs developed indigenous concepts of PST which were: Opening the mind (Kuvhura pfungwa), uplifting (kusimudzira), strengthening and strengthening further (kusimbisa and kusimbisisa) respectively. Using terms locally conceived through knowledge sharing amongst LHWs made it acceptable to deliver PST as part of their daily work. Indigenous terms conceived and developed by LWHs to describe components and processes of PST contribute to the therapy's acceptability and continued use in primary care facilities.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Infecciones por VIH , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Solución de Problemas , Investigación Cualitativa , Zimbabwe
11.
JAMA ; 316(24): 2618-2626, 2016 12 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027368

RESUMEN

Importance: Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders globally but are rarely recognized or treated in low-income settings. Task-shifting of mental health care to lay health workers (LHWs) might decrease the treatment gap. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted psychological intervention for common mental disorders delivered by LHWs in primary care. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cluster randomized clinical trial with 6 months' follow-up conducted from September 1, 2014, to May 25, 2015, in Harare, Zimbabwe. Twenty-four clinics were randomized 1:1 to the intervention or enhanced usual care (control). Participants were clinic attenders 18 years or older who screened positive for common mental disorders on the locally validated Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ-14). Interventions: The Friendship Bench intervention comprised 6 sessions of individual problem-solving therapy delivered by trained, supervised LHWs plus an optional 6-session peer support program. The control group received standard care plus information, education, and support on common mental disorders. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was common mental disorder measured at 6 months as a continuous variable via the SSQ-14 score, with a range of 0 (best) to 14 and a cutpoint of 9. The secondary outcome was depression symptoms measured as a binary variable via the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, with a range of 0 (best) to 27 and a cutpoint of 11. Outcomes were analyzed by modified intention-to-treat. Results: Among 573 randomized patients (286 in the intervention group and 287 in the control group), 495 (86.4%) were women, median age was 33 years (interquartile range, 27-41 years), 238 (41.7%) were human immunodeficiency virus positive, and 521 (90.9%) completed follow-up at 6 months. Intervention group participants had fewer symptoms than control group participants on the SSQ-14 (3.81; 95% CI, 3.28 to 4.34 vs 8.90; 95% CI, 8.33 to 9.47; adjusted mean difference, -4.86; 95% CI, -5.63 to -4.10; P < .001; adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 0.21; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.29; P < .001). Intervention group participants also had lower risk of symptoms of depression (13.7% vs 49.9%; ARR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.34; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among individuals screening positive for common mental disorders in Zimbabwe, LHW-administered, primary care-based problem-solving therapy with education and support compared with standard care plus education and support resulted in improved symptoms at 6 months. Scaled-up primary care integration of this intervention should be evaluated. Trial Registration: pactr.org Identifier: PACTR201410000876178.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Atención Primaria de Salud , Solución de Problemas , Psicoterapia , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/terapia , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/educación , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/terapia , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Selección de Paciente , Grupo Paritario , Distribución por Sexo , Evaluación de Síntomas , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
12.
Trop Med Int Health ; 21(10): 1198-1208, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27443803

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic stress disorder is pervasive in low- and middle-income countries. There is evidence to suggest that post-traumatic stress disorder is more common among people living with HIV than non-infected matched controls. We carried out a systematic review of interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on people living with HIV. METHODS: We included all studies that investigated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on interventions that were either randomised controlled trials or observational cohort studies carried out from 1980 to May 2015. RESULTS: Of the 25 articles that were identified for full review, two independent reviewers identified seven studies that met our study inclusion criteria. All randomised controlled trials (RCT) (n = 6) used cognitive behavioural therapy-based interventions and focused on people living with HIV in resource poor settings. There was only one study focusing on the use of lay counsellors to address post-traumatic stress disorder but core competencies were not described. There were no intervention studies from Africa, only an observational cohort study from Rwanda. CONCLUSION: Rigorously evaluated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV are rare. Most were undertaken in resource poor settings located in high-income countries. There is a need for research on the development and implementation of appropriate interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Adulto , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos
13.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 10: 39, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27175215

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are few accounts of evidence-based interventions for depression and other common mental disorders (CMDs) in primary care in low-income countries. The Friendship Bench Project is a collaborative care mental health intervention in primary care in Harare for CMDs which began as a pilot in 2006. CASE PRESENTATION: We employed a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches to investigate the project's acceptability and implementation, 4-8 years after the initial pilot study. We carried out basic descriptive analyses of routine data on attendance collected between 2010 and 2014. We also conducted five focus group discussions (FGDs) with LHWs in 2013 and 12 in-depth interviews, six with staff and six with patients, to explore experiences of the intervention, which we analysed using grounded theory. Results show that the intervention appears highly acceptable as evidenced by a consistent number of visits between 2010 and 2014 (mean 505 per year, SD 132); by the finding that the same team of female community LHWs employed as government health promoters continue to deliver assessment and problem-solving therapy, and the perceived positive benefits expressed by those interviewed. Clients described feeling 'relieved and relaxed' after therapy, and having their 'mind opened', and LHWs describing satisfaction from being agents of change. Characteristics of the LHWs (status in the community, maturity, trustworthiness), and of the intervention (use of locally validated symptom screen, perceived relevance of problem-solving therapy) and continuity of the LHW team appeared crucial. Challenges to implementation included the LHWs ongoing need for weekly supervision despite years of experience; the supervisors need for supervision for herself; training needs in managing suicidal and hostile clients; poor documentation; lack of follow-up of depressed clients; and poor access to antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: This case study shows that a collaborative care intervention for CMDs is positively received by patients, rewarding for LHWs to deliver, and can be sustained over time at low cost. Next steps include evaluation of the impact of the intervention through a randomised trial, and testing of a technological platform for supporting supervision and monitoring clients' attendance.

