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1.
Encephale ; 35(3): 286-91, 2009 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19540416

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Usher's syndrome is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterised by dual sensory impairment: profound congenital hearing impairment and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa, sometimes associated with vestibular dysfunction. Some patients develop a psychotic illness, the etiology of which is still debated. Diagnosis may be difficult, and there are only a few reports in the psychiatric literature. CASE REPORT: The present case reports a 57-year-old man, double diagnosed with sensory impairment and psychosis. The severity of his psychosis required several hospitalisations in a psychiatric in-unit, even under third party decision or compulsory hospitalisation, for acute states with disruptive behaviour, aggressiveness against his mother, persecutory delusion and auditory hallucinations, self-talking, major anxiety, and depressive affects, without dissociation. Deafness had been diagnosed when he was six years old; he was able to attend school and learn to read and speak, using hearing aids, and was able to hold a job for three months. Severe psychotic symptoms appeared when he was 18 years old and contributed in confirming the diagnosis. Progressive loss of vision until blindness began later, between the age of 40 to 50. No specific abnormal results were revealed during the neuroradiological check-up. Treatment consisted in antipsychotics, notably depot, first in a mental health care in-unit and subsequently in an out-patient unit: although he denied psychotic symptoms, he became compliant with medication and could go on with treatment, associated with multidisciplinary interventions at home, in order to improve his quality of life. DISCUSSION: Usher's syndrome is the most frequent cause of combined deafness and blindness in adults (three and five individuals per 100,000), but difficulties in communication need to increase clinical awareness of this disorder, especially for psychiatrists. Three subtypes are recognized by the International Usher Syndrome Consortium: Type 1 is characterised by profound congenital deafness, retinal degeneration beginning in childhood, and progressive vestibular dysfunction; Type 2 is characterised by moderate to severe hearing impairment, later onset of retinal degeneration, and normal vestibular function; Type 3 is characterised by progressive hearing loss and variable age of onset of retinal degeneration. Although nearly 23% may have psychotic symptoms, the aetiology remains unclear: sensory deprivation associated with environmental stress, organic changes such as cerebral abnormalities, genetic link (two genetic loci for both Usher's syndrome and psychotic illness are very close). Treatment of psychiatric symptoms is based on antipsychotics, well tolerated by the patients, who improve change of behaviour and communication abilities. Genetic counselling may be useful for parents. CONCLUSION: Access to mental health services is particularly difficult for deaf and deaf-blind people, and difficulties in communication are a challenge for patients and for caregivers too. Antipsychotic medications are helpful for associated psychotic symptoms. Potential link between Usher syndrome and psychosis is still unclear and needs further studies.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Usher/diagnóstico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Deluciones/diagnóstico , Deluciones/tratamiento farmacológico , Deluciones/genética , Deluciones/psicología , Genes Recesivos , Alucinaciones/diagnóstico , Alucinaciones/tratamiento farmacológico , Alucinaciones/genética , Alucinaciones/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Psicóticos/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Psicóticos/genética , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Síndromes de Usher/genética , Síndromes de Usher/psicología
2.
Psychooncology ; 18(6): 647-56, 2009 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19039808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many women with breast cancer need psychological help to cope more effectively after treatment. Cognitive and behavioural techniques are not yet well established in France. A multi-site randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a psycho-educational group intervention in this population. METHODS: Two hundred and three patients, recruited after primary treatment, were randomly assigned either to a treatment group (psycho-educational intervention) or to a waiting-list control group. The 8-week programme of 2 h sessions comprised of thematic discussions, information and training in stress management techniques. Evaluation at baseline, after 8 sessions, and 1 month after programme completion, included evaluations using the STAI, POMS, MAC, EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 breast module scales. RESULTS: We observed a significant reduction in anxiety (STAI, POMS) among group participants, a reduction in anger, depression and fatigue (POMS), a significant improvement in vigor and interpersonal relationships (POMS), in emotional and role functioning, in health status and fatigue level (EORTC QLQ-C30). In contrast, coping strategies (MAC) were not significantly different between groups. No group-related negative effects were observed and the global satisfaction levels were very high. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention, which can accelerate the reduction of those negative affects which are present at the end of treatment. It represents an excellent complement or an alternative to individual psycho-oncologic therapeutic support, widely proposed in France, and should now be tested in groups with other types of cancer and at other disease phases.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/terapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Fatiga/psicología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Inventario de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Rol del Enfermo , Apoyo Social , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Encephale ; 31(4 Pt 1): 507-16, 2005.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16389718

