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1.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838614

RESUMEN

Adolescence is a critical time of physiological, cognitive, and social development. It is also a time of increased risk-taking and vulnerability for psychopathology. White matter (WM) changes during adolescence have been better elucidated in the last decade, but how WM is impacted by psychopathology during this time remains unclear. Here, we examined the link between WM microstructure and psychopathology during adolescence. Twenty youth diagnosed with affective, attentional, and behavioral disorders (clinical sample), and 20 age-matched controls were recruited to examine group differences in WM microstructure, attentional control, and the link between them. The main results showed that clinical sample had relatively lower attentional control and fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM throughout the brain: two association tracts were identified, and many differences were found in areas rich in callosal and projection fibers. Moreover, increased FA was positively associated with attention performance in the clinical sample in structures supporting ventral WM pathways, whereas a similar link was identified in controls in dorsal WM association fibers. Overall, these results support a model of general impairment in WM microstructure combined with reliance on altered, perhaps less efficient, pathways for attentional control in youth with affective, attentional, and behavioral disorders.

2.
Paediatr Child Health ; 24(6): 383-394, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528110

RESUMEN

Background: Functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are prevalent in the paediatric population, however, there is currently no consensus regarding best practices for treatment. The use of probiotics is becoming popular to treat FAPD. The goal of this rapid review is to synthesize the best evidence on the use of probiotics in children with FAPD. Methods: Searches were conducted on five main databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotic use in children (0 to 18 years) with FAPD were searched. Populations of interest were patients with functional abdominal pain (FAP), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and functional dyspepsia (FD), recruited based on Rome criteria. Outcomes of interest were changes in abdominal pain severity, frequency, and duration. Findings: Eleven RCTs with 829 participants with the diagnosis of FAP (n=400), IBS (n=329), FD (n=45), and mixed population (n=55) were included. Of six studies of children with FAP, two (n=103) used Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and reported no significant effects on pain, and four (n=281) used Lactobacillus (L) reuteri DSM 17938, of which three (n=229) reported significant positive effects on either severity or frequency of pain. Of six trials of children with IBS, four (n=219) used LGG, of which three (n=168) reported a positive effect. One (n=48) used bifidobacteria and one used VSL #3 (n=59), both demonstrating positive effects with probiotics. Two studies of FD reported no benefit. No adverse events were attributed to probiotics. Conclusions: There is preliminary evidence for use of probiotics, particularly LGG, in reducing abdominal pain in children with IBS. There are inconsistent positive effects of other probiotics, including L. reuteri DSM 17938, in reducing pain in patients with FAP, IBS, or FD. More RCTs with rigorous methodology using single or combination probiotics are warranted.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030316, 2019 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488487

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the disposition and sociodemographic characteristics of medical students associated with inclusion of traditional and complementary medicine in medical school curricula in Uganda. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study conducted during May 2017. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Disposition to include principles of traditional and complementary medicine into medical school curricula was determined as proportion and associated factors determined through multivariate logistic regression. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Medical students in their second to fifth years at the College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda. Makerere University is the oldest public university in the East African region. RESULTS: 393 of 395 participants responded. About 60% (192/325) of participants recommended inclusion of traditional and complementary medicine principles into medical school curricula in Uganda. The disposition to include traditional and complementary medicine into medical school curricula was not associated with sex, age group or region of origin of the students. However, compared with the second year students, the third (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.66) and fifth (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.93) year students were significantly less likely to recommend inclusion of traditional and complementary medicine into the medical school curricula. Participants who hold positive attributes and believe in effectiveness of traditional and complementary medicine were statistically significantly more likely to recommend inclusion into the medical school curricula in Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of principles of traditional and complementary medicine into medical school curricula to increase knowledge, inform practice and research, and moderate attitudes of physicians towards traditional medicine practice is acceptable by medical students at Makerere University. These findings can inform review of medical schools' curricula in Uganda.

