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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 115, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766095

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To reduce the spread of the infection, especially during aerosol generating procedures, we invented "The Cupola", a shield that creates a mechanical barrier around the patient's head and body. With this pilot study we aimed to assess the effectiveness of an additional layer of protection (The Cupola) developed for providers working in the oropharyngeal region. RESULTS: The mean number of 0.3 µm particles with no Cupola was 3777 (SD: ± 556), with The Cupola was 2068 (SD: ± 1468) and with the Cupola and Drape was 2031 (SD: ± 1108) (p < 0.015). The mean number of 0.5 µm airborne particles with no Cupola was 65 (SD: ± 7), with The Cupola was 29 (SD: ± 28) and with the Cupola and Drape was 28 (SD: ± 23) (p < 0.05). Results showed a significant reduction of aerosols generated during simulated dental procedures when the Cupola was used. The Cupola offers an extra layer of protection in addition to the recommended personal protective equipment.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Atención Odontológica , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria , Aerosoles , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto
2.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788003

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ability to consistently and accurately assess oral mucositis (OM) is critical to descriptions of its incidence and severity and in evaluating the effectiveness of potential interventions. The lack of a single grading scale compounds outcome interpretation. Consequently, we assessed the concordance of three of the most commonly used OM grading criteria (World Health Organization (WHO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), and the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE). METHODS: Data was evaluated from two hundred patients with oropharyngeal or oral cavity cancers who underwent chemoradiation therapy and were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in which trained assessors evaluated patients twice weekly. WHO, RTOG, and CTCAE scores were assigned centrally by independent evaluators blinded to the study group. Concordance among the three scales for all OM scores and severe OM scores (score ≥ 3) was defined as the percentage agreement and measured using Cohen's weighted Kappa. RESULTS: Of 3,578 OM assessments, 57% had identical scores for all three scales. When any score was considered, the concordance between WHO and RTOG scales was 71% (kappa 0.58; 95%CI: 0.56-0.60), 62% for the WHO and CTCAE scales (kappa 0.46; 95%CI: 0.44-0.48) and 78% for the CTCAE and RTOG scales (kappa 0.69; 95%CI: 0.68-0.71). When patients had severe OM (WHO score ≥ 3), 99.6% (521/523) of the CTCAE OM assessments had scores of 3 or 4 (kappa 0.98; 95%CI: 0.98-0.999) and 97.7% of the RTOG ones (511/523) had scores of 3 or 4 (kappa 0.69; 95%CI: 0.62-0.75). Among patients who had a WHO score of 4, 31.7% (63/199) and 96.0% (196/199) of patients had RTOG or CTCAE scores of 2 or 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Discordance was seen with patients who exhibited mild to moderate OM or most severe OM (grade 4) as described by WHO criteria. Whereas scale selection seems less critical in studies in which general "severe mucositis" is the primary outcome, it is particularly important in accurately describing OM's clinical trajectory and the frequency and impact in its most severe forms.

3.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2000892, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555929

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Patients with oral cancer and oropharyngeal cancer frequently develop treatment-related oral complications that negatively affect patients' quality-of-life, cost, and health outcomes. We investigated whether the provider specialty affected the costs and treatment duration of managing oral complications. METHODS: Using deidentified claims from a commercial insurer from 2008 to 2019, we compared costs and duration of common oral complication management between patients whose care included a dentist, with those whose care did not include a dentist. Our primary outcomes were treatment cost and duration. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between the primary outcomes and involvement of dentists. Separate analyses were conducted for acute and chronic oral complications. RESULTS: Involvement of dentists in oral complications management resulted in lower costs and shorter treatment duration for acute complications on average. For chronic complications, when dentists were involved, the average cost was higher by $1,672 (USD) (95% CI, 1,124 to 2,219), but the average treatment duration was shorter by 74 days (95% CI, 62 to 84). When complications were acute, dentists' intervention was beneficial for dentofacial functional abnormalities, disorders of teeth and supporting structures, stomatitis and mucositis (ulcerative), and thrush, in terms of both costs and duration. Among chronic complications, dental caries was the only complication type that resulted in lower cost and shorter treatment duration with dentists' involvement. CONCLUSION: Oral complications of cancer therapy incur a significant financial and clinical burden. Involvement of dentists results in shorter treatment duration, while lowering the financial burden of care for certain complication types.