RESUMEN

Weight gain is associated with the use of many psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotic drugs, and may have serious long term consequences: it can increase health risks, specifically from overweight (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m2) to obesity (BMI > or =30 kg/m2), according to Body Mass Index (BMI), and the morbidity associated therewith in a substantial part of patients (hypertension, coronary heart desease, ischemic stroke, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, cancer); according to patients, psychosocial consequences such as a sense of demoralization, physical discomfort and being the target of substantial social stigma are so intolerable that they may discontinue the treatment even if it is effective. The paper reviews actual epidemiological data concerning drug induced weight gain and associated health problems in psychiatric patients : there is a high risk of overweight, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, premature death, in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; and the effects of specific drugs on body weight: Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) induced weight gain correlated positively with dosage and duration of treatment, more pronounced with amitriptyline ; Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) decrease transiently bodyweight during the first few weeks of treatment and may then increase bodyweight; weight gain appears to be most prominent with some mood stabilizers (lithium, valproate); atypical antipsychotics tend to cause more weight gain than conventional ones and weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia, seem to be most severe with clozapine and olanzapine. Conceming the underlying mechanisms of drug induced weight gain, medications might interfere with central nervous functions regulating energy balance; patients report about: increase of appetite for sweet and fatty foods or "food craving" (antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotic drugs) and weight gain despite reduced appetite which can be explained by an altered resting metabolic rate (TCA, SSRI, Monoaminoxidase Inhibitors MAO I). According to current concepts, appetite and feeding are regulated by a complex of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, cytokines and hormones interacting with the hypothalamus, including the leptin and the tumor necrosis factor system. The pharmacologic mechanisms underlying weight gain are presently poorly understood: maybe the different activities at some receptor systems may induce it, but also genetic predisposition. Understanding of the metabolic consequences of psychotropic drugs (weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia) is essential: the insulin-like effect of lithium is known; treatment with antipsychotic medications increases the risk of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. Several management options of weight gain are available from choosing or switching to another drug, dietary advices, increasing physical activities, behavioural treatment, but the best approach seems to attempt to prevent the weight gain : patients beginning maintenance therapy should be informed of that risk, and nutritional assessment and counselling should be a routine part of treatment management, associated with monitoring of weight, BMI, blood pressure, biological parameters (baseline and three months monitoring of fasting glucose level, fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels, glycosylated haemoglobin). Psychiatrics must pay attention to concomitant medications and individual factors underlying overweight and obesity. Weight gain has been described since the discovery and the use of the firstpsychotropic drugs, but seems to intensify with especially some of the second generation antipsychotic medications ; understanding of the side effects of psychotropic drugs, including their metabolic consequences (weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia) is essential for the psychiatrics to avoid on the one hand a risk of lack of compliance, a discontinuation of the pharmacological medication and also a risk of relapse and rehospitalization, and on the other hand to avoid acute life threatening events (diabetic ketoacidocetosis and non ketotic hyperosmolar coma, long term risk complications of diabetes and overweight).


