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1.
Brain Sci ; 11(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942855

RESUMEN

The last decades have seen a proliferation of music and brain studies, with a major focus on plastic changes as the outcome of continuous and prolonged engagement with music. Thanks to the advent of neuroaesthetics, research on music cognition has broadened its scope by considering the multifarious phenomenon of listening in all its forms, including incidental listening up to the skillful attentive listening of experts, and all its possible effects. These latter range from objective and sensorial effects directly linked to the acoustic features of the music to the subjectively affective and even transformational effects for the listener. Of special importance is the finding that neural activity in the reward circuit of the brain is a key component of a conscious listening experience. We propose that the connection between music and the reward system makes music listening a gate towards not only hedonia but also eudaimonia, namely a life well lived, full of meaning that aims at realizing one's own "daimon" or true nature. It is argued, further, that music listening, even when conceptualized in this aesthetic and eudaimonic framework, remains a learnable skill that changes the way brain structures respond to sounds and how they interact with each other.

3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 757052, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759873

RESUMEN

Classical musicians face a high demand for flawless and expressive performance, leading to highly intensified practice activity. Whereas the advantage of using mental strategies is well documented in sports research, few studies have explored the efficacy of mental imagery and overt singing on musical instrumental learning. In this study, 50 classically trained trumpet students performed short unfamiliar pieces. Performances were recorded before and after applying four prescribed practice strategies which were (1) physical practice, (2) mental imagery, (3) overt singing with optional use of solfege, (4) a combination of 1, 2 and 3 or a control condition, no practice. Three experts independently assessed pitch and rhythm accuracy, sound quality, intonation, and musical expression in all recordings. We found higher gains in the overall performance, as well as in pitch accuracy for the physical practice, and the combined practice strategies, compared to no practice. Furthermore, only the combined strategy yielded a significant improvement in musical expression. Pitch performance improvement was positively correlated with previous solfege training and frequent use of random practice strategies. The findings highlight benefits from applying practice strategies that complement physical practice in music instrument practice in short term early stages of learning a new piece. The study may generalize to other forms of learning, involving cognitive processes and motor skills.

4.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(11): 210885, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804568

RESUMEN

The rhythm of human life is governed by diurnal cycles, as a result of endogenous circadian processes evolved to maximize biological fitness. Even complex aspects of daily life, such as affective states, exhibit systematic diurnal patterns which in turn influence behaviour. As a result, previous research has identified population-level diurnal patterns in affective preference for music. By analysing audio features from over two billion music streaming events on Spotify, we find that the music people listen to divides into five distinct time blocks corresponding to morning, afternoon, evening, night and late night/early morning. By integrating an artificial neural network with Spotify's API, we show a general awareness of diurnal preference in playlists, which is not present to the same extent for individual tracks. Our results demonstrate how music intertwines with our daily lives and highlight how even something as individual as musical preference is influenced by underlying diurnal patterns.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20813, 2021 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675231

RESUMEN

A remarkable feature of the human brain is its ability to integrate information from the environment with internally generated content. The integration of top-down and bottom-up processes during complex multi-modal human activities, however, is yet to be fully understood. Music provides an excellent model for understanding this since music listening leads to the urge to move, and music making entails both playing and listening at the same time (i.e., audio-motor coupling). Here, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of 130 neuroimaging studies of music perception, production and imagery, with 2660 foci, 139 experiments, and 2516 participants. We found that music perception and production rely on auditory cortices and sensorimotor cortices, while music imagery recruits distinct parietal regions. This indicates that the brain requires different structures to process similar information which is made available either by an interaction with the environment (i.e., bottom-up) or by internally generated content (i.e., top-down).

6.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a cornerstone in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) management. However, PR adherence is generally low, and barriers include availability, economic issues, motivation, and inability to attend or perform physical training. Therefore, alternative, evidence-based PR activities are required. Singing may have benefits within quality of life (QoL), respiratory control, and wellbeing in COPD, but impact on PR key outcome, physical exercise capacity, is uncertain. METHODS: In this RCT (NCT03280355), we investigated effectiveness of 10-weeks of PR, including either "Singing for Lung Health" (SLH)-training or standard physical exercise training (PExT). PRIMARY OUTCOME: Change in exercise capacity (6-Minute Walk Test, distance (6 MWD)) from baseline to post-PR. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Changes in QoL (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)), Hospital anxiety and depression score (HADS), lung function, dyspnoea, and adherence. RESULTS: We included 270 COPD patients, and 195 completed the study. Demographics across groups were comparable, and both groups improved significantly in 6 MWD and SGRQ. SLH was non-inferior to PExT in 6 MWD (13.1 m±36.3/14.1 m±32.3; p=0.81 [95%CI=-7.28;9.30]) with 21.8% respectively 25.0% (p=0.57) reaching 6 MWD Minimal Important Difference of 30 m. We found no significant between-group differences concerning SGRQ, HADS, lung function, dyspnoea, or adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that SLH is non-inferior to PExT in improving 6 MWD during a 10-weeks PR programme. Future studies addressing reproducibility, long-term effects and health-economics are needed.