4.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(5): 2263-2264, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594509
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2970, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536607

RESUMEN

Altered functioning of GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit are likely to be involved in several human psychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in attention and sensory gating with dysfunctional decision-making behavior. However, the contribution of these interneurons in the ability to acquire demanding learning tasks remains unclear. Here, we combine an operant conditioning task with local field potentials simultaneously recorded in several nuclei involved in reward circuits of wild-type (WT) and PV-deficient (PVKO) mice, which are characterized by changes in firing activity of PV-expressing interneurons. In comparison with WT mice, PVKO animals presented significant deficits in the acquisition of the selected learning task. Recordings from prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus showed significant decreases of the spectral power in beta and gamma bands in PVKO compared with WT mice particularly during the performance of the operant conditioning task. From the first to the last session, at all frequency bands the spectral power in NAc tended to increase in WT and to decrease in PVKO. Results indicate that PV deficiency impairs signaling necessary for instrumental learning and the recognition of natural rewards.

6.
Cancer ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595843

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly accepted as a treatment option for several cancers. Although various systemic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been characterized, the effect of ICIs on the oral cavity and contiguous structures is still poorly understood. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 4683 patients in the Mass General Brigham Registered Patient Data Registry who received ICI therapy (ICIT) between December 2011 and September 2019 were reviewed. Reports of oral conditions were categorized into oral mucosal disorders, xerostomia, and dysgeusia. After applying exclusion criteria, demographic characteristics and clinical features were summarized for the patients who had oral irAEs. RESULTS: In total, 317 patients developed oral conditions that were associated with ICIT (incidence, 6.8%; 317 of 4683 patients). These conditions included xerostomia (68.5%), oral mucosal disorders (33.4%), and dysgeusia (24.0%). In patients with oral irAEs, respiratory cancer (28.4%) was the most common primary cancer, followed by melanoma (26.2%), and head and neck cancer (14.8%). Oral mucosal disorders developed after the initiation of ICIT between 2 and 851 days (between 1 and 1332 days in patients with xerostomia and between 1 and 1455 days in patients with dysgeusia). Of all oral irAEs, 50.9% developed within 3 months, and 85.5% developed within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Oral side effects appear to be more common among patients who receive ICIT than has been previously reported. Concomitant cytotoxic regimens may exacerbate the risk of oral adverse events, perhaps representing the sum of the effects of different, but simultaneous or sequential, pathogenic mechanisms. Additional studies are warranted to better characterize oral irAEs and their biologic basis.

7.
Nephron ; 145(2): 137-149, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486477

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Biopsy-guided selection of older kidneys safely expands the organ pool, and pretransplant perfusion improves the preservation of these fragile organs. Herein, we studied morphofunctional variables associated with graft outcomes in perfused, histologically evaluated older kidneys. METHODS: This single-center prospective cohort pilot study evaluated the relationships between preimplantation histologic scores and renal perfusion parameters during hypothermic, pulsatile, machine perfusion (MP) and assessed whether these morphofunctional parameters associated with GFR (iohexol plasma clearance) at 6 months after transplantation in 20 consecutive consenting recipients of a biopsy-guided single or dual kidney transplant from >60-year-old deceased donors. RESULTS: The donor and recipient age was 70.4 ± 6.5 and 63.6 ± 7.9 years (p = 0.005), respectively. The kidney donor profile index (KDPI) was 93.3 ± 8.4% (>80% in 19 cases), histologic score 4.4 ± 1.4, and median (IQR) cold ischemia time 19.8 (17.8-22.8 h; >24 h in 5 cases). The 6-month GFR was 41.2 (34.9-55.7) mL/min. Vascular resistances positively correlated with global histologic score (p = 0.018) at MP start and then decreased from 0.88 ± 0.43 to 0.36 ± 0.13 mm Hg/mL/min (p < 0.001) in parallel with a three-fold renal flow increase from 24.0 ± 14.7 to 74.7 ± 31.8 mL/min (p < 0.001). Consistently, vascular resistance reductions positively correlated with global histologic score (p = 0.009, r = -0.429). Unlike KDPI or vascular resistances, histologic score was independently associated with 6-month GFR (beta standardized coefficient: -0.894, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: MP safely improves graft perfusion, particularly in kidneys with severe histologic changes that would not be considered for transplantation because of high KDPI. The preimplantation histologic score associates with the functional recovery of older kidneys even in the context of a standardized program of pulsatile perfusion.