4.
Explore (NY) ; 15(6): 415-418, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pediatric integrative medicine (PIM) refers to the combination of treatments from conventional medicine and complementary therapies for which there is evidence of safety and effectiveness. As pediatric use of complementary therapies increases, it is important to determine parental views on the use of these therapies by their children. OBJECTIVE: To describe parental experiences with a PIM service for management of pain, nausea/vomiting and anxiety in the context of an inpatient pediatric cardiology unit. DESIGN: Telephone interviews were carried out with the parents of pediatric cardiology inpatients. The interviews focused on their and their child's experiences with the PIM service while in the hospital. Interviews were transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Data saturation was reached after nine interviews conducted during the period between June 2015 and January 2016. Parents self-reported that the PIM service was particularly helpful at alleviating symptoms of anxiety in their children. Moreover, because their children were more at ease, parents also felt less anxiety. CONCLUSION: Pediatric integrative medicine as an adjunct to conventional care is seen as beneficial by parents of children admitted to a pediatric cardiology unit.

5.
J Crit Care ; 53: 75-80, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202161

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To systematically synthesize randomized controlled trial data on the efficacy of music to provide sedation and analgesia, and reduce incidence of delirium, in critically ill patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant databases (Medline, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, Alt Healthwatch, LILACS, PsycINFO, CAIRSS, RILM) were searched from inception to April 26, 2018. We also searched the reference lists of included publications and for ongoing trials. The selection of relevant articles was conducted by two researchers at two levels of screening. Data collection followed the recommendations from the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Handbook. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Quality of the evidence was rated according to GRADE. RESULTS: The review identified six adult studies and no neonatal or pediatric studies. A descriptive analysis of study results was performed. Meta-analysis was not feasible due to heterogeneity. One study reported a reduction in sedation requirements with the use of music while the other five did not find any significant differences across groups. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review revealed limited evidence to support or refute the use of music to reduce sedation/analgesia requirements, or to reduce delirium in critically ill adults, and no evidence in pediatric and neonatal critically ill patients.

6.
Children (Basel) ; 6(5)2019 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058878

RESUMEN

Background: The prevalence and severity of pain, nausea/vomiting, and anxiety (PNVA) among hospitalized children is not well established. We describe the prevalence and severity of PNVA among hospitalized patients from oncology, general pediatrics, and cardiology services in a tertiary care center. Methods: Patients were recruited on admission and enrolled if their caregiver consented, spoke English, and were anticipated to stay 2-30 days. Symptoms were measured weekdays using age-validated tools. PNVA symptoms were described and compared. Results: We enrolled 496 (49.4%) patients of 1005 admitted. Patients were predominantly Caucasian (57.9%) on their first admission (53.6%). The average (SD) age was 8.6 years (5.9) in oncology, 4.2 (5.3) in general pediatrics and 2.6 (4.0) in cardiology. 325 (65.6%) patients reported anxiety, 275 (55.4%) reported nausea and 256 (52.0%) reported pain. Mean (SD) severity out of 10 was 3.7 (2.5) for anxiety, 3.2 (2.1) for nausea and 3.0 (1.5) for pain. Prevalence of PNVA was no different between clinical programs, but pain (p = 0.008) and nausea (p = 0.006) severity were. PNVA symptom co-occurrence was positively correlated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Anxiety was the most common and severe symptom for hospitalized children. Patients in oncology demonstrated the least severe pain and nausea with no difference in anxiety between services.

7.
Paediatr Child Health ; 24(2): 103-114, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996601

RESUMEN

The objective of this review was to assess the evidence on relaxation training for management of paediatric headaches. Our methodology was a rapid review of English-language peer reviewed published literature focused on studies evaluating relaxation training as a primary or adjunct management option for headache in a paediatric population (0 to 18 years of age). Seven studies involving 571 children were included in the review. The quality of evidence was very low using GRADE criteria. Headache frequency, duration, and intensity were the primary outcomes in the included studies. Results for the effects of relaxation training for paediatric headache are inconsistent. Four of the seven studies reported decreased headache frequency, two of the five studies reported decreased headache duration, and two of the six studies reported decreased headache intensity following relaxation training. No adverse events were reported. The current state of the evidence for relaxation training for management of paediatric headache is both inconsistent and of very low quality. High-quality research evaluating the effects of relaxation training for paediatric headaches is required to advance the field.

