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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223142

RESUMEN

The separation of alkanes with different degrees of branch-ing, particularly mono- and di-branched isomers, represents a challenging yet important industrial process for the pro-duction of premium gasoline blending components with high octane number. We report here the separation of line-ar/mono-branched and di-branched alkanes through com-plete molecular sieving by a robust aluminum-based MOF material, Al-bttotb (H3bttotb= 4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyltris(oxy))tribenzoicacid). Single- and multi-component adsorption experiments reveal that the material adsorbs line-ar and mono-branched alkanes, but fully excludes their di-branched isomers. Adsorption sites of alkanes within the MOF channels have been identified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies, and adsorption mechanism explored through computational calculations and modeling. The high-ly selective adsorption of the MOF should be attributed to its optimal pore dimensions.

2.
Parasite ; 27: 19, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223884

RESUMEN

Bovine Theileria are tick-borne protozoan parasites that invade bovine erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Three main bovine Theileria species have been identified in China: T. orientalis, T. sinensis, and T. annulata. To examine the prevalence of bovine theileriosis in Yanbian, a total of 584 bovine blood samples were collected from five localities from 2017 to 2019 and analyzed by PCR. Six pairs of oligonucleotide primers directed against the 18S rRNA gene of Theileria spp., Tams-1 gene of T. annulata, MPSP gene of T. orientalis, and T. sinensis, were used to detect these parasites. A sequence analysis of the amplified genes confirmed that the Theileria species were T. orientalis and T. sinensis, without T. annulata. The overall prevalence of Theileria in cattle was 42.81% (250/584). Out of the 584 samples, 159 (27.23%) and 157 (26.88%) were positive for T. sinensis and T. orientalis, respectively, and the mixed infection rate was 11.30% (66/584). The total prevalence of bovine Theileria species in Helong, Hunchun, Longjing, Yanji, and Dunhua was 66.28%, 49.68%, 23.81%, 28.15%, and 0%, respectively. These results provide epidemiological data for the prevention and control of bovine Theileria species in Yanbian, China.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130002

RESUMEN

Harvesting solar energy for catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable chemical fuels/feedstocks is an attractive yet challenging strategy to realize a sustainable carbon-cycle utilization. Homogeneous catalysts typically exhibit higher activity and selectivity as compared with heterogeneous counterparts, benefiting from their atomically dispersed catalytic sites and versatile coordination structures. However, it is still a "black box" how the coordination and electronic structures of catalysts dynamically evolve during the reaction, forming the bottleneck for understanding their reaction pathways. Herein, we demonstrate to track the mechanistic pathway of photocatalytic CO2 reduction using a terpyridine nickel(II) complex as a catalyst model. Integrated with a typical homogeneous photosensitizer, the catalytic system offers a high selectivity of 99% for CO2-to-CO conversion with turnover number and turnover frequency as high as 2.36 × 107 and 385.6 s-1, respectively. We employ operando and time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, in combination with other in situ spectroscopic techniques and theoretical computations, to track the intermediate species of Ni catalyst in the photocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction for the first time. Taken together with the charge dynamics resolved by optical transient absorption spectroscopy, the investigation elucidates the full mechanistic reaction pathway including some key factors that have been often overlooked. This work opens the "black box" for CO2 reduction in the system of homogeneous catalysts and provides key information for developing efficient catalysts toward artificial photosynthesis.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158205

RESUMEN

Backgrounds and Aims: It is well known that angiogenesis contributes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by initiating the remodeling of bronchial vasculature. However, the specific molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. This research aimed to explore whether endostatin, a member of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins, is a biomarker in COPD and plays a role in the angiogenesis of COPD. Methods: 100 stable COPD patients, 130 patients with acute exacerbation (AECOPD) and 68 healthy volunteers were recruited in this research. Lung function test was conducted in the healthy people and stable COPD patients. Serum endostatin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of all the subjects were measured by Human Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay. Results: Serum endostatin level was significantly higher in stable COPD compared with healthy control and even more in AECOPD patients (P<0.001). Besides, stable COPD patients with frequent exacerbation (≥2 exacerbations per year) in the last 1 year had a higher concentration of endostatin in the circulation compared to the patients with less exacerbation (P=0.037). Furthermore, circulatory endostatin was negatively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted (FEV1%pre), an index of lung function in the stable COPD group (P=0.009). Finally, endostatin was positively correlated to serum CRP in COPD group (including stable and AECOPD) (P=0.005) and all the subjects (P<0.001), but only associated with VEGF in the total participants (P=0.002), not in the COPD group. Conclusion: These results suggested that endostatin is a biomarker for COPD and associated with lower lung function, exacerbation, and systemic inflammation. Endostatin potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD.

