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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 781-789, 2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965479

RESUMEN

A green and simple lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) production strategy was developed using deep eutectic solvents (DES). The LNPs were formed with corncob alkali lignin by sequential DES dissolution and self-assembling process. Uniform size and spherical shape of LNPs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential analyzer and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Less than 100 nm of LNPs were formed, and these particles were preserved without significant size-increase or precipitation within 30 days. The nanocomposite films prepared by incorporating the LNPs into biodegradable poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix display good mechanical properties (tensile strength of 82.5 MPa and breaking strain of 103.3%), excellent UV-blocking (100% shielding of the UV spectrum region), strong hydrophobicity (static contact angle of 117.0°) and relatively high thermal stability (the maximum thermal weight loss temperature increased by 40 °C). Overall, this study not only facilitates the advancement of lignin-based nanotechnology by DES but also paves the way for the PVA polymer composites as potential food and medical packaging materials.

2.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(2): 153-158, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966691

RESUMEN

Objective To investigate the effect of sarcopenia on the efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty(PKP)in the treatment of osteoporotic spinal compression fracture(OSCF)in elderly patients. Methods From February 2017 to June 2018,a total of 77 elderly patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study.Grip strength of dominant hand was measured by an electronic grip dynamometer with cut-off values of 27 kg for males and 16 kg for females.The cross-sectional area of the pedicle level muscle of the 12th thoracic vertebra(T12)was measured by chest CT.The skeletal muscle index(SMI)was calculated by dividing the T12 pedicle level muscle cross-sectional area by the square of body height.The SMI cut-off value used to diagnose sarcopenia was 42.6 cm2/m2for males and 30.6 cm2/m2 for females.Sarcopenia is confirmed when both grip strength and SMI are below the cut-off values.The patients with OSCF all received PKP.The patients in the sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups were compared in terms of age,gender,body weight,operation duration,the amount of bleeding,time to ambulation,hospital stay,visual analogue scale(VAS)before and 1 month after operation,Oswestry disability index(ODI)1 month after operation as well as the incidence of refracture within 1 year after operation. Results Gender,body weight,operation duration,the amount of bleeding and the preoperative VAS score showed no significant difference between the two groups(χ2=3.563,P=0.059;t=0.406,P=0.686;t=1.119,P=0.267;t=-0.166,P=0.868;z=-1.076,P=0.282).The patients in the sarcopenia group showed longer time to ambulation,longer hospital stay,higher VAS score and ODI 1 month after operation than those in the non-sarcopenia group(t=3.938,P<0.001;t=5.655,P<0.001;z=-4.562,P<0.001;z=-5.222,P<0.001).There was no significant difference in the incidence of refracture within 1 year after operation between the two groups(χ2=0.596,P=0.440).Linear regression results showed that age did not affect the hospital stay,rehabilitation duration,VAS score or ODI(P=0.519,P=0.870,P=0.332,P=0.126),whereas sarcopenia had significant effects(P<0.001,P=0.001,P<0.001,P<0.001). Conclusions Sarcopenia with OSCF has poorer limb function recovery.Reasonable rehabilitation exercise and dietary therapy are necessary for patients with sarcopenia.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas por Compresión , Cifoplastia , Fracturas Osteoporóticas , Sarcopenia , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral , Anciano , Femenino , Fracturas por Compresión/cirugía , Humanos , Masculino , Fracturas Osteoporóticas/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/complicaciones , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9924, 2021 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976243