8.
Complement Ther Med ; 43: 196-200, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935530

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess chiropractic (DC) and naturopathic doctors' (ND) pediatric care natural health product (NHP) recommendations. DESIGN: Surveys were developed in collaboration with DC and ND educators, and delivered as an on-line national survey. NHP dose, form of delivery, and indications across pediatric age ranges (from newborn to 16 years) for each practitioner's top five NHPs were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Of the 421 respondents seeing one or more pediatric patients per week, 172 (41%, 107 DCs, 65 NDs) provided 440 NHP recommendations, categorized as: vitamins and minerals (89 practitioners, 127 recommendations), probiotics (110 practitioners, 110 recommendations), essential fatty acids (EFAs: 72 practitioners, 72 recommendations), homeopathics (56 practitioners, 66 recommendations), botanicals (29 practitioners, 31 recommendations), and other NHPs (33 practitioners, 34 recommendations). Indications for the NHP recommendations were tabulated for NHPs with 10 or more recommendations in any age category: 596 total indications for probiotics, 318 indications for essential fatty acids, 138 indications for vitamin D, and 71 indications for multi-vitamins. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study documenting the pediatric NHP recommendations of two popular complementary medicine professions. Common NHPs at standard doses are the most frequently recommended products, with use and doses adjusted according to age. High-quality evidence regarding the efficacy, safety, and dosing for NHP use in children is scarce; development of evidence-informed pediatric guidelines is recommended, particularly for the most commonly used and recommended NHPs.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Quiropráctica/estadística & datos numéricos , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Naturopatía/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Canadá , Niño , Preescolar , Terapias Complementarias/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino
9.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024651, 2019 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944130

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To establish the minimally important difference (MID) that would prompt parents and clinicians to use probiotics for prevention of paediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and to obtain parent and clinician opinion about the most important outcomes in clinical trials of AAD. METHODS: In this survey, parents of children presenting to the emergency department of a Canadian tertiary care children's hospital and paediatricians working in that hospital were approached. A range of potential MIDs were presented and participants selected one that they would require to use probiotics for AAD prevention. In addition, participants were asked to rate a list of outcomes they would consider to be important in clinical trials of AAD. RESULTS: In total, 127 parents and 45 paediatricians participated. About 51% (64/125) of parents and 51% (21/41) of clinicians responding to the MID question reported they would use probiotics if it reduced the risk of AAD by 39% (ie, reduce the risk of AAD from 19% to 12%). The most important outcomes to parents, in descending order, were need for hospitalisation, prevention of dehydration, disruption of normal daily activities, diarrhoea duration and physician revisit. Paediatricians considered need for hospitalisation along with physician revisit as the most important outcomes. They rated prevention of dehydration, diarrhoea duration and stool frequency as important outcomes as well. CONCLUSION: There is good agreement between parents and clinicians regarding how effective probiotics would need to be in preventing AAD in order to warrant use. This information, along with outcomes perceived to be most important, will help in the design of future clinical trials.