5.
Haematologica ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165482

RESUMEN

Nucleotides mediate intercellular communication by activating purinergic receptors and take part in various physiological and pathological processes. Abnormal purinergic signaling plays important roles in malignant progression. P2X7, which belongs to the P2X family of purinergic receptors, is abnormally expressed in various types of malignancies including leukemia. However, its role and molecular mechanism in leukemia have not been elucidated. Here, we analyzed the correlation between P2X7 expression and AML clinical outcome; explored the role and mechanism of P2X7 in AML progression by using mouse acute myeloid leukemia (AML), nude mouse xenograft and patient-derived xenograft models. High levels of P2X7 expression were correlated with worse survival in AML. P2X7 was highly expressed in MLL-rearranged AML. Furthermore, P2X7 accelerated the progression of MLL-rearranged AML by both promoting cell proliferation and increasing leukemia stem cell (LSC) levels. Moreover, P2X7 caused upregulation of Pbx3 accounts for its pro-leukemic effects. The P2X7-Pbx3 pathway might also contribute to the progression of other types of leukemia as well as solid tumors with high levels of P2X7 expression. Our study provides new insights into the malignant progression caused by abnormal purinergic signaling.

6.
Biomacromolecules ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129603

RESUMEN

An intelligent carrier system is based on fast glucose response mechanism to regulate the insulin release. Here, glucose dual-responsive nanoparticles were quickly and efficiently obtained, by dynamic covalent bonds between phenylboronic acid-containing homopolymer poly(3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (PAAPBA) and glycopolypeptide poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid-co-aspart-glucosamine) (PEG-b-P(Asp-co-AGA)) through the formation of cycloborates. Meanwhile, insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) were loaded during the formation of nanoparticles. The cycloborates in the nanoparticles could be destroyed by the replacement of glycosyl moieties by glucose and oxidized by H2O2 generated from the glucose-GOx system, resulting in the rapid insulin release. After subcutaneous delivery of the insulin/GOx-loaded nanoparticles to diabetic mice, a significant hypoglycemic effect was observed over time. Cytotoxicity study, hemolysis assay, and histological analyses suggested that the nanoparticles showed excellent biocompatibility and safety. This work lays the important theoretical and technical foundations for expanding the scope of applications of nanocarriers in diabetes treatment.

7.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110261, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148320

RESUMEN

Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission under different tillage methods in a crop residue-returned farming system may not be consistent with result from studies of the usual tillage researches because crop residues are important carbon sources with significant effects on soil carbon input and output. Herein, we address a knowledge gap over the "hot spot" research on tillage practices on SOC storage and CO2 emission in crop residue-returned farming systems. In this study, a long-term (2007-2019) field experiment was conducted, and the crop residues were returned to the soil after harvest; then, three tillage methods were conducted: no tillage (NT), subsoiling tillage (ST), and a moldboard plow tillage (CT). Our results showed that in the crop residue-returned farming system, NT and ST still showed advantages of lower CO2 flux compared with CT, as well as a reduced average CO2 flux of 14.5% and 8.5%, respectively, over a two-year average. The results of our long-term study suggest that the NT had advantages of SOC accumulation. In addition, as of June 2018, NT increased SOC stocks with 5.85 Mg hm-2 at a 0-60-cm soil depth compared with CT, whereas no significant difference was found between ST and CT. Overall, adopting NT in a crop residue-returned farming system improved SOC storage to 5.85 Mg hm-2 after 11 years as well as decreased CO2 flux by 14.5% in comparison with CT, which is meaningful in improving soil carbon pool and decreasing soil CO2 emission during agriculture production.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Suelo , Agricultura , Granjas
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140723