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Obesidad/inducido químicamente , Obesidad/epidemiología , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Colesterol/metabolismo , Consejo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Nutrición
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10368854

RESUMEN

1. The aim of the study was to determine if a more rational therapeutic approach could be devised for neuroleptic resistant psychotic patients treated for months and years with clozapine. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication, but its therapeutic benefit has been limited by a high incidence of agranulocytosis and seizures. 2. The study has been performed in an open setting and included 12 patients. Some of them developed a secondary depression and were treated with fluoxetine. 3. Pharmacokinetic analysis were conducted at the same time as clinical evaluations, grading using the BPRS, the PDS, and QLS, and determinations of plasma and red blood cell clozapine and desmethylclozapine, plasma and RBC fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, whole blood serotonin and tryptophan. 4. A positive linear correlation was found only between RBC concentration and the evolution of the QLS. 5. Clozapine is efficacious both on positive and negative symptoms but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Positive symptoms disappear more quickly, sometimes followed by a post psychotic depression. Negative symptoms improve more slowly but regularly. They seem to be correlated with serotoninergic mechanisms. For whole blood 5HT, an important increase was seen about 4 weeks after Cloza administration, and then a decrease. 6. Therapeutic drug monitoring (on the same sample drawn for haematological monitoring providing) could play a useful role in the management of patients treated by clozapine: compliance, lowest dose, possible toxicity, drug interaction, lack of efficacy, relapse predictivity.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Clozapina/uso terapéutico , Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Serotonina/sangre , Adulto , Antidepresivos de Segunda Generación/sangre , Antidepresivos de Segunda Generación/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/administración & dosificación , Antipsicóticos/sangre , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica Breve , Clozapina/administración & dosificación , Clozapina/análogos & derivados , Clozapina/sangre , Trastorno Depresivo/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Fluoxetina/sangre , Fluoxetina/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esquizofrenia/sangre , Triptófano/sangre
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 56(3): 173-8, 1997 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9201606

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present study was to determine the amount of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in the plasma of Aymara Indians from the Bolivian Andes after traditional chewing of coca leaves during exercise performance. The determination was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography after solid-liquid extraction. The results showed that such use of coca leaves is well correlated with pharmacologically active concentration of cocaine in plasma.


Asunto(s)
Coca , Cocaína/análogos & derivados , Cocaína/sangre , Plantas Medicinales , Adulto , Bolivia , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
Therapie ; 52(3): 227-32, 1997.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9366107

RESUMEN

The aim of this open study was to determine a more rational therapeutic approach for psychotic patients treated with clozapine for several months, using measurement of plasma and red blood cell levels (P, RBC) of clozapine (cloza) and N-desmethylclozapine (descloza), the major metabolite of clozapine, which has been reported to be less active but more toxic (agranulocytosis) than clozapine itself. The RBC concentration may be considered as more representative of the free fraction drug. The study concerned 7 patients suffering from chronic paranoid schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. All of them were treatment-refractory schizophrenic inpatients (4 men, 3 women, mean age +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 8.4 years; mean duration of illness +/- SD: 14.4 +/- 5.1 years). They had received at least two different neuroleptics, for 6 weeks, before entering the study. Treatment started in our hospitalization unit with clozapine 25 mg up to a maximum of 900 mg/d (mean stabilized daily dose +/- SD: 507 +/- 211 mg and mean daily dose per kg: 6.91 +/- 3.08 mg). Clinical evaluations (Quality of Life Scale: QLS), regular blood monitoring and biological samples were conducted at the same time, weekly for 18 weeks and then monthly (duration of the study: 4 to 38 months; mean +/- SD: 12.9 +/- 11.5 months). Plasma and RBC (after lysis) levels were determined by reversed phase HPLC and UV detection after extraction with hexane. All the patients improved very quickly after the first week of treatment and six were able to leave the hospitalization unit and start outpatient care such as daily hospitalization, returning home or in sheltered accommodation. With the following plasma (P) and RBC levels: mean cloza +/- SD: (P = 294 +/- 146 ng/ml; RBC = 110 +/- 82 ng/ml) and mean descloza +/- SD: (P = 173 +/- 106 ng/ml; RBC = 76 +/- 54 ng/ml); none of the seven patients developed agranulocytosis. The blood levels, ensuring better surveillance, have a predictive value for clinical improvement. A linear pharmacoclinical correlation was only found between RBC cloza concentrations and the evolution of the QLS scores. Clozapine fulfils the criteria for therapeutic drug monitoring, and determination of plasma, and more particularly RBC, cloza and descloza levels may help to find the lowest effective dose with the fewest side effects.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Clozapina/análogos & derivados , Clozapina/sangre , Esquizofrenia/sangre , Adulto , Clozapina/uso terapéutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Eritrocitos/química , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico
7.
Therapie ; 51(1): 19-25, 1996.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8762216