10.
Explore (NY) ; 15(4): 273-282, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902568

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Literature suggests interprofessional education (IPE) and education about complementary therapies for health sciences students may be effectively combined. METHODS: A novel 30-hour, 10-week course for interprofessional undergraduate health sciences students combining IPE and complementary therapies learning objectives was developed and offered in 2012 (N = 71), 2013 (N = 120) and 2014 (N = 140). Pre-post mixed methods measurement occurred in three groups: one taking combined IPE-complementary therapies curriculum, and two control groups (one following non-specialized IPE curriculum, and one following combined IPE-continuing care curriculum). The students' attitudinal changes towards IPE and complementary therapies, and their comfort collaborating with students in other health sciences programs were measured using scales. Qualitative evaluation was conducted via content analysis of team-based reflective essays of their opinions towards what they learned about IPE and complementary therapies, and how it changed during the course. RESULTS: Quantitative results exhibited ceiling effects, revealing little change or difference between groups on all measures, with the exception of the Health Professional Collaborative Competency Perception Scale which indicated the students taking the IPE-complementary therapies course reported increased comfort collaborating in comparison with control groups. Qualitative results indicated students: increased their awareness and knowledge about complementary therapies, and were inspired to learn more, appreciated the need for collaboration and communication, desired to be more patient-centered, and wove concepts related to IPE and complementary therapies together. CONCLUSION: Combining IPE initiatives and basic complementary therapies education can save curricular time, and develop healthcare professionals who appear to be more ready to provide team-based, patient-centered care.

11.
Neonatology ; 116(1): 37-41, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The treatment effect of occlusive wrap applied immediately after delivery in infants born 24-28 weeks' gestation has been studied, but the effect is not known in infants born at less than 240/7 weeks' gestation. OBJECTIVES: To determine if the use of occlusive wrap applied immediately after birth in infants born at less than 240/7 weeks' gestation results in any differences in outcomes when compared to non-wrapped infants. METHODS: Parallel exploratory randomized controlled trial with a convenience sample of 28 inborn infants born at less than 240/7 weeks' gestation enrolled during the duration of the HeLP trial. Infants were randomized to either the wrap or standard of care (no wrap) group. RESULTS: Twenty-eight infants (wrap n = 14; no wrap n = 14) were randomized and data on all infants was available for intention-to-treat analysis. There were no differences in baseline population characteristics. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality (n = 8/14 wrap, 8/14 no wrap). There was no statistically significant difference in baseline temperature (35.9°C, SD = 1.12, wrap vs. 35.1°C, SD = 1.16, no wrap, p = 0.16) or post-stabilization temperature (36.4°C, SD = 0.84, wrap vs. 36.1°C, SD = 1.2, no wrap, p = 0.56). There was a trend towards increased baseline temperature in the wrap group. CONCLUSION: Application of occlusive wrap to infants born at less than 240/7 weeks' gestation immediately after birth did not reduce mortality or effect baseline or post-stabilization temperature in this small exploratory study. This small sample provides the first estimate of treatment effect for this high-risk population.