7.
Brain Res ; 1773: 147664, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560052

RESUMEN

Predictive models in the brain rely on the continuous extraction of regularities from the environment. These models are thought to be updated by novel information, as reflected in prediction error responses such as the mismatch negativity (MMN). However, although in real life individuals often face situations in which uncertainty prevails, it remains unclear whether and how predictive models emerge in high-uncertainty contexts. Recent research suggests that uncertainty affects the magnitude of MMN responses in the context of music listening. However, musical predictions are typically studied with MMN stimulation paradigms based on Western tonal music, which are characterized by relatively high predictability. Hence, we developed an MMN paradigm to investigate how the high uncertainty of atonal music modulates predictive processes as indexed by the MMN and behavior. Using MEG in a group of 20 subjects without musical training, we demonstrate that the magnetic MMN in response to pitch, intensity, timbre, and location deviants is evoked in both tonal and atonal melodies, with no significant differences between conditions. In contrast, in a separate behavioral experiment involving 39 non-musicians, participants detected pitch deviants more accurately and rated confidence higher in the tonal than in the atonal musical context. These results indicate that contextual tonal uncertainty modulates processing stages in which conscious awareness is involved, although deviants robustly elicit low-level pre-attentive responses such as the MMN. The achievement of robust MMN responses, despite high tonal uncertainty, is relevant for future studies comparing groups of listeners' MMN responses to increasingly ecological music stimuli.

8.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476458

RESUMEN

Compositionality is a hallmark of human language and other symbolic systems: a finite set of meaningful elements can be systematically combined to convey an open-ended array of ideas. Compositionality is not uniformly distributed over expressions in a language or over individuals' communicative behavior: at both levels, variation is observed. Here, we investigate the neural bases of interindividual variability by probing the relationship between intrinsic characteristics of brain networks and compositional behavior. We first collected functional resting-state and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from a large participant sample (N = 51). Subsequently, participants took part in two signaling games. They were instructed to learn and reproduce an auditory symbolic system of signals (tone sequences) associated with affective meanings (human faces expressing emotions). Signal-meaning mappings were artificial and had to be learned via repeated signaling interactions. We identified a temporoparietal network in which connection length was related to the degree of compositionality introduced in a signaling system by each player. Graph-theoretic analysis of resting-state functional connectivity revealed that, within that network, compositional behavior was associated with integration measures in 2 semantic hubs: the left posterior cingulate cortex and the left angular gyrus. Our findings link individual variability in compositional biases to variation in the anatomy of semantic networks and in the functional topology of their constituent units.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0252174, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415911

RESUMEN

In everyday life, we group and subdivide time to understand the sensory environment surrounding us. Organizing time in units, such as diurnal rhythms, phrases, and beat patterns, is fundamental to behavior, speech, and music. When listening to music, our perceptual system extracts and nests rhythmic regularities to create a hierarchical metrical structure that enables us to predict the timing of the next events. Foot tapping and head bobbing to musical rhythms are observable evidence of this process. In the special case of polyrhythms, at least two metrical structures compete to become the reference for these temporal regularities, rendering several possible beats with which we can synchronize our movements. While there is general agreement that tempo, pitch, and loudness influence beat perception in polyrhythms, we focused on the yet neglected influence of beat subdivisions, i.e., the least common denominator of a polyrhythm ratio. In three online experiments, 300 participants listened to a range of polyrhythms and tapped their index fingers in time with the perceived beat. The polyrhythms consisted of two simultaneously presented isochronous pulse trains with different ratios (2:3, 2:5, 3:4, 3:5, 4:5, 5:6) and different tempi. For ratios 2:3 and 3:4, we additionally manipulated the pitch of the pulse trains. Results showed a highly robust influence of subdivision grouping on beat perception. This was manifested as a propensity towards beats that are subdivided into two or four equally spaced units, as opposed to beats with three or more complex groupings of subdivisions. Additionally, lower pitched pulse trains were more often perceived as the beat. Our findings suggest that subdivisions, not beats, are the basic unit of beat perception, and that the principle underlying the binary grouping of subdivisions reflects a propensity towards simplicity. This preference for simple grouping is widely applicable to human perception and cognition of time.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Acústica
10.
Psychol Sci ; 32(9): 1416-1425, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409898