RESUMEN

The purpose of present study was to longitudinally investigate the alterations in infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) vascularity in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI and IPFP degeneration by using MRI T2* relaxation time. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to a control group and a 5/6 nephrectomy CKD group. The right knees of all rats were longitudinally scanned by 4.7 T MRI, and serial changes in the IPFP were assessed at 0, 8, 16, 30, and 44 weeks by DCE-MRI (parameters A, kel and kep) and MRI T2* mapping. After MRI measurements, knee specimens were obtained and evaluated histologically. The CKD group had IPFPs with lower blood volume A and lower permeability kep values from 16 weeks (p < 0.05), lower venous washout kel value from 30 weeks (p < 0.001), and significantly higher T2* values reflecting adipocyte degeneration beginning at 16 weeks (p < 0.05). The histopathological results confirmed the MRI findings. Hypoperfusion and adipocytes degeneration related to CKD were demonstrated in a rodent 5/6 nephrectomy model. DCE parameters and MRI T2* can serve as imaging biomarkers of fat pad degeneration during CKD progression.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(9): 2004525, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977068

RESUMEN

Agricultural chemicals have been widely utilized to manage pests, weeds, and plant pathogens for maximizing crop yields. However, the excessive use of these organic substances to compensate their instability in the environment has caused severe environmental consequences, threatened human health, and consumed enormous economic costs. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of these agricultural chemicals, one strategy that attracted researchers is to design novel eco-friendly nanoplatforms. To date, numerous advanced nanoplatforms with functional components have been applied in the agricultural field, such as silica-based materials for pesticides delivery, metal/metal oxide nanoparticles for pesticides/mycotoxins detection, and carbon nanoparticles for fertilizers delivery. In this review, the synthesis, applications, and mechanisms of recent eco-friendly nanoplatforms in the agricultural field, including pesticides and mycotoxins on-site detection, phytopathogen inactivation, pest control, and crops growth regulation for guaranteeing food security, enhancing the utilization efficiency of agricultural chemicals and increasing crop yields are highlighted. The review also stimulates new thinking for improving the existing agricultural technologies, protecting crops from biotic and abiotic stress, alleviating the global food crisis, and ensuring food security. In addition, the challenges to overcome the constrained applications of functional nanoplatforms in the agricultural field are also discussed.

6.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 301-5, 2021 Apr 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931995

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of blood-letting puncture at "Well-points" of the twelve meridians on hippocampal mitophagy of hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury (HHIBI) rats, so as to explore its biological mechanisms underlying improvement of high altitude hypoxia-induced brain injury. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=9), and model and blood-letting groups which were further divided into 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h subgroups (n=9 in each subgroup). The HHIBI model was established by putting the rats into a hypobaric hypoxia chamber (equivalent to 5 000 m above sea level).The blood-letting groups were given blood-letting therapy at "Shaoshang"(LU11), "Shangyang"(LI1), "Zhongchong"(PC9), "Guanchong"(SJ1), "Shaochong"(HT9), "Shaoze"(SI9), once a day for 7 days. H.E. staining was used to observe the histopatholo-gical changes of hippocampus tissue. Serum hypoxia inducible factor(HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) contents were assayed using ELISA, and the expression levels of hippocampal Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ proteins detected using Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the levels of serum HIF-1α and VEGF at each time point, and the expressions of hippocampal Beclin-1 at 12 and 24 h, LC3-Ⅱat each time point were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01); while in comparison with the model group, the levels of serum HIF-1α and VEGF contents, and the expressions of Beclin-1 at 12 h, LC3-Ⅱ at 24, 48 and 72 h were further significantly up-regulated in the blood-letting group (P<0.01, P<0.05). H.E. staining revealed that the pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region had a disordered arrangement, and some of them presented swelling with loose and pale cytoplasm or vacuolation at 6, 12 and 24 h, and showed indistinct nucleolus, irregular shape, pyknosis and deep staining and an obvious edema at 48 and 72 h, which was relatively milder in the blood-letting group. CONCLUSION: Blood-letting of "Well-points" can up-regulate serum HIF-1α and VEGF contents and hippocampal Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ (mitophagy related proteins) expressions in HHIBI rats, which may contribute to its effect in reducing hypoxic brain injury.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Animales , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipoxia/genética , Hipoxia/terapia , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/genética , Masculino , Mitofagia , Punciones , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/genética , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147345, 2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940423