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SRY is one of the important genes involved in the process of human sex determination. The disturbed sex determination caused by SRY mutation accounts for 10-15% of cases with 46, XY sex reversal. Recently, three distal enhancers have been identified upstream of the SOX9 gene. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular etiology of 46,XY sex reversal in 3 familial patients and a sporadic patient. DESIGN: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to reveal the genotype and inherited pattern. Copy number variations (CNVs) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotyping were analyzed to observe the alteration of enhancers of SOX9. Transcriptional activity of SRY mutation were assessed by a dual luciferase reporting system, and nuclear translocation was observed by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Two novel SRY gene mutations, p.Arg76Leu and p.Glu89flx15, were identified. In the pedigree with multiple patients, p.Arg76Leu mutation in SRY and p.Gly212Ser mutation in NR5A1 were identified in the proband. The heterozygous deletion far upstream of the SOX9 gene in chromosome 7 was identified in the 3 patients in this family, containing the distal enhancer eSR-A of SOX9 but not eSR-B and eALDI. The frameshift mutation p.Glu89flx15 was revealed to inhibit the transcriptional activity of the target gene, whereas the missense mutation p.Arg76Leu barely showed an effect. CONCLUSION:: In contrast to sporadic cases, inherited single nucleotide variations (SNVs) of SRY are not the main cause of the severe phenotype of 46,XY sex reversal, and the enhancers of SOX9 should be investigated carefully in such patients.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5265, 2020 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210319

RESUMEN

Anesthetics are used to produce hypnosis and analgesic effects during surgery, but anesthesia for a long time after the operation is not conducive to the recovery of animals or patients. Therefore, finding appropriate treatments to counter the effects of anesthetics could enhance postoperative recovery. In the current study, we discovered the novel role of a GluN2A-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) in ketamine-induced anesthesia and investigated the effects of the PAM combined with nalmefene and flumazenil (PNF) in reversing the actions of an anesthetic combination (ketamine-fentanyl-dexmedetomidine, KFD). PAM treatment dose-dependently decreased the duration of the ketamine-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR). Compared with those in the KFD group, the duration of LORR and the analgesic effect of the KFD + PNF group were obviously decreased. Meanwhile, successive administration of PNF and KFD had no adverse effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Both the KFD group and the KFD + PNF group showed no changes in hepatic and renal function or cognitive function in rats. Moreover, the recovery of motor coordination of the KFD + PNF group was faster than that of the KFD group. In summary, our results suggest the potential application of the PNF combination as an antagonistic treatment strategy for anesthesia.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121258

RESUMEN

In recent years, with the development of green building and the increase of health awareness, the concept of healthy building has been proposed. Recently, studies have been made on developing healthy residential buildings; however, few attentions have been paid to the development of healthy dormitories. To bridge this research gap, this paper aims to investigate the crucial aspects of developing a healthy dormitory. Based on the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, three influencing aspects which include 17 measurement indicators are identified. Questionnaire surveys are subsequently conducted to collect students' perceptions on the identified indicators. After a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, the relationships between the three influencing aspects are analyzed. The research findings show that building performance, bodily sensation, and humanistic environment must be taken into account in the development of a healthy dormitory. In addition, it is revealed that building performance has a significant impact on bodily sensation, while bodily sensation has a significant impact on humanistic environment. However, building performance is found having little impact on humanistic environment. The findings of this study could provide useful information for the construction of healthy dormitories.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155790

RESUMEN

Combretastatin-4 (CA-4) as a tubulin polymerization inhibitor draws extensive attentions. However, due to its weak stability of cis-olefin and poor metabolic stability, structure modifications on cis-configuration are being performed. In this work, we constructed a series of novel CA-4 analogues with linkers on olefin containing diphenylethanone, cis-locked dihydrofuran, α-substituted diphenylethanone, cyclobutane and cyclohexane on its cis-olefin. Cytotoxic activity of all analogues was measured by an SRB assay. Among them, compound 6b, a by-product in the preparation of diphenylethanone analogues, was found to be the most potent cytotoxic agents against HepG2 cells with IC50 values of less than 0.5 µM. The two isomers of 6b induced cellular apoptosis tested by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) double staining, arrested cells in the G2/M phase by PI staining analysis, and disrupted microtubule network by immunohistochemistry study in HepG2 cells. Moreover, 6b-(E) displayed a dose-dependent inhibition effect for tubulin assembly in in vitro tubulin polymerization assay. In addition, molecular docking studies showed that two isomers of 6b could bind efficiently at colchicine binding site of tubulin similar to CA-4.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 236: 116054, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172869