12.
Trials ; 20(1): 161, 2019 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841935

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inadequate and poor quality outcome reporting in clinical trials is a well-documented problem that impedes the ability of researchers to evaluate, replicate, synthesize, and build upon study findings and impacts evidence-based decision-making by patients, clinicians, and policy-makers. To facilitate harmonized and transparent reporting of outcomes in trial protocols and published reports, the Instrument for reporting Planned Endpoints in Clinical Trials (InsPECT) is being developed. The final product will provide unique InsPECT extensions to the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) and CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) reporting guidelines. METHODS: The InsPECT SPIRIT and CONSORT extensions will be developed in accordance with the methodological framework created by the EQUATOR (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research Quality) Network for reporting guideline development. Development will consist of (1) the creation of an initial list of candidate outcome reporting items synthesized from expert consultations and a scoping review of existing guidance for reporting outcomes in trial protocols and reports; (2) a three-round international Delphi study to identify additional candidate items and assess candidate item importance on a 9-point Likert scale, completed by stakeholders such as trial report and protocol authors, systematic review authors, biostatisticians and epidemiologists, reporting guideline developers, clinicians, journal editors, and research ethics board representatives; and (3) an in-person expert consensus meeting to finalize the set of essential outcome reporting items for trial protocols and reports, respectively. The consensus meeting discussions will be independently facilitated and informed by the empirical evidence identified in the primary literature and through the opinions (aggregate rankings and comments) collected via the Delphi study. An integrated knowledge translation approach will be used throughout InsPECT development to facilitate implementation and dissemination, in addition to standard post-development activities. DISCUSSION: InsPECT will provide evidence-informed and consensus-based standards focused on outcome reporting in clinical trials that can be applied across diverse disease areas, study populations, and outcomes. InsPECT will support the standardization of trial outcome reporting, which will maximize trial usability, reduce bias, foster trial replication, improve trial design and execution, and ultimately reduce research waste and help improve patient outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/normas , Determinación de Punto Final/normas , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/métodos , Consenso , Conferencias de Consenso como Asunto , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(3): 452, 2019 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830183
14.
Complement Ther Med ; 42: 27-32, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pediatric use of complementary medicine (CM) is common and offers numerous research questions about diverse therapies and conditions. Although research priorities for pediatric CM have been identified, there was a need to update in light of the rapid evolution of the field. METHODS: Building on previous work, we conducted an international, consensus-based 4-step modified Delphi process to develop and refine a pediatric CM research agenda, including on-line questionnaires and an in-person meeting. Participants included health care professionals, researchers, and educators. RESULTS: We received 376 responses; participants included conventional and CM providers, researchers, educators, administrators, and policy-makers from 15 countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, China, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Sri Lanka, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States). While it was recognized that each region must set their own priorities based on use, access, and expertise, a "minimum set" for a pediatric CM research agenda was identified. After three rounds of surveys, participants identified the highest priorities for pediatric CM research as: (i) safety of CM therapies for infants, children, and adolescents; (ii) conditions for which CM use is highly prevalent and for which conventional medicine lacks safe, cost-effective therapies; iii) therapies/therapists to be examined for quality and reproducibility of interventions, comparative and cost effectiveness, dose, etc.; and iv) identification of relevant outcomes and outcome measurement tools. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study identify that "first do no harm" is the leading research priority for pediatric CM research, followed by more research on effectiveness of CM therapies for conditions not safely and effectively treated with conventional care. In order to improve pediatric health care, interdisciplinary collaborative approaches are needed between CM and conventional providers and researchers.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Integral/métodos , Adolescente , Terapias Complementarias/métodos , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Personal de Salud , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/métodos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Investigadores , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Patient Educ Couns ; 102(6): 1057-1066, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642716

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify and summarize evidence on interventions to promote the adoption of shared decision-making (SDM) among health care professionals (HCPs) in clinical practice. METHODS: Electronic databases including: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane library were searched to determine eligible peer-reviewed articles. Grey literature was searched for additional interventions. Eligibility screening and data extraction were independently completed. Results are presented as written evidence summaries and tables. RESULTS: Our search yielded 238 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Interventions mostly targeted physicians (46%), had multiple educational modalities (46%), and were administered in group settings (44%) before the clinical encounter (71%). Very few were developed based on the learning needs of targeted HCPs (24%). Many of the SDM outcome tools used for evaluation were developed for the respective study and lacked evidence of validity and reliability (30%). CONCLUSION: We identified a sizable number of interventions to promote the adoption of SDM, however, these interventions were heterogeneous in their assessments for effectiveness and implementation. Therefore, it is a challenge to infer which strategies and practices are best to promote SDM adoption. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The need for evidence-based standards for developing SDM interventions targeting HCPs and assessing acceptability, effectiveness and implementation is suggested.