RESUMEN

Nitrate aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Nitrate in the particulate and aqueous phase can affect various atmospheric chemical processes through its hygroscopicity and photolysis. The impacts of nitrate photolysis on the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 have been attracting attention. However, the influence of nitrate on heterogeneous aqueous phase formation of atmospheric sulfate aerosol is still not very clear. In this study, the effects of nitrate on aqueous phase oxidation of bisulfite under different conditions were investigated. Results show that nitrate photolysis can promote the oxidation of bisulfite to sulfate, especially in the presence of O2. It is found that pH plays a significant role in the reaction, and ammonium sulfate has significant impacts on the enhancement of aqueous phase sulfate production through regulating the pH of solution. An apparent synergism is found among halogen chemistry, nitrate and its photochemistry and S (IV) aqueous oxidation, especially the oxidation of halide ions by nitrate and its photolysis and by the intermediate products produced by the free radical chain oxidation of S (IV) in acidic solution, leading to the coupling of the redox cycle of halogen with the oxidation of bisulfite, which promotes the continuous aqueous oxidation of bisulfite and the formation of sulfate. In addition, the role of nitrate itself in the aqueous phase oxidation of bisulfite is revealed. These results provide a new insight into the heterogeneous aqueous phase oxidation pathways and mechanisms of SO2 in cloud and fog droplets and haze particles.

8.
Chem Asian J ; 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950565

RESUMEN

Rhodium terpyridine complexes catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines with i -PrOH as hydrogen source and water as solvent has been developed. The catalytic system can work at a substrate/catalyst (S/C) ratio of 2000, with a turnover frequency (TOF) up to 3360 h -1 , which represents one of the most active catalytic transfer hydrogenation systems for nitroarene reduction. The catalytic system is operationally simple and the protocol could scale up to 20 gram scale. The water-soluble catalyst bearing a carboxyl group could be recycled 15 times without significant loss of activity.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2523, 2021 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953177

RESUMEN

Crosstalk between oocytes and surrounding somatic cells is crucial for mammalian oogenesis, but the structural mechanisms on oocytes to control female reproduction remain unknown. Here we combine endogenous-fluorescent tracing mouse models with a high-resolution live-cell imaging system to characterize oocyte-derived mushroom-like microvilli (Oo-Mvi), which mediate germ-somatic communication in mice. We perform 3D live-cell imaging to show that Oo-Mvi exhibit cellular characteristics that fit an exocrine function for signaling communication. We find that deletion of the microvilli-forming gene Radixin in oocytes leads to the loss of Oo-Mvi in ovaries, and causes a series of abnormalities in ovarian development, resulting in shortened reproductive lifespan in females. Mechanistically, we find that Oo-Mvi enrich oocyte-secreted factors and control their release, resulting in optimal selection of ovarian follicles. Taken together, our data show that the Oo-Mvi system controls the female reproductive lifespan by governing the fate of follicles.

10.
Org Lett ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942615

RESUMEN

We describe a high radiochemical yield late-stage direct 18F-labeling of bare biomolecules containing common active groups. Spontaneity and site-selectivity are attributed to the remarkably higher rates of nucleophilic substitution reactions on phosphonates than on other electrophiles by F- at various hydrogen bond forms. Rapid access to many medicinally significant 18F-labeled biomolecules is achieved at 21-68% radiochemical yields and 35.9-55.1 GBq µmol-1 molar activities both manually or automatically.

