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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-5, 2020 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159421

RESUMEN

Interleukin 10 (IL-10) belongs to IL-10 family cytokines that are critical for maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues, protecting pathogenic infection, and preventing excessive immune responses to damage self. Temporal IL-10 signaling blockade enhances vaccine-induced tumor regression by CD8 + T cells. IL-10, especially pegylated IL-10, mediates tumor regression by expanding tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T cells. Moreover, targeting IL-10 enhances immune checkpoint inhibitor mediated tumor regression. In the current paper, we will review recent advances in this area and discuss the complexity of IL-10 manipulation for cancer therapy.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221045, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545798

RESUMEN

Human papillomavirus (HPV) related tumours account for a significant proportion of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) in developed countries. They respond better to chemo- and radio-therapy, and have a better stage specific prognosis. To establish their prevalence in China, we assessed a series of histology confirmed HNSCCs collected in Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces by PCR for HPV DNA and by immunohistochemistry for p16 protein status. Among 303 HNSCCs, HPV DNA was detected in 26.4%, with HPV16 DNA in 71% of these. Of HNSCC located in the oropharynx, 38.55% (32/83) were HPV+ve. In this series, p16 status was a relatively poor predictor of HPV status as detected by PCR. The stage specific survival time of HPV+ HNSCCs was significantly longer than for HPV- HNSCC. HPV status should be assessed for oropharyngeal cancers in China to assist with appropriate management, and prophylaxis against HPV infection should be considered to reduce the incidence of this disease.

5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 163, 2019 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277636

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer remain ineffective. Previously, we demonstrated that blocking the signalling of a cytokine, interleukin 10, at the time of immunisation elicited significantly higher numbers of antigen specific T cells and inhibited tumour growth in mice. RESULTS: In the current paper, we demonstrate, in a HPV16 E6/E7 transformed TC-1 tumour mouse model, that despite increased antigen specific T cell numbers, blocking IL-10 signalling at the time of immunisation does not increase the survival time of the TC-1 tumour bearing mice compared to mice receiving the same immunisation with no IL-10 signalling blockade. Moreover, the function of tumour infiltrating T cells isolated 3 weeks post TC-1 transplantation is more suppressed than those isolated 2 weeks after tumour inoculation. We demonstrate that synthesized caerin peptides, derived from amphibian skin secretions, 1) were able to inhibit TC-1 tumour growth both in vitro and in vivo; 2) are environmentally stable; and 3) promote the secretion of pro-inflammatory interlukine-6 by TC-1 cells. Notably caerin peptides were able to increase the survival time of TC-1 tumour bearing mice after therapeutic vaccination with a HPV16E7 peptide-based vaccine containing IL-10 inhibitor, via recruiting increased levels of T cells to the tumour site. CONCLUSION: Caerin peptides increase the efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine by recruiting more T cells to the tumour site.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Anfibias/farmacología , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/farmacología , Vacunas contra el Cáncer/uso terapéutico , Linfocitos Infiltrantes de Tumor/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Anfibias/uso terapéutico , Animales , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapéutico , Vacunas contra el Cáncer/farmacología , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Femenino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interleucina-10/antagonistas & inhibidores , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Linfocitos Infiltrantes de Tumor/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Trasplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Experimentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Linfocitos T/metabolismo
6.
Food Nutr Bull ; 40(1): 111-123, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686048

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Food aid is a valuable tool for meeting global nutrition goals, particularly for vulnerable populations of children and reproductive-aged women. On October 21, 2017, the Food Aid Quality Review Project hosted a scientific symposium at the 21st International Congress on Nutrition in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to take stock of what the global community has learned about selected topics in the research literature on food aid used to address malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: This article presents the discussion that took place during the symposium, which was guided by presentations by 6 experts from the field of nutrition, food aid, and humanitarian response. CONCLUSION: The recent upsurge in research on food aid has advanced the collective knowledge of what food aid products and programs work for addressing nutrition, but there is much more to learn. Presentations in this symposium called for further inquiry on (1) different and novel food aid formulations, (2) the cost-effectiveness of products and programs, and (3) market-based approaches to food assistance. Continuing to expand the evidence base on these topics is critical to improving global nutrition programs.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria/clasificación , Asistencia Alimentaria/economía , Alimentos Formulados , Alimentos Fortificados , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Ciencias Nutricionales , Congresos como Asunto , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Salud Global , Humanos , Desnutrición/dietoterapia , Poblaciones Vulnerables
7.
BMJ Open ; 8(5): e018507, 2018 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858405