16.
Qual Life Res ; 28(4): 879-893, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426277

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is increasingly recognized for its importance in health research. As there is increasing recognition of the inter-individual difference in response to therapeutic interventions, it may be helpful to apply individualized measures of HRQL. The MYMOP is a commonly used example of such measures, although several adaptations have been developed. OBJECTIVE: This review was conducted to identify adaptations of MYMOP, and evaluate the measurement properties of MYMOP and its adaptations. METHODS: Adaptations were identified using MYMOP website and personal communication, supplemented by a SCOPUS search in April 2017. Bibliographies of included studies were hand-searched. COSMIN criteria were used to evaluate the measurement properties. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included in this review. Adaptations were developed to evaluate individualized therapies in cancer, psychiatry, and acupuncture. The included measures were MYMOP, measure yourself concern and wellbeing, psychological outcome profiles (PSYCHLOPS), and MYMOP-pictorial (MYMOP-P). The quality of the measurement properties varied; none of the included measures met all currently recommended quality criteria for measurement properties. CONCLUSION: Current literature provides evidence that MYMOP and its adaptations offer individualized assessment of patient-centered outcomes, and thereby provide a means to understand heterogeneity of treatment effects. However, current recommendations for psychometric testing suggest further validation of these measures would be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Psicometría/métodos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 310, 2018 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of healthcare professionals have inadequate understanding of traditional and complementary medicine and often consider their use inappropriate. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study to understand the perceptions and attitudes of medical students, medical school faculty and traditional and complementary medicine practitioners. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Thematic approach was used in data analysis to identify emerging themes and sub themes. Data analysis was supported with use of Atlas.ti v6.1.1. RESULTS: The majority of participants commended the inclusion of traditional and complementary medicine principles into medical school curricula. The main reasons advanced were that: patients are already using these medicines and doctors need to understand them; doctors would be more accommodating to use and not rebuke patients, thereby minimizing delays in care due to pursuit of alternative therapies; promote patient safety; foster therapeutic alliance and adherence to therapy; uphold patients' right to self-determination; lead to discovery of new drugs from traditional medicines; and set ground for regulation of practices and quality control. However, participants anticipated operational and ethical challenges that include inadequate number of faculty to teach the subject, congested curricula, increased costs in research and development to produce evidence-base data, obstruction by pharmaceutical companies, inaccessibility to and depletion of medicinal plants, and potential conflicts due to diversity in culture and values. A substantial minority of participants thought traditional medicine need not be taught in medical schools because there is lack of scientific evidence on efficacy, safety, and side effects profiles. These shortfalls could make the determination of benefits (beneficence) and harm (maleficence) difficult, as well as compromise the ability of physicians to adequately disclose benefits and harms to patients and family, thereby undermining the process of informed consent and patient autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Training medical students in principles of traditional and complementary medicine is considered reasonable, feasible, and acceptable; and could lead to improvement in health outcomes. There are anticipated challenges to implementing a hybrid medical school curricula, but these are surmountable and need not delay introducing traditional and complementary medicine principles into medical school curricula in Uganda.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias/educación , Curriculum , Médicos , Facultades de Medicina , Participación de los Interesados/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Competencia Cultural , Curriculum/tendencias , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción , Investigación Cualitativa , Facultades de Medicina/tendencias , Uganda , Adulto Joven
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 169(10): 694-703, 2018 11 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383134

RESUMEN

Background: Treatment of Raynaud phenomenon (RP) with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors has shown moderate efficacy. Adverse effects decrease the risk-benefit profile of these drugs, and patients may not be willing to receive long-term treatment. On-demand single doses before or during exposure to cold may be a good alternative. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of on-demand sildenafil in RP. Design: Series of randomized, double-blind, n-of-1 trials. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02050360). Setting: Outpatients at a French university hospital. Participants: Patients with primary or secondary RP. Intervention: Each trial consisted of a multiple crossover study in a single patient. Repeated blocks of 3 periods of on-demand treatment were evaluated: 1 week of placebo, 1 week of sildenafil at 40 mg per dose, and 1 week of sildenafil at 80 mg per dose, with a maximum of 2 doses daily. Measurements: Raynaud Condition Score (RCS) and frequency and daily duration of attacks. Skin blood flow in response to cooling also was assessed with laser speckle contrast imaging. Mixed-effects models were used and parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework to determine individual and aggregated efficacy. Results: 38 patients completed 2 to 5 treatment blocks. On the basis of aggregated data, the probability that sildenafil at 40 mg or 80 mg was more effective than placebo was greater than 90% for all outcomes (except for RCS with sildenafil, 80 mg). However, the aggregated effect size was not clinically relevant. Yet, substantial heterogeneity in sildenafil's efficacy was observed among participants, with clinically relevant efficacy in some patients. Limitation: The response to sildenafil was substantially heterogeneous among patients. Conclusion: Despite a high probability that sildenafil is superior to placebo, substantial heterogeneity was observed in patient response and aggregated results did not show that on-demand sildenafil has clinically relevant efficacy. In this context, the use of n-of-1 trials may be an original and relevant approach in RP. Primary Funding Source: GIRCI (Groupement Interrégional de Recherche Clinique et d'Innovation) Auvergne Rhône-Alpes (academic funding) and Pfizer.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/efectos adversos , Enfermedad de Raynaud/tratamiento farmacológico , Citrato de Sildenafil/administración & dosificación , Citrato de Sildenafil/efectos adversos , Vasodilatadores/administración & dosificación , Vasodilatadores/efectos adversos , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Método Doble Ciego , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006348, 2018 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321452