RESUMEN

Anticipating the future is essential for efficient perception and action planning. Yet the role of anticipation in event segmentation is understudied because empirical research has focused on retrospective cues such as surprise. We address this concern in the context of perception of musical-phrase boundaries. A computational model of cognitive sequence processing was used to control the information-dynamic properties of tone sequences. In an implicit, self-paced listening task (N = 38), undergraduates dwelled longer on tones generating high entropy (i.e., high uncertainty) than on those generating low entropy (i.e., low uncertainty). Similarly, sequences that ended on tones generating high entropy were rated as sounding more complete (N = 31 undergraduates). These entropy effects were independent of both the surprise (i.e., information content) and phrase position of target tones in the original musical stimuli. Our results indicate that events generating high entropy prospectively contribute to segmentation processes in auditory sequence perception, independently of the properties of the subsequent event.


Asunto(s)
Música , Percepción Auditiva , Señales (Psicología) , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incertidumbre
11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(17): 5595-5608, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459062

RESUMEN

When listening to music, pitch deviations are more salient and elicit stronger prediction error responses when the melodic context is predictable and when the listener is a musician. Yet, the neuronal dynamics and changes in connectivity underlying such effects remain unclear. Here, we employed dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate whether the magnetic mismatch negativity response (MMNm)-and its modulation by context predictability and musical expertise-are associated with enhanced neural gain of auditory areas, as a plausible mechanism for encoding precision-weighted prediction errors. Using Bayesian model comparison, we asked whether models with intrinsic connections within primary auditory cortex (A1) and superior temporal gyrus (STG)-typically related to gain control-or extrinsic connections between A1 and STG-typically related to propagation of prediction and error signals-better explained magnetoencephalography responses. We found that, compared to regular sounds, out-of-tune pitch deviations were associated with lower intrinsic (inhibitory) connectivity in A1 and STG, and lower backward (inhibitory) connectivity from STG to A1, consistent with disinhibition and enhanced neural gain in these auditory areas. More predictable melodies were associated with disinhibition in right A1, while musicianship was associated with disinhibition in left A1 and reduced connectivity from STG to left A1. These results indicate that musicianship and melodic predictability, as well as pitch deviations themselves, enhance neural gain in auditory cortex during deviance detection. Our findings are consistent with predictive processing theories suggesting that precise and informative error signals are selected by the brain for subsequent hierarchical processing.

12.
Curr Biol ; 31(20): 4436-4448.e5, 2021 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437842

RESUMEN

What are the key topological features of connectivity critically relevant for generating the dynamics underlying efficient cortical function? A candidate feature that has recently emerged is that the connectivity of the mammalian cortex follows an exponential distance rule, which includes a small proportion of long-range high-weight anatomical exceptions to this rule. Whole-brain modeling of large-scale human neuroimaging data in 1,003 participants offers the unique opportunity to create two models, with and without long-range exceptions, and explicitly study their functional consequences. We found that rare long-range exceptions are crucial for significantly improving information processing. Furthermore, modeling in a simplified ring architecture shows that this improvement is greatly enhanced by the turbulent regime found in empirical neuroimaging data. Overall, the results provide strong empirical evidence for the immense functional benefits of long-range exceptions combined with turbulence for information processing.

13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1835): 20200332, 2021 10 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420393

RESUMEN

Human interaction is often accompanied by synchronized bodily rhythms. Such synchronization may emerge spontaneously as when a crowd's applause turns into a steady beat, be encouraged as in nursery rhymes, or be intentional as in the case of playing music together. The latter has been extensively studied using joint finger-tapping paradigms as a simplified version of rhythmic interpersonal synchronization. A key finding is that synchronization in such cases is multifaceted, with synchronized behaviour resting upon different synchronization strategies such as mutual adaptation, leading-following and leading-leading. However, there are multiple open questions regarding the mechanism behind these strategies and how they develop dynamically over time. Here, we propose a metastable attractor model of self-other integration (MEAMSO). This model conceptualizes dyadic rhythmic interpersonal synchronization as a process of integrating and segregating signals of self and other. Perceived sounds are continuously evaluated as either being attributed to self-produced or other-produced actions. The model entails a metastable system with two particular attractor states: one where an individual maintains two separate predictive models for self- and other-produced actions, and the other where these two predictive models integrate into one. The MEAMSO explains the three known synchronization strategies and makes testable predictions about the dynamics of interpersonal synchronization both in behaviour and the brain. This article is part of the theme issue 'Synchrony and rhythm interaction: from the brain to behavioural ecology'.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva , Música , Periodicidad , Desempeño Psicomotor , Humanos , Movimiento
14.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(6): 1943-1959, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050791

