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1.
Chemosphere ; 292: 133418, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968509

RESUMEN

Metal (loids) and Rare Earth Elements (REE) ('metals') are used in a wide range of products, and therefore, the improvement of expectations for everyday comforts with demand continues to grow. Metal-bearing wastes are a secondary source of raw material that can meet this demand by providing a previously unconsidered low impact supply source. Total annual leachate production is 1,056,716 m3. Therefore, landfill leachate emerges as a significant potential resource as it contains high concentrations of metals. However, realising a profitable return on investment for leachate processing is a challenge due to relatively low recovery rates of approximately 0.02% of total heavy metals in a landfill being leached out in 30 years. Variation within the multi-element value and the effect of other chemicals in these complex mixtures. There is a need to better understand the mechanisms and potential applicability of extraction methods for optimising metals recovery from leachate. This paper addresses this need by providing a systematic review of the critical factors and environmental conditions that influence the behaviour of metals within the landfilled waste. The paper provides a synthesis of how the factors and conditions may affect leachate recirculation efficiency for recovery in the context of a range of opportunities and challenges facing circular economy practitioners. To approach feasibility metal recovery economically from landfill leachate without energy-intensive and environmentally destructive, future research actions need to be initiated in lab-based and later on semi-pilot to pilot studies, which the review can help achieve the challenges.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Metales de Tierras Raras , Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150332, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555612

RESUMEN

The recovery of metal(loid)s from municipal solid waste (MSW) samples <10 years old and >10 years old was investigated using a series of pH-dependence leaching batch tests ranging between pH 2 and 10. Further to this, the influences of various parameters, including depth, and humic acid (HA) concentrations on the recovery of metal(loid)s including Li, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg were investigated. The Visual MINTEQ geochemical software was then used to model the metal(loid)s release in the presence of different HA concentrations ranging from 28 mg/L to 100 mg/L, which can be found in landfill sites and pH ranging from 2 to 10. The results showed that the release amount of Li, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg are in the range of 0.03-0.14 mg/L, 0.65-83.33 mg/L, 0.01-0.19 mg/L, 0.18-18.17 mg/L, 0.01-0.09 mg/L, 0.06-0.38 mg/L, 0.12-5.2 mg/L, 0.14-11.57 mg/L, 0.02-0.10 mg/L, 0.00-26.17 mg/L, 0.03-25.17 mg/L, and 0.00-0.01 mg/L with deionised water as leachant at different pH. The release amount of HA was relatively increased from 0 to 2% in 48-55 m compared to 3-9 m in the MSW landfill. HA can promote the leaching rate of metals with an appropriate amount. Base on the study results, the optimal condition of leaching metals was pH 2, and HA 28 mg/L at less than 10 m depth. The high concentration of metals in landfill leachate may be enhanced to effectively recover metals as the critical challenge of recovering metals from leachate is the low concentration of metals. Thus, the information can be useful for economically feasible in the recovery of metals.


Asunto(s)
Metaloides , Metales Pesados , Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Sustancias Húmicas , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Incineración , Metales Pesados/análisis , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Waste Manag ; 76: 55-67, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622377

RESUMEN

In Europe over 5.25 billion tonnes of waste has been landfilled between 1995 and 2015. Among this large amount of waste, plastic represents typically 5-25 wt% which is significant and has the potential to be recycled and reintroduced into the circular economy. To date there is still however little information available of the opportunities and challenges in recovering plastics from landfill sites. In this review, the impacts of landfill chemistry on the degradation and/or contamination of excavated plastic waste are analysed. The feasibility of using excavated plastic waste as feedstock for upcycling to valuable chemicals or liquid fuels through thermochemical conversion is also critically discussed. The limited degradation that is experienced by many plastics in landfills (>20 years) which guarantee that large amount is still available is largely due to thermooxidative degradation and the anaerobic conditions. However, excavated plastic waste cannot be conventionally recycled due to high level of ash, impurities and heavy metals. Recent studies demonstrated that pyrolysis offers a cost effective alternative option to conventional recycling. The produced pyrolysis oil is expected to have similar characteristics to petroleum diesel oil. The production of valuable product from excavated plastic waste will also increase the feasibility of enhanced landfill mining projects. However, further studies are needed to investigate the uncertainties about the contamination level and degradation of excavated plastic waste and address their viability for being processed through pyrolysis.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos/química , Reciclaje , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Europa (Continente)
4.
Waste Manag ; 61: 40-57, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139367