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, scabies affects 7 out of 10 children before their first birthday. This is more than six times the rate seen in the rest of the developed world. Scabies infestation is frequently complicated by bacterial infection, leading to the development of skin sores and other more serious consequences, such as septicaemia and chronic heart and kidney diseases. Tea tree oil (TTO) has been used as an antimicrobial agent for several decades with proven clinical efficacy. Preclinical investigations have demonstrated superior scabicidal properties of TTO compared with widely used scabicidal agents, such as permethrin 5% cream and ivermectin. However, current data are insufficient to warrant a broad recommendation for its use for the management of scabies because previous studies were small or limited to in vitro observations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A pragmatic first trial will examine the clinical efficacy of a simple and low-cost TTO treatment against paediatric scabies and the prevention of associated secondary bacterial infections, with 1:1 randomisation of 200 participants (Aboriginal children, aged 5-16 years and living in remote Australia) into active control (permethrin 5% cream) and treatment (5% TTO gel) groups. The primary outcome for the study is clinical cure (complete resolution). Secondary outcome measures will include relief of symptoms, recurrence rate, adverse effects, adherence to treatment regimen and patient acceptability. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has received approvals from the University of Canberra Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC 16-133), Wurli-Wurlinjang Health Service Indigenous subcommittee and the Aboriginal Medical Services Alliance Northern Territory reference group. The results of this study will be published in core scientific publications, with extensive knowledge exchange activities with non-academic audiences throughout the duration of the project. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12617000902392; Pre-results.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/farmacología , Escabiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Aceite de Árbol de Té/farmacología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/organización & administración , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Northern Territory , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 7382351, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862288

RESUMEN

Caerin is a family of peptides isolated from the glandular secretion of Australian tree frogs, the genus Litoria, and has been previously shown to have anticancer activity against several cancer cells. In this work, we used two host-defence peptides, caerin 1.1 and caerin 1.9, to investigate their ability to inhibit a murine derived TC-1 cell transformed with human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7 growth in vitro. Caerin 1.9 inhibits TC-1 cell proliferation, although inhibition is more pronounced when applied in conjunction with caerin 1.1. To gain further insights into the antiproliferative mechanisms of caerin 1.9 and its additive effect with caerin 1.1, we used a proteomics strategy to quantitatively examine (i) the changes in the protein profiles of TC-1 cells and (ii) the excretory-secretory products of TC-1 cells following caerin peptides treatment. Caerin 1.9 treatment significantly altered the abundance of several immune-related proteins and related pathways, such as the Tec kinase and ILK signalling pathways, as well as the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In conclusion, caerin peptides inhibit TC-1 cell proliferation, associated with modification in signalling pathways that would change the tumour microenvironment which is normally immune suppressive.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Anfibias/farmacología , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteómica , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ratones , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patología
9.
Food Nutr Bull ; 38(4): 574-584, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046067

RESUMEN

Important strides have been made recently in upgrading the global food aid agenda in line with evolving medical and nutrition sciences, operational experience, and innovations in food technology. A 2011 report endorsed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) recommended numerous improvements to products intended to support improved survival and nutrition in humanitarian programming, as well as greater rigor and transparency in the research agenda that supports innovations in this critical field. This article reviews progress since 2011 made by USAID, and other global food aid providers, in developing food aid products that are fit-for-purpose and are appropriately formulated to save lives in emergencies and to promote healthy mothers and children in nonemergency contexts. It highlights important modifications and addition made to products and identifies persisting knowledge gaps that should be prioritized in future research.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Altruismo , Servicios de Salud del Niño/normas , Preescolar , Urgencias Médicas , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil/normas , Desarrollo de Programa , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for International Development
10.
Matern Child Nutr ; 13 Suppl 12017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960875