RESUMEN

In this study, the pullulan/ethyl cellulose composite nanofiber films with tunable physical properties were fabricated by blend electrospinning process. The solution properties of polysaccharide polymers were investigated and related with the morphology of the nanofiber films, and the results showed that the addition of ethyl cellulose caused decreasing viscosity and conductivity of solutions, which gave rise to the smaller fiber diameter. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that pullulan and ethyl cellulose chains interacted with each other through hydrogen bonding. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that electrospinning process retarded the crystallization of polysaccharide molecules. Thermal analysis showed that the composite nanofiber films possessed higher melting temperature and degradation temperature than the pure pullulan nanofiber film. Water contact angle and water stability test proved that the composite nanofiber films possessed tunable surface wettability (94.6°-120.1°) and improved water stability. The mechanical test showed that the composite nanofiber films had enhanced mechanical strength.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213663

RESUMEN

The molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain largely undefined. Here, we identified 176 commonly upregulated genes in HCC tissues based on three Gene Expression Omnibus datasets and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. We integrated survival and methylation analyses to further obtain 12 upregulated genes for validation. These genes were overexpressed in HCC tissues at the transcription and protein levels, and increased mRNA levels were related to higher tumor grades and cancer stages. The expression of all markers was negatively associated with overall and disease-free survival in HCC patients. Most of these hub genes can promote HCC proliferation and/or metastasis. These 12 hub genes were also overexpressed and had strong prognostic value in many other cancer types. Methylation and gene copy number analyses indicated that the upregulation of these hub genes was probably due to hypomethylation or increased gene copy numbers. Further, the methylation levels of three genes, KPNA2, MCM3, and LRRC1, were associated with HCC clinical features. Moreover, the levels of most hub genes were related to immune cell infiltration in HCC microenvironments. Finally, we identified three upregulated genes (KPNA2, TARBP1, and RNASEH2A) that could comprehensively and accurately provide diagnostic and prognostic value for HCC patients.

14.
Biochemistry ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216369

RESUMEN

FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) between far-upstream(-100) and downstream(+14) cyanine dyes showed extensive bending/wrapping of λPR promoter DNA on E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) in closed and open complexes (CC, OC). Here we determine the kinetics and mechanism of DNA bending/wrapping by FRET and of formation of RNAP contacts with -100 and +14 DNA by single-dye protein-induced fluorescence enhancements (PIFE). FRET/PIFE kinetics exhibit two phases: rapidly-reversible steps forming a CC ensemble ({CC} of four intermediates (initial (RPC), early (I1E), mid-(I1M), late (I1L)), followed by conversion of {CC} to OC via I1L. FRET and PIFE are first observed for I1E, not RPC. FRET/PIFE together reveal large-scale bending/wrapping of upstream and downstream DNA as RPC advances to I1E reducing -100/+14 distance to ~75 Å and making RNAP-DNA contacts at -100 and +14. We propose that far-upstream DNA wraps on the upper ß'-clamp while downstream DNA contacts the top of the ß-pincer in I1E. Converting I1E to I1M (~1s time-scale) reduces FRET efficiency with little change in -100/+14PIFE, interpreted as clamp-opening that moves far-upstream DNA (on ß') away from downstream DNA (on ß) to increase the -100/+14 distance by ~14Å. FRET increases greatly in converting I1M to I1L, indicating bending of downstream duplex DNA into the clamp and clamp-closing to reduce the -100/+14 distance by ~21Å. In the subsequent rate-determining DNA-opening step, in which the clamp may also open, I1L converts to the initial unstable OC (I2 ). Implications for facilitation of CC-to-OC isomerization by upstream DNA and upstream-binding, DNA-bending transcription activators are discussed.