RESUMEN

The study concerned 7 patients suffering from schizophrenic disorder according to the DSM III R criteria, treated with a stable dose of haloperidol decanoate (Haldol décanoas) added with fluoxetine (Prozac) from 20 mg to 40 mg/day because of major depression. Patients were assessed at baseline and weekly during the first cycle, and then once a month before each haloperidol decanoate injection, using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the general clinical impression scale (CGI) and the Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS). Extrapyramidal and anticholinergic side-effects, blood pressure and pulse were noted. Determinations of plasma and red blood cells concentrations of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol, and of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, were conducted at the same time than clinical evaluations. For all patients, we observed an improvement by the end of the first week, which became significant at the end of the second week, and continued in subsequent weeks (more than 30 per cent). Two weeks after the addition of fluoxetine, a very significant increase in haloperidol concentrations (more than 100 per cent) was noted; fluoxetine seems to have pharmacokinetic interactions with haloperidol, either by inhibiting its hepatic metabolism (inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme) or/and by displacing it from protein binding sites.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos de Segunda Generación/administración & dosificación , Antipsicóticos/administración & dosificación , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Fluoxetina/administración & dosificación , Haloperidol/análogos & derivados , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Antidepresivos de Segunda Generación/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Depresión/complicaciones , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Fluoxetina/sangre , Fluoxetina/uso terapéutico , Haloperidol/administración & dosificación , Haloperidol/sangre , Haloperidol/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8787036

RESUMEN

1. The aim of this open study was to determine whether a more rational therapeutic approach could be devised for psychotic patients (n = 11) treated for long periods with long-acting (LA) haloperidol. The mean multiplication factor for the transition from the oral formulation to the long-acting one was 12.8 (10.4, standard deviation), lower than the theoretically recommended factor of 20. 2. The best dose (mg/kg)-concentration correlations were found for haloperidol (HAL) and reduced HAL (RHAL) in the red blood cells (RBC) (representative of the free drug fraction) rather than in the plasma of patients that had attained the steady state (at the third cycle and afterwards) 3. Pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted at the same time as clinical evaluations, grading using the BPRS and determinations of plasma levels of total, free and conjugated homovanillic acid (HVA), a marker of central dopaminergic activity. 4. A between groups comparison at the steady state (patients (n = 20) with oral administration and the above patients (n = 11) with long-acting form of HAL), showed that the plasma and RBC RHAL/HAL ratios of long-acting HAL decreased significantly (p < 0,005) in comparison with oral administration, at least by half. 5. Plasma HVA values complete the information provided by plasma and more especially RBC HAL and RHAL levels. All these results taken together, as substantiated by the clinical assessment scales (BPRS), assure a better pharmacoclinical surveillance and can be predictive of a patient's response.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/metabolismo , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Haloperidol/análogos & derivados , Ácido Homovanílico/sangre , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica Breve , Eritrocitos/metabolismo , Femenino , Haloperidol/metabolismo , Haloperidol/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Factores de Tiempo
11.
J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl ; 661(2): 245-53, 1994 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7894664