RESUMEN

Realistic planning for a nutrition intervention is a critical component of implementation, yet effective approaches have been poorly documented. Under the auspices of "The Micronutrient Powders Consultation: Lessons Learned for Operational Guidance," 3 working groups were formed to summarize experiences and lessons across countries regarding micronutrient powders (MNP) interventions for young children. This paper focuses on programmatic experiences in the planning stages of an MNP intervention, encompassing assessment, enabling environment and adaptation, as well as considerations for supply. Methods included a review of published and grey literature, key informant interviews, and deliberations throughout the consultation process. We found that assessments helped justify adopting an MNP intervention, but these assessments were often limited by their narrow scope and inadequate data. Establishing coordinating bodies and integrating MNP into existing policies and programmes have helped foster an enabling environment and support programme stability. Formative research and pilots have been used to adapt MNP interventions to specific contexts, but they have been insufficient to inform scale-up. In terms of supply, most countries have opted to procure MNP through international suppliers, but this still requires understanding and navigating the local regulatory environment at the earliest stages of an intervention. Overall, these findings indicate that although some key planning and supply activities are generally undertaken, improvements are needed to plan for effective scale-up. Much still needs to be learned on MNP planning, and we propose a set of research questions that require further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Ferropénica/prevención & control , Anemia/prevención & control , Planificación en Salud , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Suplementos Dietéticos , Asistencia Alimentaria/organización & administración , Asistencia Alimentaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos Fortificados , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Planificación en Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Micronutrientes/deficiencia , Micronutrientes/provisión & distribución , Pobreza , Polvos , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for International Development
11.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 36(1): 34, 2017 09 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899434

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2014, an intervention aimed at increasing the oil in corn soy blend (CSB) porridge prepared by caregivers of children with moderate acute malnutrition was implemented in Southern Malawi. This analysis describes the flow of key messages delivered through the Care Group model during this intervention. METHODS: The intervention provided a supplementary food ration of CSB and oil and used a Care Group model in which healthcare workers were trained to deliver social and behavior change communication (SBCC) to care group volunteers who then delivered messages to caregivers of beneficiary children. Healthcare workers also delivered messages to caregivers directly. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with all three groups in order to determine the exchange of key messages about ingredient use, storage, and purpose, which were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Analysis of SBCC flow and information exchange showed that 100% of caregivers reported learning about the amounts of oil and CSB to use while preparing porridge and over 90% of caregivers, healthcare workers, and care group volunteers reported talking about it. Focus groups confirmed an effective flow of communication among these three groups. CONCLUSION: This analysis evaluated the flow of key SBCC messages through multiple, overlapping lines of communication among healthcare workers, care group volunteers, and caregivers; the effective transmission of these SBCC messages through this model may contribute to the success of a supplementary feeding intervention program. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01873196 ).


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/educación , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/dietoterapia , Educación en Salud/métodos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Terapia Conductista , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/prevención & control , Preescolar , Comunicación , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta , Humanos , Lactante , Malaui , Conducta Social , Soja , Zea mays
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 385, 2017 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797273

RESUMEN

Scabies is a parasitic disease due to infestation of skin by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Scabies is a major public health problem and endemic in resource poor communities worldwide affecting over 100 million people. Associated bacterial infections cause substantial morbidity, and in severe cases can lead to renal and cardiac diseases. Mite infestation of the skin causes localised cutaneous inflammation, pruritus, skin lesions, and allergic and inflammatory responses are mounted by the host against the mite and its products. Our current understanding of the immune and inflammatory responses associated with the clinical manifestations in scabies is far outweighed by the significant global impact of the disease. This review aims to provide a better understanding of human immune responses to S. scabiei in ordinary and crusted scabies phenotypes.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Innata , Sarcoptes scabiei/inmunología , Escabiosis/inmunología , Animales , Citocinas/inmunología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Humanos , Inmunidad Humoral , Escabiosis/parasitología , Piel/inmunología , Piel/parasitología
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(3): 851-860, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722633