15.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 80, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218727

RESUMEN

Structural and functional brain alterations have been always observed in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis. The present study aimed to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) changes in hemodialysis patients compared with those noted in healthy subjects, as well as explore the associated functional connectivity alterations based on the abnormal GMV regions. The experiments revealed the effects of regional morphometry aberrance on the brain functional integrity. A total of 46 hemodialysis patients (53.11 ± 1.58 years, 28 males) and 47 healthy subjects (55.57 ± 0.86 years, 22 males) were enrolled in the present study. All subjects underwent high-resolution T1-weighted imaging, resting-state functional MR imaging, and laboratory examinations were performed in hemodialysis patients. The GMV deficits were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and regions with GMV alteration were defined as seeds for functional connectivity analysis. Correlation analyses between significantly different regions and the results of the blood examination were further performed. We found that bilateral thalamus exhibited significantly increased volumes in the hemodialysis patients compared with those of the healthy subjects. However, the bilateral rectus, bilateral caudate, and bilateral temporal gyrus demonstrated significantly decreased volumes. When the regions with GMV alterations were defined as seeds, the hemodialysis patients exhibited decreased integrations in the thalamo-cortical network and within the basal-ganglia connection. The present study revealed the presence of different types of structural and functional brain impairments in hemodialysis patients.

16.
Brain Res ; 1736: 146781, 2020 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184164

RESUMEN

Glioblastoma (GBM) has been regarded as the most aggressive disease in the nervous system. Accumulating literatures have illustrated the crucial role of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) network in the pathogenesis and progression of various tumors. The promoting effect of LEF1-AS1 on GBM development has been previously identified. This study attempted to explore the underlying mechanism of LEF1-AS1 in GBM. Data of clinical GBM patients was downloaded from TCGA and GEO databases. The proliferative ability, clonogenic vitality, invasive, and migratory capabilities of GBM cells were measured using Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation and transwell assays. Luciferase reporter gene analysis was performed to verify the correlations between LEF1-AS1/EN2 and miR-543. qRT-PCR and western blotting were implemented to evaluate the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Our results consolidated that LEF1-AS1 was highly expressed in GBM tissue specimens and its up-regulation induced unfavorable prognosis. The loss/gain-of-function analyses verified that LEF1-AS1 promoted the GBM cell malignant behaviors. Mechanically, LEF1-AS1 acted as a ceRNA for miR-543 and positively regulated engrailed homeobox 2 (EN2) expression. Down-regulation of miR-543 elevated GBM cell malignant behaviors, which was reversed by LEF1-AS1 knockdown. Meanwhile, the LEF1-AS1 inhibition could arrest the promoting effect of high-regulated EN2 on GBM cell aggressiveness and vice versa. In conclusion, our findings identified LEF1-AS1 as a ceRNA for miR-543 and showed that EN2 was positively regulated by LEF1-AS1. The LEF1-AS1/miR-543/EN2, as a novel ceRNA network, was implicated in the progression of GBM, which provided a novel insight for GBM treatment.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215577

RESUMEN

Importance: Complete metastatic ablation of oligometastatic prostate cancer may provide an alternative to early initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Objective: To determine if stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) improves oncologic outcomes in men with oligometastatic prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Observation vs Stereotactic Ablative Radiation for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer (ORIOLE) phase 2 randomized study accrued participants from 3 US radiation treatment facilities affiliated with a university hospital from May 2016 to March 2018 with a data cutoff date of May 20, 2019, for analysis. Of 80 men screened, 54 men with recurrent hormone-sensitive prostate cancer and 1 to 3 metastases detectable by conventional imaging who had not received ADT within 6 months of enrollment or 3 or more years total were randomized. Interventions: Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive SABR or observation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was progression at 6 months by prostate-specific antigen level increase, progression detected by conventional imaging, symptomatic progression, ADT initiation for any reason, or death. Predefined secondary outcomes were toxic effects of SABR, local control at 6 months with SABR, progression-free survival, Brief Pain Inventory (Short Form)-measured quality of life, and concordance between conventional imaging and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted positron emission tomography in the identification of metastatic disease. Results: In the 54 men randomized, the median (range) age was 68 (61-70) years for patients allocated to SABR and 68 (64-76) years for those allocated to observation. Progression at 6 months occurred in 7 of 36 patients (19%) receiving SABR and 11 of 18 patients (61%) undergoing observation (P = .005). Treatment with SABR improved median progression-free survival (not reached vs 5.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.81; P = .002). Total consolidation of PSMA radiotracer-avid disease decreased the risk of new lesions at 6 months (16% vs 63%; P = .006). No toxic effects of grade 3 or greater were observed. T-cell receptor sequencing identified significant increased clonotypic expansion following SABR and correlation between baseline clonality and progression with SABR only (0.082085 vs 0.026051; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment with SABR for oligometastatic prostate cancer improved outcomes and was enhanced by total consolidation of disease identified by PSMA-targeted positron emission tomography. SABR induced a systemic immune response, and baseline immune phenotype and tumor mutation status may predict the benefit from SABR. These results underline the importance of prospective randomized investigation of the oligometastatic state with integrated imaging and biological correlates. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02680587.