14.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 10: 16, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26933448

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on how to deliver complex interventions that seek to reduce the treatment gap for mental disorders, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The need for well-documented protocols which clearly describe the development and the scale-up of programs and interventions is necessary if such interventions are to be replicated elsewhere. This article describes the use of a theory of change (ToC) model to develop a brief psychological intervention for common mental disorders and its' evaluation through a cluster randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe. METHODS: A total of eight ToC workshops were held with a range of stakeholders over a 6-month period with a focus on four key components of the program: formative work, piloting, evaluation and scale-up. A ToC map was developed as part of the process with defined causal pathways leading to the desired impact. Interventions, indicators, assumptions and rationale for each point along the causal pathway were considered. RESULTS: Political buy-in from stakeholders together with key resources, which included human, facility/infrastructure, communication and supervision were identified as critical needs using the ToC approach. Ten (10) key interventions with specific indicators, assumptions and rationale formed part of the final ToC map, which graphically illustrated the causal pathway leading to the development of a psychological intervention and the successful implementation of a cluster randomized controlled trial. CONCLUSION: ToC workshops can enhance stakeholder engagement through an iterative process leading to a shared vision that can improve outcomes of complex mental health interventions particularly where scaling up of the intervention is desired.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 198: 50-5, 2016 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27011359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In low income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa there are few validated tools to screen for common disabling mental disorders such as depression and general anxiety disorder (GAD). OBJECTIVES: We validated three screening tools: the Shona Symptom Questionnaire for common mental disorders (SSQ-14), the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). The study participants were attendees at a primary health care clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: Consecutive adults aged 18 and above attending the clinic were enrolled over a two-week period in September 2013. Trained research assistants administered the screening tools to eligible participants after obtaining written consent. Participants were then interviewed by one of four psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID). Performance characteristics were calculated for each tool, against the SCID as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 264 participants were enrolled, of whom 52 (20%) met the SCID criteria for depression alone, 97 (37%) for mixed depression and anxiety and 9 (3%) for anxiety alone. Of the 237 where HIV status was known, 165 (70%) were HIV positive. With the optimal cutoff of ≥9, the sensitivity and specificity for the SSQ-14 against a diagnosis of either depression and/or general anxiety were 84% (95%CI:78-89%) and 73% (95%CI:63-81%) respectively. Internal reliability was high (Cronbach α=0.74). The optimal cutoff for PHQ-9 was ≥11, which provided a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI:78-90%) and specificity of 69% (95%CI:59-77%) against a SCID diagnosis of depression (Cronbach α=0.86). The GAD-7 (optimal cutoff ≥10) had sensitivity and specificity of 89% (95%CI:81-94%) and 73% (95%CI:65-80%) respectively against a SCID diagnosis of GAD (Cronbach α=0.87). CONCLUSION: Screening tools for depression and GAD had good performance characteristics in a primary health care population in Zimbabwe with a high prevalence of HIV. These can be used for research and also in clinical care to screen patients who may benefit from treatment.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Depresión/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27408619

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders (CMD) are a leading cause of disability globally. Emerging evidence indicates that in low and middle income countries the treatment gap for CMD can be addressed through the use of trained and supervised lay health workers (LHWs). Few clinical trials have evaluated the use of such task-shifting approaches in sub-Saharan Africa. In Zimbabwe, we have successfully piloted a task-shifting intervention delivered by LHWs. This protocol describes a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: Each of 24 randomly selected clinics from a pool of 42 in Harare will recruit 24 participants (N = 576). The clinics are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the intervention package [a problem solving therapy package delivered over a 4-6 week period by LHWs (N = 24) followed by a 6-week group support programme which focuses mainly on teaching a craft skill] or enhanced usual care, which includes usual care and psycho-education. Primary care attenders aged 18 years and above who score positive on a locally validated CMD screening questionnaire (Shona Symptom Questionnaire, SSQ-14) will be eligible for recruitment and asked for informed consent to participate in the trial. The primary measure is the SSQ score at 6 months. CONCLUSION: This effectiveness trial using LHWs to address the treatment gap for CMD will contribute to the body of knowledge on the feasibility and ability for scale-up of interventions for CMD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201410000876178.

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