RESUMEN

Scabies is a human skin disease due to the burrowing ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis resulting in intense itching and inflammation and manifesting as a skin allergy. Because of insufficient mite material and lack of in vitro propagation system for antigen preparation, scabies is a challenging disease to develop serological diagnostics. For allergen characterization, full-length S. scabiei tropomyosin (Sar s 10) was cloned, expressed in pET-15b, and assessed for reactivity with IgE antibodies from human sera. IgE binding was observed to Sar s 10 with sera collected from subjects with ordinary scabies, house dust mite (HDM)-positive and naive subjects and a diagnostic sensitivity of < 30% was observed. S. scabiei paramyosin (Sar s 11) was cloned, and expressed in pET-28a in three overlapping fragments designated Sspara1, Sspara2, and Sspara3. IgE and IgG binding was observed to Sspara2 and Sspara3 antigens with sera collected from ordinary scabies, and HDM-positive subjects, but no binding was observed with sera collected from naive subjects. Sspara2 displayed excellent diagnostic potential with 98% sensitivity and 90% specificity observed for IgE binding and 70% sensitivity for IgG. In contrast, the diagnostic sensitivity of Sspara3 was 84% for IgE binding and 40% for IgG binding. In combination, Sspara2 and Sspara3 provided an IgE sensitivity of 94%. This study shows that IgE binding to Sspara2 and Sspara3 is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of scabies infestation in clinical practice. The developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay helps direct future development of a specific diagnostic tool for scabies.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos/metabolismo , Sarcoptes scabiei/metabolismo , Escabiosis/parasitología , Tropomiosina/metabolismo , Animales , Clonación Molecular , ADN Complementario/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Filogenia , Unión Proteica , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Tropomiosina/genética
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559258

RESUMEN

Moxidectin is under consideration for development as a treatment for human scabies. As some arthropods show decreased sensitivity to moxidectin relative to ivermectin, it was important to assess this for Sarcoptes scabieiIn vitro assays showed that the concentration of moxidectin required to kill 50% of mites was lower than that of ivermectin (0.5 µM versus 1.8 µM at 24 h; P < 0.0001). This finding provides further support for moxidectin as a candidate for the treatment of human scabies.


Asunto(s)
Acaricidas/uso terapéutico , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Sarcoptes scabiei/efectos de los fármacos , Escabiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Supervivencia
15.
Matern Child Nutr ; 13(4)2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28083927

RESUMEN

Corn Soy Blend (CSB) porridge is commonly prepared with oil for treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). A recent review recommended that 30 g of oil be used with 100 g of CSB to increase energy density and micronutrient absorption. This study assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of program changes aimed at achieving that target oil:CSB ratio in prepared porridge. Caregivers of children in MAM supplementary feeding programs were assigned to three groups: a control group received monthly rations of 1 L oil, 8 kg CSB in bulk, and social and behavior change communication (SBCC); intervention groups received 2.6 L oil, 8 kg CSB provided either in bulk (Group 1) or four 2-kg packages with printed messages (Group 2), and enhanced SBCC emphasizing the target oil:CSB ratio. Compared to the control, both intervention groups had higher mean added oil per 100 g CSB (18 g, p < 0.01, and 13 g, p= 0.04, higher in groups 1 and 2, respectively), and greater odds of meeting or exceeding the target ratio (28.4, p< 0.01, and 12.7, p= 0.02, in groups 1 and 2, respectively). Cost per caregiver reaching the target ratio was most favorable in Group 1 ($391 in Group 1, $527 in Group 2, and $1,666 in the control). Enhanced SBCC combined with increased oil ration resulted in increased use of oil in CSB porridge in a supplementary feeding program. Modified packaging did not improve effectiveness. However, both interventions were more cost-effective than standard programming.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Alimentos Fortificados , Desnutrición/dietoterapia , Aceites Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Soja , Zea mays , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/economía , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Malaui/epidemiología , Desnutrición/economía , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Micronutrientes/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/química , Tamaño de la Muestra , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 13(3): 518-527, 2017 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686406

RESUMEN

Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that is able to downregulate inflammation. Its overexpression is directly associated with the difficulty in the clearance of chronic viral infections, such as chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infection, and infection-related cancer. IL-10 signaling blockade has been proposed as a promising way of clearing chronic viral infection and preventing tumor growth in animal models. Recently, we have reported that peptides with a helical repeating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues are able to inhibit IL-10 significantly both in vitro and in vivo. 1 In this work, we seek to further study the inhibiting mechanism of these peptides using sequence-modified peptides. As evidenced by both experimental and molecular dynamics simulation in concert the N-terminal hydrophobic peptide constructed with repeating hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern of residues is more likely to inhibit IL10. In addition, the sequence length and the ability of protonation are also important for inhibition activity.