18.
World J Surg Oncol ; 18(1): 61, 2020 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222151

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This current systematic review aimed to evaluate the role of surgical management and risk factors by pooled cases from all identified patients with colonic leiomyosarcomas. METHODS: The authors searched the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases using the keywords "colonic," "colon," and "leiomyosarcoma." Risk factors of colonic leiomyosarcoma in the pooled cohort were also evaluated. RESULTS: Between 1923 and 2019, 41 cases of colonic leiomyosarcoma were identified in 22 (53.7%) males and 19 (46.3%) females, with a mean and median age of 58.7 ± 2.2 years and 56.0 years. According to univariate analysis, smaller tumor size < 8 cm was significantly associated with longer progression-free survival (HR = 6.957, 95% CI 1.405-34.442; p = 0.017), and younger age < 60 years was trending toward better overall survival (HR = 2.765, 95% CI 0.924-8.272; p = 0.069). CONCLUSIONS: Colonic leiomyosarcomas are rare neoplasms with aggressive clinical behaviors. Age < 60 years and tumor size < 8 cm were favorable factors for patients' better survival.

19.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 108: 103667, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147468

RESUMEN

Viral glycoproteins are expressed by many viruses, and during infection they usually play very important roles, such as receptor attachment or membrane fusion. The mature virion of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is unusual in that it contains no glycosylated proteins, and there are currently no reports of any glycosylation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this virus. In this study, we cloned a glycosylase, mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase, EC 3.2.1.96), from Penaeus monodon and found that it was significantly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimp. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that PmENGase interacted with both structural and non-structural proteins, and GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays confirmed its interaction with the envelope protein VP41B. In the WSSV challenge tests, the cumulative mortality and viral copy number were significantly decreased in the PmEngase-silenced shrimp, from which we conclude that shrimp glycosylase interacts with WSSV in a way that benefits the virus. Lastly, we speculate that the deglycosylation activity of PmENGase might account for the absence of glycosylated proteins in the WSSV virion.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137670, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171138

RESUMEN

Biochar application to soil has attracted extensive attention worldwide due to its carbon (C) sequestration and fertility-enhancing properties. However, the lack of biochar accumulation in highly disturbed agroecosystems challenges the perceived long-term stability of biochars in soil. This 9-year field experiment was conducted in rice paddy fields to understand the temporal degradation of biochars produced from two contrasting feedstocks (rice straw vs. bamboo) at a high temperature (600 °C). Obvious physical alterations, surface oxidation, and transformation of condensed aromatic C occurred in biochars in the disturbed paddy field with frequent redox cycles. Increase in O/C atomic ratio, levels of high-temperature-sensitive degradable components, H/C ratio, and linear alkyl-C content were observed, which were indicative of time-dependent molecular changes and degradative transformation of biochars. Biochar degradation was characterized by the loss of labile C at an early stage and the degradation of aromatic C at a later stage. Based on the massive loss of C content in biochars (10.3-11.8%) and considerable degradation of aromatic C (5.0-8.7%) in 9 years, we argue that current biphasic C dynamic models probably overestimate the stability of biochars in agroecosystems such as rice paddy fields. Long-term field experiments (>5 years) are required to assess biochar's potential for C sequestration. This study provides long-term field data regarding the temporal changes in biochar physicochemical properties, which may facilitate the development of a robust assessment scheme on the long-term persistence of biochars in agroecosystems.

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