RESUMEN

Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Carbono , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Fluorescencia , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Rayos Láser , Metano , Microondas , Óptica y Fotónica/métodos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Reciclaje/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Ultrasonido/métodos , Administración de Residuos/instrumentación
5.
Waste Manag ; 63: 11-17, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577751

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Biodegradación Ambiental , Metano/análisis , Reino Unido
6.
Waste Manag ; 55: 61-70, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27397800

RESUMEN

The effect of leachate recirculation with cellulase augmentation on municipal solid waste (MSW) biostabilisation and landfill gas production was investigated using batch bioreactors to determine the optimal conditions of moisture content, temperature and nutrients. Experimentation was thereafter scaled-up in 7L bioreactors. Three conditions were tested including (1) leachate recirculation only, (2) leachate recirculation with enzyme augmentation and (3) no leachate recirculation (control). Cumulative biogas production of the batch tests indicated that there was little difference between the leachate and control test conditions, producing on average 0.043m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste. However the addition of cellulase at 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste doubled the biogas production (0.074m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). Similar trend was observed with the bioreactors. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest COD reduction in both the waste and the leachate samples (47% and 42% COD reduction, respectively). In both cases, the quantity of biogas produced was closer to the lower value of theoretical and data-based biogas prediction indicators (0.05-0.4m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). This was likely due to a high concentration of heavy metals present in the leachate, in particular Cr and Mn, which are known to be toxic to methanogens. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based on the settings of the study (cellulase concentration of 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste) showed that leachate bioaugmentation using cellulase is economically viable, with a net benefit of approximately €12.1million on a 5Mt mixed waste landfill.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Reactores Biológicos , Celulasa , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Residuos Sólidos
7.
Energy Convers Manag ; 118: 364-376, 2016 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27330236

RESUMEN

Non-sewered sanitary systems (NSS) are emerging as one of the solutions to poor sanitation because of the limitations of the conventional flush toilet. These new sanitary systems are expected to safely treat faecal waste and operate without external connections to a sewer, water supply or energy source. The Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) is a unique domestic-scale sanitary solution currently being developed to treat human waste on-site. This toilet will employ a small-scale gasifier to convert human faeces into products of high energy value. This study investigated the suitability of human faeces as a feedstock for gasification. It quantified the recoverable exergy potential from human faeces and explored the optimal routes for thermal conversion, using a thermodynamic equilibrium model. Fresh human faeces were found to have approximately 70-82 wt.% moisture and 3-6 wt.% ash. Product gas resulting from a typical dry human faeces (0 wt.% moisture) had LHV and exergy values of 17.2 MJ/kg and 24 MJ/kg respectively at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.31, values that are comparable to wood biomass. For suitable conversion of moist faecal samples, near combustion operating conditions are required, if an external energy source is not supplied. This is however at 5% loss in the exergy value of the gas, provided both thermal heat and energy of the gas are recovered. This study shows that the maximum recoverable exergy potential from an average adult moist human faeces can be up to 15 MJ/kg, when the gasifier is operated at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.57, excluding heat losses, distribution or other losses that result from operational activities.

8.
Waste Manag ; 55: 336-44, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27290632

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were to assess the biogas potential of landfilled materials and to further validate the suitability of the enzymatic hydrolysis test EHT as a valuable alternative to substitute the standardised test currently in use (BMP). Both tests were applied to a range of landfill waste samples. The waste composition and volatile solids content (VS) profile together with the BMP test results showed that the biogas potential of the waste samples was directly related to their VS content, as expected. The positive correlation between the VS and the BMP test (r=0.67) suggests that the first could be used as a primary indicator of biogas potential of waste samples. Nevertheless, it should be validated against the BMP test because, occasionally, the VS content does not equate to the biogas production. This was mainly due to the paper content of the samples which also correlates positively (r=0.77) with the BMP biogas production. The EHT results showed a higher correlation with the BMP test (r=0.91) than in previous studies which used a wider mixture of enzymes containing cellulase, hemicellulase and carbohydrase. This finding positions the EHT as a quick assessing method for the biodegradability of waste samples in future sample regimes.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Residuos Sólidos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Metano/análisis
9.
Waste Manag ; 40: 9-13, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25827256