RESUMEN

6-Monoacetylmorphine and morphine were determined simultaneously in plasma, whole blood and urine, after solid-phase extraction, by high-performance liquid chromatography using amperometric detection at 600 mV oxidation potential. The recoveries ranged from 92 to 99%. The reproducibility study indicated that the coefficients of variation were less than 11% for morphine and 12.4% for 6-monoacetylmorphine. The determination limits were 1 ng/ml for morphine and 4 ng/ml for 6-monoacetylmorphine. The method had a good selectivity towards opiate and nonopiate analgesics and other drugs. The stability of the analytes in methanol (standard solutions), in samples (plasma, whole blood and urine) at -20 degrees C and at 20 degrees C, and in samples after enzymatic hydrolysis at 37 degrees C, was also studied. For sample containing 6-monoacetylmorphine, inadequate storage or hydrolysis could lead to overestimation of morphine or its conjugates. The technique described can be applied for the study of the pharmacokinetics of heroin; it is also available for forensic toxicology to distinguish heroin use from medical prescription of morphine and other opiate drugs.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Derivados de la Morfina/sangre , Derivados de la Morfina/orina , Morfina/sangre , Morfina/orina , Electroquímica , Glucuronidasa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólisis , Metanol , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta
12.
Bull Acad Natl Med ; 178(1): 57-66; discussion 67-71, 1994 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8038995

RESUMEN

Human beings are living between 70 and 90% inside of premises, where numerous air pollutants are existing: some of them have outdoor sources (industry, domestic burning, car traffic), some are produced indoors by human activities and equipment, by animals, or by various materials, products and furniture. According to their nature, they are listed as biological, physical or chemical pollutants. About health, serious poisonings and acute effects attributed to indoor air pollutants, and even short term effects (like sick building syndrome, infectious illness, pneumopathies,...), can be relatively easy to distinguish. Inversely the involvement of these pollutants in long term effects (like chronic bronchitis, asthma, cancers,...) is more difficult to establish. During the last 15 years we carried out several studies, which allowed us to separate the chemical air contaminants into two categories: those produced outdoors (sulphur dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, nitrates), of whom we calculated the penetration coefficients, and those from both origin, outside and inside (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, aldehydes, particles, cadmium, vanadium, sulphates, ammonium salts). Aldehydes, which present important health risks, were especially investigated: in an office where several cigarettes were burning the measured concentrations were high in comparison with the threshold values existing in some foreign countries; in a cafeteria they were relatively low. To estimate the impregnation of non smokers by environmental tobacco smoke, we also determined, during same spaces of time, on the one hand nicotine in air, on the other hand nicotine and its metabolites excreted in the urine of exposed people. We thus observed that, in "real" situations, this impregnation is as a general rule extremely low.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Salud Ambiental , Humanos
13.
J Chromatogr ; 615(2): 357-64, 1993 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8335717

RESUMEN

Dextromoramide, propoxyphene and its main metabolite, norpropoxyphene, were determined in blood after solid-liquid extraction by means of an HPLC method using photodiode-array detection. Two cases of fatal overdose resulting from abuse of the two drugs are presented. In case 1 the necropsic whole blood contained dextromoramide at toxic level (194 ng ml-1) and propoxyphene (614 ng ml-1) and norpropoxyphene (1100 ng ml-1) within the therapeutic range; the death could be due to the combined effect of the two analgesics and, perhaps, other associated drugs. In case 2, the necropsic whole blood concentrations of propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene were 4330 and 3800 ng ml-1, respectively, and could be considered as lethal.


Asunto(s)
Dextromoramida/sangre , Dextropropoxifeno/análogos & derivados , Dextropropoxifeno/sangre , Adulto , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Dextromoramida/envenenamiento , Dextropropoxifeno/envenenamiento , Humanos , Indicadores y Reactivos , Masculino , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta
14.
J Chromatogr ; 612(2): 302-9, 1993 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8468389

RESUMEN

Nicotine and its main metabolites (cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine glucuronide, nicotine-1'-N-oxide and 3-pyridylcarbinol) were analysed in urine after liquid-liquid extraction by high-performance liquid chromatography using norephedrine as internal standard, ultraviolet detection at 260 nm and scanning ultraviolet spectra with a photodiode-array detector. The conjugated trans-3'-hydroxycotinine was determined after enzymatic hydrolysis. Specific determination of 3-pyridylcarbinol was also carried out. Owing to its good selectivity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from smokers and non-smokers. The results obtained suggest that the urinary markers used to assess active smoking or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke must be not only nicotine and cotinine, but also their main free and conjugated metabolites.