9.
Nanotheranostics ; 5(1): 1-7, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391971

RESUMEN

From the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted considerable attention as tools for the selective delivery of anti-neoplastic drugs to cancer tissues. Compared to other nanoparticles, EVs display interesting unique features including immune compatibility, low toxicity and the ability to encapsulate a large variety of small- and macro-molecules. However, in virtually all studies, investigations on EVs have been focused on fully transformed cancers: the possibility to apply EV technology also to early-stage tumors has never been explored. Methods: Herein, we studied the ability of cancer-derived EVs to recognize and deliver their cargo also to incipient cancers. To this purpose, EV biodistribution was studied in MMTV-NeuT genetically modified mice during early mammary transformation, in fully developed breast tumors and in the normal gland of wild type syngeneic mice. EVs were loaded with indocyanine green (ICG), a near-infrared (NIR) dye together with oncolytic viruses and i.v. injected in mice. The nanoparticle biodistribution was assayed by in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging (detecting the ICG) and semiquantitative real-time PCR (measuring the adenoviral genome) in different tissues. Results: Our results demonstrate the ability of cancer-derived EVs to recognize early-stage neoplastic tissues opening the possibility to selectively deliver theranostics also for tumor prevention. Conclusions: Taken together our study demonstrates the ability of EVs to recognize and deliver diagnostic and therapeutic agents not only to fully transformed tissues but also to early stage tumors. These findings pave the way for the synthesis of "universal" EVs-based formulation for targeted cancer therapy.

10.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2034-2047, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500707

RESUMEN

Nano- and microsized extracellular vesicles (EVs) are naturally occurring cargo-bearing packages of regulatory macromolecules, and recent studies are increasingly showing that EVs are responsible for physiological intercellular communication. Nanoparticles encapsulating anti-tumor theranostics represent an attractive "exosome-interfering" strategy for cancer therapy. Methods: Herein, by labeling plasma-derived EVs with indocyanine green (ICG) and following their biodistribution by in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we demonstrate the existence of nanoparticles with a highly selective cancer tropism in the blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients but not in that of healthy volunteers. Results: In CRC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, we show that transplanted EVs recognize tumors from the cognate nanoparticle-generating individual, suggesting the theranostic potential of autologous EVs encapsulating tumor-interfering molecules. In large canine breeds bearing spontaneous malignant skin and breast tumors, the same autologous EV transplantation protocol shows comparable safety and efficacy profiles. Conclusions: Our data show the existence of an untapped resource of intercellular communication present in the blood of cancer patients, which represents an efficient and highly biocompatible way to deliver molecules directly to the tumor with great precision. The novel EV-interfering approach proposed by our study may become a new research direction in the complex interplay of modern personalized cancer therapy.

11.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370477

RESUMEN

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have emerged as a promising therapy to minimize the immunosuppressive regimen or induce tolerance in solid organ transplantation. In this randomized open-label phase Ib/IIa clinical trial, 20 liver transplant patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive a single pretransplant intravenous infusion of third-party bone marrow-derived MSC or standard of care alone. The primary endpoint was the safety profile of MSC administration during the 1-year follow-up. In all, 19 patients completed the study, and none of those who received MSC experienced infusion-related complications. The incidence of serious and non-serious adverse events was similar in the two groups. Circulating Treg/memory Treg and tolerant NK subset of CD56bright NK cells increased slightly over baseline, albeit not to a statistically significant extent, in MSC-treated patients but not in the control group. Graft function and survival, as well as histologic parameters and intragraft expression of tolerance-associated transcripts in 1-year protocol biopsies were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, pretransplant MSC infusion in liver transplant recipients was safe and induced mild positive changes in immunoregulatory T and NK cells in the peripheral blood. This study opens the way for a trial on possible tolerogenic efficacy of MSC in liver transplantation. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02260375.