RESUMEN

An experimental study was completed using a previously developed and innovative image analysis approach, which has been applied here to shredded waste materials representative of waste-derived fuels. Waste components were collected from source-segregated recycling containers and shredded to <150 mm. These materials were then used to produce 3× samples of different composition. The samples were spread to represent materials on a conveyor belt, and multiple images of each sample were captured using 10×10 cm and 20×20 cm quadrats. The images were processed using ERDAS Imagine software to determine the area covered by each waste component. This coverage was converted into a mass using density data determined as part of this study, yielding a determined composition which was then compared with the known composition of the samples. The image analysis results indicated a strong correlation with the actual values (mean r=0.89). The area coverage of the sample (10×10 cm or 20×20 cm) contributes to the accuracy as the dot-grid approach used with the particle size within the samples may result in components not being sufficiently monitored. This manuscript presents initial results of the application of an adapted innovative image-based method, and critically assesses how the technique could be improved and developed in the future.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Reciclaje/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Residuos/análisis , Algoritmos , Biocombustibles/análisis , Biomasa , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Europa (Continente) , Tamaño de la Partícula , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Programas Informáticos
10.
Waste Manag ; 34(1): 219-25, 2014 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24064376

RESUMEN

The thermal processing of waste materials, although considered to be an essential part of waste management, is often sharply contested in the UK. Arguments such as health, depletion of resources, cost, noise, odours, traffic movement and house prices are often cited as reasons against the development of such facilities. This study aims to review the arguments and identify any effect on property prices due to the public perception of the plant. A selection of existing energy from waste (EfW) facilities in the UK, operational for at least 7 years, was selected and property sales data, within 5 km of the sites, was acquired and analysed in detail. The locations of the properties were calculated in relation to the plant using GIS software (ArcGIS) and the distances split into 5 zones ranging from 0 to 5 km from the site. The local property sale prices, normalised against the local house price index, were compared in two time periods, before and after the facility became operational, across each of the 5 zones. In all cases analysed no significant negative effect was observed on property prices at any distance within 5 km from a modern operational incinerator. This indicated that the perceived negative effect of the thermal processing of waste on local property values is negligible.


Asunto(s)
Incineración/economía , Opinión Pública , Contaminación del Aire , Cambio Climático , Comercio , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Ruido , Salud Pública , Reino Unido
11.
Waste Manag ; 33(11): 2449-56, 2013 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23876718

RESUMEN

Two novel techniques are presented in this study which together aim to provide a system able to determine the renewable energy potential of mixed waste materials. An image analysis tool was applied to two waste samples prepared using known quantities of source-segregated recyclable materials. The technique was used to determine the composition of the wastes, where through the use of waste component properties the biogenic content of the samples was calculated. The percentage renewable energy determined by image analysis for each sample was accurate to within 5% of the actual values calculated. Microwave-based multiple-point imaging (AutoHarvest) was used to demonstrate the ability of such a technique to determine the moisture content of mixed samples. This proof-of-concept experiment was shown to produce moisture measurement accurate to within 10%. Overall, the image analysis tool was able to determine the renewable energy potential of the mixed samples, and the AutoHarvest should enable the net calorific value calculations through the provision of moisture content measurements. The proposed system is suitable for combustion facilities, and enables the operator to understand the renewable energy potential of the waste prior to combustion.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Energía Renovable , Residuos/análisis , Microondas
12.
Waste Manag ; 32(2): 245-8, 2012 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22019051

RESUMEN

An experimental study was undertaken to assess the suitability of an image-based approach for determining the physical composition of mixed wastes. Waste samples were investigated at six different waste sorting facilities each visited twice during the study. These materials were physically sorted to examine the composition of these materials; during each of these surveys the waste was also processed to obtain digital images covering an area of 30 m(2), representing approximately 250-500 kg (3× mechanical bucket loads) of mixed waste. The images were processed using ERDAS Imagine software to assess the area covered by each component within the waste material. The composition determined from the image analysis was compared with results from the physical hand sorting. The image analysis results indicated a strong correlation with the physical results (mean r=0.91), however it was evident that components such as film plastics and paper were being over-estimated by the image analysis approach. This manuscript provides initial results, demonstrating the potential of an image-based method, and discusses further research requirements and future applications of this technique.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Residuos/análisis , Residuos/clasificación , Inglaterra
13.
Waste Manag ; 31(7): 1467-71, 2011 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21421298