RESUMEN

The cultural transmission of spoken language and music relies on human capacities for encoding and recalling auditory patterns. In this experiment, we show that interindividual differences in this ability are associated with variation in the organization of cross-callosal white matter pathways. First, high-angular resolution diffusion MRI (dMRI) data were analyzed in a large participant sample (N = 51). Subsequently, these participants underwent a behavioral test that models in the laboratory the cultural transmission of auditory symbolic systems: the signaling game. Cross-callosal and intrahemispheric (arcuate fasciculus) pathways were reconstructed and analyzed using conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as a more advanced dMRI technique: fixel-based analysis (FBA). The DTI metric of fractional anisotropy (FA) in auditory callosal pathways predicted-weeks after scanning-the fidelity of transmission of an artificial tone system. The ability to coherently transmit auditory signals in one signaling game, irrespective of the signals learned during the previous game, was predicted by morphological properties of the fiber bundles in the most anterior portions of the corpus callosum. The current study is the first application of dMRI in the field of cultural transmission, and the first to connect individual characteristics of callosal pathways to core behaviors in the transmission of auditory symbolic systems.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4324, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619288

RESUMEN

Our sensory systems provide complementary information about the multimodal objects and events that are the target of perception in everyday life. Professional musicians' specialization in the auditory domain is reflected in the morphology of their brains, which has distinctive characteristics, particularly in areas related to auditory and audio-motor activity. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a behavioral measure of visually induced gain in pitch discrimination, and we used measures of cortical thickness (CT) correlations to assess how auditory specialization and musical expertise are reflected in the structural architecture of white and grey matter relevant to audiovisual processing. Across all participants (n = 45), we found a correlation (p < 0.001) between reliance on visual cues in pitch discrimination and the fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a structure connecting visual and auditory brain areas. Group analyses also revealed greater cortical thickness correlation between visual and auditory areas in non-musicians (n = 28) compared to musicians (n = 17), possibly reflecting musicians' auditory specialization (FDR < 10%). Our results corroborate and expand current knowledge of functional specialization with a specific focus on audition, and highlight the fact that perception is essentially multimodal while uni-sensory processing is a specialized task.

16.
Brain Res ; 1754: 147248, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417893

RESUMEN

Evoked cortical responses (ERs) have mainly been studied in controlled experiments using simplified stimuli. Though, an outstanding question is how the human cortex responds to the complex stimuli encountered in realistic situations. Few electroencephalography (EEG) studies have used Music Information Retrieval (MIR) tools to extract cortical P1/N1/P2 to acoustical changes in real music. However, less than ten events per music piece could be detected leading to ERs due to limitations in automatic detection of sound onsets. Also, the factors influencing a successful extraction of the ERs have not been identified. Finally, previous studies did not localize the sources of the cortical generators. This study is based on an EEG/MEG dataset from 48 healthy normal hearing participants listening to three real music pieces. Acoustic features were computed from the audio signal of the music with the MIR Toolbox. To overcome limits in automatic methods, sound onsets were also manually detected. The chance of obtaining detectable ERs based on ten randomly picked onset points was less than 1:10,000. For the first time, we show that naturalistic P1/N1/P2 ERs can be reliably measured across 100 manually identified sound onsets, substantially improving the signal-to-noise level compared to <10 trials. More ERs were measurable in musical sections with slow event rates (0.2 Hz-2.5 Hz) than with fast event rates (>2.5 Hz). Furthermore, during monophonic sections of the music only P1/P2 were measurable, and during polyphonic sections only N1. Finally, MEG source analysis revealed that naturalistic P2 is located in core areas of the auditory cortex.

17.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477654

RESUMEN

Motor exercise, such as sport or musical activities, helps with a plethora of diseases by modulating brain functions in neocortical and subcortical regions, resulting in behavioural changes related to mood regulation, well-being, memory, and even cognitive preservation in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Although evidence is accumulating on the systemic neural mechanisms mediating these brain effects, the specific mechanisms by which exercise acts upon the cellular level are still under investigation. This is particularly the case for music training, a much less studied instance of motor exercise than sport. With regards to sport, consistent neurobiological research has focused on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an essential player in the central nervous system. BDNF stimulates the growth and differentiation of neurons and synapses. It thrives in the hippocampus, the cortex, and the basal forebrain, which are the areas vital for memory, learning, and higher cognitive functions. Animal models and neurocognitive experiments on human athletes converge in demonstrating that physical exercise reliably boosts BDNF levels. In this review, we highlight comparable early findings obtained with animal models and elderly humans exposed to musical stimulation, showing how perceptual exposure to music might affect BDNF release, similar to what has been observed for sport. We subsequently propose a novel hypothesis that relates the neuroplastic changes in the human brains after musical training to genetically- and exercise-driven BDNF levels.