12.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 4(1): 68, 2020 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Integration of imaging and clinical parameters could improve the stratification of COVID-19 patients on emergency department (ED) admission. We aimed to assess the extent of COVID-19 pulmonary abnormalities on chest x-ray (CXR) using a semiquantitative severity score, correlating it with clinical data and testing its interobserver agreement. METHODS: From February 22 to April 8, 2020, 926 consecutive patients referring to ED of two institutions in Northern Italy for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed. Patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction positive for SARS-CoV-2 and CXR images on ED admission were included (295 patients, median age 69 years, 199 males). Five readers independently and blindly reviewed all CXRs, rating pulmonary parenchymal involvement using a 0-3 semiquantitative score in 1-point increments on 6 lung zones (range 0-18). Interobserver agreement was assessed with weighted Cohen's κ, correlations between median CXR score and clinical data with Spearman's ρ, and the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Median score showed negative correlation with SpO2 (ρ = -0.242, p < 0.001), positive correlation with white cell count (ρ = 0.277, p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (ρ = 0.308, p < 0.001), and C-reactive protein (ρ = 0.367, p < 0.001), being significantly higher in subsequently dead patients (p = 0.003). Considering overall scores, readers' pairings yielded moderate (κ = 0.449, p < 0.001) to almost perfect interobserver agreement (κ = 0.872, p < 0.001), with better interobserver agreement between readers of centre 2 (up to κ = 0.872, p < 0.001) than centre 1 (κ = 0.764, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Proposed CXR pulmonary severity score in COVID-19 showed moderate to almost perfect interobserver agreement and significant but weak correlations with clinical parameters, potentially furthering CXR integration in patients' stratification.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiografía Torácica/métodos , Anciano , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
14.
Brain Sci ; 10(10)2020 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050115

RESUMEN

Patients affected by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impaired executive functioning and/or attention deficits. Our study aim is to determine whether the outcomes measured by the Attention Network Task (ANT), i.e., the reaction times (RTs) to specific target and cue conditions and alerting, orienting, and conflict (or executive control) effects are affected by cognitive training with a Dual n-back task. We considered three groups of young adult participants: ADHD patients without medication (ADHD), ADHD with medication (MADHD), and age/education-matched controls. Working memory training consisted of a daily practice of 20 blocks of Dual n-back task (approximately 30 min per day) for 20 days within one month. Participants of each group were randomly assigned into two subgroups, the first one with an adaptive mode of difficulty (adaptive training), while the second was blocked at the level 1 during the whole training phase (1-back task, baseline training). Alerting and orienting effects were not modified by working memory training. The dimensional analysis showed that after baseline training, the lesser the severity of the hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, the larger the improvement of reaction times on trials with high executive control/conflict demand (i.e., what is called Conflict Effect), irrespective of the participants' group. In the categorical analysis, we observed the improvement in such Conflict Effect after the adaptive training in adult ADHD patients irrespective of their medication, but not in controls. The ex-Gaussian analysis of RT and RT variability showed that the improvement in the Conflict Effect correlated with a decrease in the proportion of extreme slow responses. The Dual n-back task in the adaptive mode offers as a promising candidate for a cognitive remediation of adult ADHD patients without pharmaceutical medication.