12.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942967

RESUMEN

The aim of this systematic review was to characterize the clinical features of adults with Salmonella osteomyelitis and summarize diagnosis and treatment methods to provide guidance for clinicians. This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We conducted a literature search in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Article screening and data extraction were performed by two reviewers individually. All the included studies were independently evaluated by two reviewers using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) criteria. A total of 67 articles published between 1970 and 2019 were selected, which include 69 patients with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 18-79).The majority of cases (47.76%) occurred in immunocompetent adults without common risk factors. Aspiration and biopsy cultures were all positive in Salmonella osteomyelitis patients who underwent aspiration or biopsy. All infections were monomicrobial, and a total of 12 different serotypes were identified. The three most commonly reported Salmonella serotypes were Salmonella typhi (19 cases), Salmonella typhimurium (12 cases), and Salmonella enteritidis (11 cases). Only 12 of the 67 cases in our data (17.91%) had diarrhea symptoms, and 44 of the 67 cases (65.67%) had fever symptoms. Fifty-nine of the 67 cases (88.06%) had local inflammatory manifestations, such as erythema, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. The commonly reported involved sites were the vertebrae, femur, and tibia. Antibiotic therapy alone was utilized in 30 cases, and 24 patients (80.00%) were eventually cured. In total, 75.68% of patients achieved satisfactory results after treatment with surgery and antibiotics. Third-generation cephalosporins were most commonly utilized, and antibiotic treatment was administered for an average of 11.3 weeks (95% CI, 8.31-14.37 weeks). Salmonella osteomyelitis should be considered in patients without any common risk factors. Aspiration or biopsy can facilitate the identification of pathogens to guide antibiotic choice. Empirical therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin is recommended until the susceptibility of the strain is determined.

13.
Elife ; 102021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950834

RESUMEN

Neural circuits develop through a plastic phase orchestrated by genetic programs and environmental signals. We have identified a leucine-rich-repeat domain transmembrane protein PAN-1 as a factor required for synaptic rewiring in C. elegans. PAN-1 localizes on cell membrane and binds with MYRF, a membrane-bound transcription factor indispensable for promoting synaptic rewiring. Full-length MYRF was known to undergo self-cleavage on ER membrane and release its transcriptional N-terminal fragment in cultured cells. We surprisingly find that MYRF trafficking to cell membrane before cleavage is pivotal for C. elegans development and the timing of N-MYRF release coincides with the onset of synaptic rewiring. On cell membrane PAN-1 and MYRF interact with each other via their extracellular regions. Loss of PAN-1 abolishes MYRF cell membrane localization, consequently blocking myrf-dependent neuronal rewiring process. Thus, through interactions with a cooperating factor on the cell membrane, MYRF may link cell surface activities to transcriptional cascades required for development.

14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(5)2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939813

RESUMEN

An enriched environment is widely used to improve domestic animals' welfare and promote their natural behaviors. Music can reduce abnormal behavior in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. However, little is known about the effects of music on pigs. This study aims to explore the effects of repeated music stimulation on the behavior, physiology, and immunity of growing pigs. A total of 72 hybrid piglets (Large White × Duroc × Minpig) were randomly divided into three groups, including music (Mozart K.448, 60 to 70 dB), noise (recorded mechanical noise, 80 to 85 dB), and control (natural background sound, <40 dB), and 6 h sound stimulation was given per day (1000 to 1600 hours) from 40 to 100 d of age. The behavioral activities of the pigs were observed during the music stimulation, and their serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and serum immune indices were also measured. Compared with the control group, the music group and noise group increased activity but decreased lying of pigs (P < 0.05). A significant increase in tail-wagging, playing, and exploring behaviors of pigs was found in the music group (P < 0.05), and the noise significantly increased the aggressive behavior of the pigs (P < 0.05). Tail-wagging, playing, exploring, manipulating, and aggressive behaviors decreased over time. Short-term (8 d) music stimulus had a lower cortisol level than that of the noise and control groups (P < 0.05), whereas long-term (60 d) music stimulus increased immunoglobulin G (IgG), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels (P < 0.05) and decreased interleukin-4 (IL-4) level (P < 0.05). Long-term noise stimulus significantly reduced the level of IgG (P < 0.05) but did not affect the level of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels (P > 0.05). In conclusion, short-term music stimulus (8 d) reduced the stress response, whereas long-term music stimulus (60 d) enhanced the immune responses. In addition, the noise increased the aggressive behavior, and long-term noise reduced the immunity of the growing pigs.