Asunto(s)
Nicotina/orina , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Cotinina/orina , Humanos , Indicadores y Reactivos , Alcohol Nicotinílico/orina , Fumar/orina , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta
15.
J Chromatogr ; 573(1): 87-92, 1992 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1564110

RESUMEN

Dextromoramide was determined in plasma and whole blood after solid-phase isolation by high-performance liquid chromatography using dextropropoxyphene as internal standard and ultraviolet detection at 215 nm. Owing to its good selectivity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the technique is available for forensic toxicology purposes as well as for clinical pharmacology. The concentrations of dextromoramide were determined in three cancer patients receiving intravenous treatment with one to three 5-mg daily doses. On the fourth day the plasma level was 13.85 +/- 3.27 ng ml-1 just before the first daily dose and 84.28 +/- 12.60 ng ml-1 30 min after dosing. The whole blood concentration, determined in one of the patients, was undetectable just before the dose and was 76 ng ml-1 30 min after dosing.


Asunto(s)
Dextromoramida/sangre , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Femenino , Humanos , Indicadores y Reactivos , Masculino , Neoplasias/sangre , Plasma/química , Estándares de Referencia , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta
16.
J Chromatogr ; 532(2): 351-61, 1990 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2084131

RESUMEN

Amineptine and its main metabolite were determined simultaneously in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using quinupramine as internal standard. The method comprised adsorption on Extrelut column from alkaline plasma, elution with diethyl ether-methylene chloride, evaporation in the presence of 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and injection of the acid solution onto a mu Bondapak C18 column, using acetonitrile-0.025 M potassium dihydrogenphosphate as mobile phase and ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. Average steady-state concentrations of the two compounds were determined in four patients under treatment regimen (two 100-mg doses of amineptine per day, at 8.00 and 12.00 h). The concentrations determined 20 h after the last dose were undetectable in all cases, whereas the concentrations determined 1 h after the second dose were found to be 780 +/- 96 ng ml-1 for amineptine and 690 +/- 137 ng ml-1 for its metabolite. The technique can also be applied to whole blood with, if necessary, identification on the basis of the ultraviolet spectrum obtained by photodiode-array detection.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos/sangre , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Dibenzocicloheptenos/sangre , Adsorción , Antidepresivos/farmacocinética , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/normas , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/estadística & datos numéricos , Dibenzocicloheptenos/farmacocinética , Dibenzocicloheptenos/uso terapéutico , Éter , Humanos , Cloruro de Metileno , Microquímica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Control de Calidad
17.
J Toxicol Clin Exp ; 10(6): 385-94, 1990 Oct.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2130182

RESUMEN

Mescaline was extracted from a vegetal powder, seazed on the "Côte d'Azur", then analyzed by several techniques (thin layer chromatography, infra-red spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and determined by high performance liquid chromatography with methyl-amphetamine as internal standard. The powder contained 0.76% of mescaline. The presence of a possible isomer was noted in the powder as well as in a "old" sample of mescaline.


Asunto(s)
Mescalina/análisis , Cromatografía en Capa Delgada , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Mescalina/aislamiento & purificación
20.
J Anal Toxicol ; 14(1): 18-21, 1990.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2314057

RESUMEN

Buflomedil, a vasodilating agent, was determined in whole blood or plasma by HPLC with papaverine as internal standard after absorption of the alkaline sample on an Extrelut column and elution with diethylether-methylene chloride (70:30, v/v). The eluate was evaporated and the residue was dissolved in 100 microL of the mobile phase; 20 microL of this solution were injected into a mu Bondapak C18 column (10 microns) using acetonitrile-0.125M potassium dihydrogen phosphate (40:60, v/v) as mobile phase and UV detection at 280 nm, followed by UV spectrum identification (between 200 and 350 nm) with a photodiode array detector. The method is rapid (giving response within 20 min), reproducible, selective, and sensitive. It can be applied for pharmacokinetic studies and for both clinical pharmacology and forensic toxicology.


Asunto(s)
Pirrolidinas/sangre , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Humanos , Indicadores y Reactivos , Pirrolidinas/farmacocinética , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta
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