RESUMEN

This paper presents a study to evaluate the recently developed enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) through its repeated application to a waste treatment process. A single waste treatment facility, involving a biodrying process, has been monitored using three different methods to assess the biodegradable content of the organic waste fractions. These test methods were the anaerobic BMc, aerobic DR4 and the EHT, which is a method based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic content of waste materials. The input municipal solid waste (MSW) and the output solid recovered fuel (SRF) and organic fines streams were sampled over a period of nine months from a single mechanical biological treatment (MBT) facility. The EHT was applied to each stream following grinding to <10 mm and <2 mm, in order to investigate the effect of particle size on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from enzyme hydrolysis. The output organic fines were found to more biodegradable than the MSW input and SRF output samples in each of the test methods, significantly (p<0.05) for the EHT and DR4 methods, on the basis of DOC released and oxygen consumed, respectively. The variation between sample replicates for the EHT was higher where sample sizes of <2 mm were analysed compared to sizes of <10 mm, and the DOC release at each phase of the EHT was observed to be higher when using particle sizes of <2 mm. Despite this, additional sample grinding from the <10 mm to a smaller particle size of <2 mm is not sufficiently beneficial to the analysis of organic waste fractions in the EHT method. Finally, it was concluded that as similar trends were observed for each test method, this trial confirms that EHT has the potential to be deployed as a practical operational biodegradability monitoring tool.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Enzimas/metabolismo , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Aerobiosis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciudades , Inglaterra , Enzimas/química , Hidrólisis , Compuestos Orgánicos/metabolismo , Oxígeno/metabolismo
14.
Waste Manag ; 31(6): 1176-83, 2011 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21288710

RESUMEN

An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidized bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal+10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal+10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Mineral/análisis , Incineración , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Residuos/análisis , Aire , Carbono/química , Ceniza del Carbón , Metales Pesados/análisis , Material Particulado/química , Eliminación de Residuos/instrumentación , Termogravimetría
15.
Environ Technol ; 33(15-16): 1699-707, 2011 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22439555

RESUMEN

The identification of risk and its appropriate allocation to partners in project consortia is essential for minimizing overall project risks, ensuring timely delivery and maximizing benefit for money invested. Risk management guidance available from government bodies, especially in the UK, does not specify methodologies for quantitative risk assessment, nor does it offer a procedure for allocating risk among project partners. Here, a methodology to quantify project risk and potential approaches to allocating risk and their implications are discussed. Construction and operation of a waste management facility through a public-private finance contract are discussed. Public-private partnership contracts are special purpose vehicle (SPV) financing methods promoted by the UK government to boost private sector investment in facilities for public service enhancement. Our findings question the appropriateness of using standard deviation as a measure for project risk and confirm the concept of portfolio theory, suggesting the pooling of risk can reduce total risk and its impact.


Asunto(s)
Administración de Residuos/economía , Gestión de Riesgos , Incertidumbre
16.
Waste Manag ; 30(5): 934-5, 2010 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20138496

RESUMEN

This response follows on from a recent discussion by Sánchez (2009) on test methods to aid in the evaluation of the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. Test methods to assess the biodegradability/biodegradable content of organic waste are of great interest across Europe for different purposes, such as landfill acceptance criteria, monitoring treatment facility performance and for monitoring the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. Many studies have recently attempted to correlate short-term test methods with long-term anaerobic test methods. This response discusses recent findings and conclusions made by Sánchez (2009) and describes recent work undertaken at Cranfield University to develop the enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) method. The EHT has previously shown potential as a short-term, non-biological, biodegradability assessment tool, however there is a requirement to further develop this test method. We conclude that aerobic and anaerobic biological test methods are not the only suitable methods of assessing waste treatment process performance; and that alternative methods such as EHT are feasible and potentially suitable.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Aerobiosis , Anaerobiosis , Europa (Continente) , Hidrólisis
17.
Waste Manag ; 29(3): 1218-26, 2009 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18986803

RESUMEN

A wide range of waste characterization methods are available, each developed for a specific purpose such as determining compost stability, or for landfill acceptance criteria. Here test methods have been evaluated for the purpose of assessing waste treatment process performance and monitoring the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. The suitability factors include the timescale of the method, applicability to a wide range of materials and ability to indicate the long-term biodegradability of organic waste samples. The anaerobic test methods, whilst producing reliable results, take at least several weeks to complete, therefore, not allowing for regular routine analysis often required for diversion assessments. Short-term tests are required which can correlate with, and, therefore, estimate, values obtained from long-term anaerobic methods. Aerobic test methods were found to offer a significantly improved timescale compared with anaerobic test methods; however, they have limitations due to not measuring the full extent of sample biodegradability. No single test method was found to be completely sufficient for routine biodegradability analysis suitable for monitoring the BMW diversion from landfill. Potential areas for further research include spectrographic FT-IR or enzyme-based approaches such as the ECD or EHT methods.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos , Aerobiosis , Anaerobiosis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Ciudades , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo
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