Asunto(s)
Música , Agresión , Animales , Hidrocortisona , Ruido/efectos adversos , Porcinos , Cola (estructura animal)
15.
Int J Med Robot ; : e2273, 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether the accuracy of robot-assisted spinal screw placement is significantly higher than that of freehand and the source of robotic deviation remain unclear. METHODS: Clinical data of 105 patients who underwent robot-assisted spinal surgery was collected, and screw accuracy was evaluated by computed tomography according to the modified Gertzbein-Robbins classification. Patients were grouped by percutaneous and open surgery. Intergroup comparisons of clinical and screw accuracy parameters were performed. Reasons for deviation were determined. Thirty-one patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis undergoing open robot-assisted surgery and the same number of patients treated by open freehand surgery were compared for screw accuracy. RESULTS: Screw accuracy was not significantly different between the percutaneous and open groups in both intra- and postoperative evaluations. Tool skiving was identified as the main cause of deviation. The proportion of malpositioned screws (grade B + C + D) was significantly higher in the freehand group than in the robot-assisted group. However, remarkably malpositioned (grade C + D) screws showed no significant differences between the groups. No revision surgery was necessary. CONCLUSIONS: Robot-assisted spinal instrumentation manifests high accuracy and low incidence of nerve injury. Tool skiving is a major cause of implant deviation.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971398

RESUMEN

The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is an economically important marine organism, and its aquaculture has rapidly developed in China. The very large market demand puts forward higher requirements for the economically efficient breeding of sea cucumbers. Sex and the associated reproductive processes have been reported to affect the physiological characteristics of sea cucumbers. However, little is known about the metabolism differences that related to sex and the associated reproductive processes and their potential effects on the efficiency of A. japonicus aquaculture. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography was applied to investigate the variations in metabolic profiles in cell-free coelomic fluids (CCFs) of sea cucumbers of different sexes and reproductive states. A total of 4435 metabolites were detected, and the metabolic profiles of A. japonicus were significantly affected by both sexes and reproductive process. The differentially abundant metabolites in CCFs of A. japonicus of different sexes and reproductive states were also screened and analyzed. The findings revealed that unsaturated fatty acid synthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were the most significantly changed pathways. Moreover, the weakest ability to synthesize capsaicin using phenylalanine was found in A. japonicus after spawning. Our study provides new insights into the metabolic response of A. japonicus during the reproductive process, and also provides valuable references for the economically efficient breeding of A. japonicus.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 599: 577-585, 2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971566

RESUMEN

Cobalt-based transition metal phosphides/sulfides have been viewed as promising candidates for supercapacitor (SCs) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) featured with their intrinsic merits. Nevertheless, the sluggish reaction kinetics and drastic volume expansion upon electrochemical process hinder their commercial application. In this work, the hollow/porous cobalt sulfide/phosphide based nanocuboids (C-CoP4 and CoS2 HNs) with superior specific surface area are achieved by employing a novel chemical etching-phosphatization/sulfuration strategy. The hollow/porous structure could offer rich active sites and shorten electrons/ions diffusion length. In virtue of their structural advantage, the obtained C-CoP4 and CoS2 HNs perform superior specific capacitance, fast charge/discharge rate and beneficial cycling stability. The advanced asymmetrical supercapacitors assembled by C-CoP4 and CoS2 HNs deliver exceptional energy density, respectively. Furthermore, when employed as hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalysts, C-CoP4 and CoS2 HNs yield favorable electrocatalytic activity. These findings shed fundamental insight on the design of dual-functional transition metal phosphide/sulfide based materials for optimizing hydrogen evolution reaction and supercapacitor storage properties.