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue is increasingly common. Conventional medical care is limited in treating chronic fatigue, leading some patients to use traditional Chinese medicine therapies, including herbal medicine. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine herbal products in treating idiopathic chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome. SEARCH METHODS: The following databases were searched for terms related to traditional Chinese medicine, chronic fatigue, and clinical trials: CCDAN Controlled Trials Register (July 2009), MEDLINE (1966-2008), EMBASE (1980-2008), AMED (1985-2008), CINAHL (1982-2008), PSYCHINFO (1985-2008), CENTRAL (Issue 2 2008), the Chalmers Research Group PedCAM Database (2004), VIP Information (1989-2008), CNKI (1976-2008), OCLC Proceedings First (1992-2008), Conference Papers Index (1982-2008), and Dissertation Abstracts (1980-2008). Reference lists of included studies and review articles were examined and experts in the field were contacted for knowledge of additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Selection criteria included published or unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of participants diagnosed with idiopathic chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome comparing traditional Chinese medicinal herbs with placebo, conventional standard of care (SOC), or no treatment/wait lists. The outcome of interest was fatigue. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: 13 databases were searched for RCTs investigating TCM herbal products for the treatment of chronic fatigue. Over 2400 references were located. Studies were screened and assessed for inclusion criteria by two authors. MAIN RESULTS: No studies that met all inclusion criteria were identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although studies examining the use of TCM herbal products for chronic fatigue were located, methodologic limitations resulted in the exclusion of all studies. Of note, many of the studies labelled as RCTs and conducted in China did not utilize rigorous randomization procedures. Improvements in methodology in future studies is required for meaningful synthesis of data.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Fatiga/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Crónica , Humanos
20.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e022267, 2018 10 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337310

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is characterised by the fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual as a problematic pattern of opioid use (eg, fentanyl, heroin, oxycodone) that leads to clinically significant impairment. OUD diagnoses have risen substantially over the last decade, and treatment services have struggled to meet the demand. Evidence suggests when patients with chronic illnesses are matched with their treatment preferences and engaged in shared decision-making (SDM), health outcomes may improve. However, it is not known whether SDM could impact outcomes in specific substance use disorders such as OUD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping review will be conducted according to Arksey and O'Malley's framework and by recommendations from Levac et al. The search strategy was developed to retrieve relevant publications from database inception and June 2017. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database for Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews and reference lists of relevant articles and Google Scholar will be searched. Included studies must be composed of adults with a diagnosis of OUD, and investigate SDM or its constituent components. Experimental, quasi-experimental, qualitative, case-control, cohort studies and cross-sectional surveys will be included. Articles will be screened for final eligibility according to title and abstract, and then by full text. Two independent reviewers will screen excluded articles at each stage. A consultation phase with expert clinicians and policy-makers will be added to set the scope of the work, refine research questions, review the search strategy and identify additional relevant literature. Results will summarise whether SDM impacts health and patient-centred outcomes in OUD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Scoping review methodology is considered secondary analysis and does not require ethics approval. The final review will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, disseminated at relevant academic conferences and will be shared with policy-makers, patients and clinicians.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/terapia , Participación del Paciente , Prioridad del Paciente , Adulto , Humanos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Proyectos de Investigación , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto
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