Asunto(s)
Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognición/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Memoria/fisiología , Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Animales , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Humanos , Condicionamiento Físico Animal
18.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 19-30, 2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337586

RESUMEN

Interpersonal coordination is a core part of human interaction, and its underlying mechanisms have been extensively studied using social paradigms such as joint finger-tapping. Here, individual and dyadic differences have been found to yield a range of dyadic synchronization strategies, such as mutual adaptation, leading-leading, and leading-following behaviour, but the brain mechanisms that underlie these strategies remain poorly understood. To identify individual brain mechanisms underlying emergence of these minimal social interaction strategies, we contrasted EEG-recorded brain activity in two groups of musicians exhibiting the mutual adaptation and leading-leading strategies. We found that the individuals coordinating via mutual adaptation exhibited a more frequent occurrence of phase-locked activity within a transient action-perception-related brain network in the alpha range, as compared to the leading-leading group. Furthermore, we identified parietal and temporal brain regions that changed significantly in the directionality of their within-network information flow. Our results suggest that the stronger weight on extrinsic coupling observed in computational models of mutual adaptation as compared to leading-leading might be facilitated by a higher degree of action-perception network coupling in the brain.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Mapeo Encefálico , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Masculino , Música
19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(4): 941-952, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146455

RESUMEN

Learning of complex auditory sequences such as music can be thought of as optimizing an internal model of regularities through unpredicted events (or "prediction errors"). We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and parametric empirical Bayes on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to identify modulation of effective brain connectivity that takes place during perceptual learning of complex tone patterns. Our approach differs from previous studies in two aspects. First, we used a complex oddball paradigm based on tone patterns as opposed to simple deviant tones. Second, the use of fMRI allowed us to identify cortical regions with high spatial accuracy. These regions served as empirical regions-of-interest for the analysis of effective connectivity. Deviant patterns induced an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response, compared to standards, in early auditory (Heschl's gyrus [HG]) and association auditory areas (planum temporale [PT]) bilaterally. Within this network, we found a left-lateralized increase in feedforward connectivity from HG to PT during deviant responses and an increase in excitation within left HG. In contrast to previous findings, we did not find frontal activity, nor did we find modulations of backward connections in response to oddball sounds. Our results suggest that complex auditory prediction errors are encoded by changes in feedforward and intrinsic connections, confined to superior temporal gyrus.

20.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041700, 2020 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Singing is considered a beneficial leisure time intervention for people with respiratory diseases, and lung choirs have gained increasing attention. However, there is no available guideline on preferred methodology, and hence, outcomes, delivery, and benefits are unclear. The present study investigated for the first time ever emerged delivery, approach, and experiences in Danish lung choirs and their singing leaders, hypothesising the array to be heterogeneous, without disease-specific approach, and a challenging field to navigate for the singing leaders. SETTING: An online survey comprising 25 questions was performed individually, May 2017, in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Current singing leaders of Danish lung choirs, identified by hand searches on the internet. In total, 33 singing leaders in formal and informal settings were identified and 20 (67%) responded. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution in content, delivery, and approach; level of disease-specific knowledge and modification; experience of challenges and benefits. Quantitative variables were counted, and an inductive content analysis approach was used for the qualitative study component. RESULTS: The lung choirs were heterogeneous concerning setting, duration, and content. The approach was traditional without disease-specific content or physical activity. Most singing leaders held various academic degrees in music, but lacked skills in lung diseases. However, they experienced lung choirs as a highly meaningful activity, and reported that participants benefited both musically, psychosocially, and physically. Singing leaders were enthusiastic regarding potentials in the 'arts-and-health' cross-field and experienced an expansion of their role and overall purpose, professionally as well as personally. However, they also experienced insecurity, inadequacy, and isolation, and requested methodological guidelines, formal support, and peer network. CONCLUSION: Danish lung choirs are led without any disease-specific guideline or methodological approach. Further studies are needed to develop and distribute a preferred methodological approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study is linked to clinical trial number NCT03280355 and was performed prior to data collection and results of the clinical trial.


Asunto(s)
Canto , Dinamarca , Humanos , Pulmón , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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