18.
Sci Adv ; 7(18)2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931442

RESUMEN

T cell exhaustion has been associated with poor prognosis in persistent viral infection and cancer. Conversely, in the context of autoimmunity, T cell exhaustion has been favorably correlated with long-term clinical outcome. Understanding the development of exhaustion in autoimmune settings may provide underlying principles that can be exploited to quell autoreactive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that the adaptor molecule Bat3 acts as a molecular checkpoint of T cell exhaustion, with deficiency of Bat3 promoting a profound exhaustion phenotype, suppressing autoreactive T cell-mediated neuroinflammation. Mechanistically, Bat3 acts as a critical mTORC2 inhibitor to suppress Akt function. As a result, Bat3 deficiency leads to increased Akt activity and FoxO1 phosphorylation, indirectly promoting Prdm1 expression. Transcriptional analysis of Bat3 -/- T cells revealed up-regulation of dysfunction-associated genes, concomitant with down-regulation of genes associated with T cell effector function, suggesting that absence of Bat3 can trigger T cell dysfunction even under highly proinflammatory autoimmune conditions.

19.
Vaccine ; 39(21): 2833-2842, 2021 05 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an important public health solution. To date, there has been a lack of data on COVID-19 vaccination willingness, vaccine hesitancy, and vaccination coverage in China since the vaccine has become available. METHODS: We designed and implemented a cross-sectional, population-based online survey to evaluate the willingness, hesitancy, and coverage of the COVID-19 vaccine among the Chinese population. 8742 valid samples were recruited and classified as the vaccine-priority group (n = 3902; 44.6%) and the non-priority group (n = 4840; 55.4%). RESULTS: The proportion of people's trust in the vaccine, delivery system, and government were 69.0%, 78.0% and 81.3%, respectively. 67.1% of the participants were reportedly willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccination, while 9.0% refused it. 834 (35.5%) reported vaccine hesitancy, including acceptors with doubts (48.8%), refusers (39.4%), and delayers (11.8%). The current coverage was 34.4%, far from reaching the requirements of herd immunity. The predicted rate of COVID-19 vaccination was 64.9%, 68.9% and 81.1% based on the rates of vaccine hesitancy, willingness, and refusal, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 vaccine rate is far from reaching the requirements of herd immunity, which will require more flexible and comprehensive efforts to improve the population's confidence and willingness to vaccinate. It should be highlighted that vaccination alone is insufficient to stop the pandemic; further efforts are needed not only to increase vaccination coverage but also to maintain non-specific prevention strategies.

20.
Environ Res ; 197: 111202, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies on the hypertensive effect of long-term exposure to air pollution are mixed, and sparse evidence exists regarding its effects on homocysteine (Hcy), another crucial risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We collected data from 23,256 participants aged 18-74 years at baseline (years 2017-2018) from a community-based cohort in China. A linear combination of concentrations from monitoring stations at the participants' home and work addresses, weighted by the time, was used to estimate two-year exposures to particulate matter with fine particles≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), aerodynamic diameter≤10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Generalized linear regressions and logistic regressions were conducted to examine the associations between air pollution and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Hcy, hypertension and co-occurrence of hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). RESULTS: The results showed that each interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 (16.1 µg/m3), PM10 (19.3 µg/m3) and SO2 (3.9 µg/m3) was significantly associated with SBP (changes: 0.64-1.86 mmHg), DBP (changes: 0.35-0.70 mmHg) and Hcy (changes: 0.77-1.04 µmol/L) in the fully adjusted model. These air pollutants were also statistically associated with the prevalence of co-occurrence of hypertension and HHcy (ORs: 1.22-1.32), which were stronger than associations with the prevalence of hypertension (ORs: 1.09-1.19). The hypertensive effects of exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 were more pronounced among elder participants, obese participants, those with established CVD or a high 10-year CVD risk and those with a family history of hypertension. However, interaction analyses of Hcy showed different patterns. Additionally, moderate level of physical activity and active travel mode benefited individuals in resisting the health impacts of air pollution on both blood pressure (BP) and Hcy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports a positive relationship between air pollution and BP and Hcy among adults in Beijing, and close attention to vulnerable populations and healthy lifestyles could effectively benefit further cardiovascular health.

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