Asunto(s)
Factores Inmunológicos/química , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Interleucina-10/antagonistas & inhibidores , Péptidos/química , Péptidos/farmacología , Línea Celular , Dicroismo Circular , Humanos , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie
17.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153939, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27100390

RESUMEN

Blockade of IL-10 signalling clears chronic viral and bacterial infections. Immunization together with blockade of IL-10 signalling or relatively low level of IL-10 further enhances viral and bacterial clearance. IL-10 functions through binding to interleukin 10 receptor (IL-10R). Here we showed that peptides P1 and P2 with the hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern of the IL10R-binding helix in IL-10 could bind with either IL-10R1 or IL-10, and inhibit inflammatory signals with long duration and negligible cytotoxicity in vitro. Furthermore, P2 can enhance antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice induced by the vaccine based on a long peptide of protein E7 in a human papillomavirus type 16.


Asunto(s)
Interleucina-10/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/inmunología , Vacunas de Subunidad/química , Vacunas de Subunidad/farmacología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Femenino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunización , Interleucina-10/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Conformación Proteica , Homología de Secuencia de Aminoácido , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie , Vacunas de Subunidad/inmunología
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 94(2): 258-266, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787146

RESUMEN

Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Acaricidas/uso terapéutico , Escabiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Aceite de Árbol de Té/uso terapéutico , Humanos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 250, 2015 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scabies is an ancient disease (documented as far back as 2500 years ago). It affects about 300 million people annually worldwide, and the prevalence is as high as about 60% in Indigenous and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia. This is more than six times the rate seen in the rest of the developed world. Scabies is frequently complicated by bacterial infection leading to the development of skin sores and other more serious consequences such as septicaemia and chronic heart and kidney diseases. This causes a substantial social and economic burden especially in resource poor communities around the world. DISCUSSION: Very few treatment options are currently available for the management of scabies infection. In this manuscript we briefly discuss the clinical consequences of scabies and the problems found (studies conducted in Australia) with the currently used topical and oral treatments. Current scabies treatment options are fairly ineffective in preventing treatment relapse, inflammatory skin reactions and associated bacterial skin infections. None have ovicidal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and/or anti-pruritic properties. Treatments which are currently available for scabies can be problematic with adverse effects and perhaps of greater concern the risk of treatment failure. The development of new chemical entities is doubtful in the near future. Though there may be potential for immunological control, the development of a vaccine or other immunotherapy modalities may be decades away. The emergence of resistance among scabies mites to classical scabicides and ineffectiveness of current treatments (in reducing inflammatory skin reactions and secondary bacterial infections associated with scabies), raise serious concerns regarding current therapy. Treatment adherence difficulties, and safety and efficacy uncertainties in the young and elderly, all signal the need to identify new treatments for scabies.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis/terapia , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Prevalencia , Escabiosis/epidemiología
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(3): e0003498, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25730203

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding of scabies immunopathology has been hampered by the inability to undertake longitudinal studies in humans. Pigs are a useful animal model for scabies, and show clinical and immunologic changes similar to those in humans. Crusted scabies can be readily established in pigs by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective study of 24 pigs in four groups: a) Scabies+/Dex+, b) Scabies+/Dex-, c) Scabies-/Dex+ and d) Scabies-/Dex-. Clinical symptoms were monitored. Histological profiling and transcriptional analysis of skin biopsies was undertaken to compare changes in cell infiltrates and representative cytokines. A range of clinical responses to Sarcoptes scabiei were observed in Dex treated and non-immunosuppressed pigs. An association was confirmed between disease severity and transcription of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, and up-regulation of the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-23 in pigs with crusted scabies. Immunohistochemistry revealed marked infiltration of lymphocytes and mast cells, and strong staining for IL-17. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: While an allergic Th2 type response to scabies has been previously described, these results suggest that IL-17 related pathways may also contribute to immunopathology of crusted scabies. This may lead to new strategies to protect vulnerable subjects from contracting recurrent crusted scabies.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis/inmunología , Células Th2/inmunología , Animales , Complejo CD3/análisis , Citocinas/genética , Dexametasona/farmacología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Interleucina-13/análisis , Interleucina-17/análisis , Interleucina-4/análisis , Estudios Prospectivos , Escabiosis/patología , Porcinos , Células Th17/inmunología
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