15.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(6): 102721, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The novel Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to have profound effect on global health. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and characterize specific symptoms associated with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at the Emergency Department of the Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Rome, Italy between March 6th and April 30th, 2020. In order to assess xerostomia, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions secondary to COVID-19, a telephone-based a modified survey obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 for taste and smell disorders and the Fox Questionnaire for dry mouth were administered to 111 patients (34%) after discharge between June 4th and June 12th. RESULTS: Taste dysfunction was the most common reported symptom (59.5%; n = 66), followed by xerostomia (45.9%; n = 51) and olfactory dysfunctions (41.4%; n = 46). The most severe symptom was olfactory dysfunction with a median severity score of 8.5 (range: 5-10). Overall 74.5% (n = 38) of patients with xerostomia, 78.8% (n = 52) of patients with gustatory dysfunctions and 71.1% (n = 33) of patients with olfactory dysfunctions reported that all symptoms appeared before COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall, the majority of patients reported one symptom only (45.9%, n = 51), 37 (33.3%) reported the association of two symptoms, and 23 (20.7%) patients reported the association of three symptoms at the same time. CONCLUSION: Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions may present as a prodromal or as the sole manifestation of COVID-19. Awareness is fundamental to identify COVID-19 patients at an early stage of the disease and limit the spread of the virus.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Trastornos del Gusto/virología , Xerostomía/virología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Xerostomía/epidemiología
16.
Dermatol Clin ; 38(4): 441-450, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892853

RESUMEN

A variety of acute oral lesions may be encountered in the scope of dermatology. Oral lesions may be single or multiple; may arise secondary to infectious, immune, congenital, medication use, or idiopathic causes; and may take a variety of forms. A thorough evaluation of the oral cavity is required to assess patients with oral lesions. Affected patients may be monitored, treated, or referred to an appropriate specialist for further management as needed. Many acute oral lesions are self-limiting in nature and patients may require only assessment and reassurance. Several common acute oral lesions are discussed in this article.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723683

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of osteoradionecrosis/medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ORN/MRONJ) after dental extraction with use of postextraction antibiotic coverage without prophylactic hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in patients who received radiotherapy to head and neck (RT-HN) or antiresorptive medications and to determine possible associated factors. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted in patients who had a history of RT-HN or exposure to antiresorptives and who underwent dental extractions from 2003 to 2019. According to the clinical protocol, patients received amoxicillin 500 mg, 3 times daily (TID) for at least 14 days, and chlorhexidine 0.12% rinses, 2 times daily (BID), after extraction (or an alternative antibiotic if allergic to amoxicillin). HBO was not used for patients with RT-HN. RESULTS: Ninety patients underwent a total of 243 extractions. Fifty patients (55.5%) received a median of 54.1 Gray to the extraction site and 40 (44.4%) were on antiresorptives. None of the patients received both RT and antiresorptives. Of 40 patients, 3 (7.5%) developed MRONJ, and of 50 patients, 1 (2%) developed ORN. Among those at risk for MRONJ, male gender and concomitant immunosuppressant medications were associated with MRONJ development (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: In our patient cohort, the rate of postextraction ORN/MRONJ was lower and comparable with the rates reported in the literature. Larger prospective studies are required to validate the efficacy of postextraction antibiotics in reducing ONJ.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea , Osteonecrosis , Osteorradionecrosis , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/epidemiología , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
19.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401662

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention at improving Oral Health Professionals (OHP's) knowledge of HPV and comfortability to discuss vaccination with their American Indian and Alaskan Native patients. OHP's attended an educational lecture covering HPV vaccination. Participants completed four validated questionnaires that encompassed a sociodemographic survey, a pre-lecture questionnaire (pre-Q), a post-lecture questionnaire (post-Q), and a follow-up questionnaire (follow-Q). The McNemar test was used to assess the significance of marginal probabilities in the responses between the pre-Q and post-Q and the Chi-square test to assess responses between the post-Q and follow-Q. A total of 122 OHP's completed the sociodemographic survey, pre-Q, and post-Q. Among these, 29 OHP's completed the eight-week follow-Q. The majority of all the participants were White/Caucasian (41%), 31 to 60 years of age (72%), females (64%), and held a graduate/professional degree (52%). Analysis of the pre-Q responses showed that only 6.8% of OHP's discuss the connection between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer with patients and a lack of information on the topic was the major barrier reported. After the educational intervention (post-Q), 86.5% of OHP's reported they were more likely to recommend the HPV vaccine and 69.8% felt more comfortable administering it. Comparison between the pre-Q and the post-Q showed a significant improvement in overall HPV knowledge. Similarly, a comparison between the post-Q and the follow-Q showed retained knowledge overtime. Our study suggests that the educational intervention was effective at improving OHP's knowledge of HPV and enhancing their comfortability and preparedness to discuss the vaccination with their patients.

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