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1.
J Inorg Biochem ; 229: 111728, 2022 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066349

RESUMEN

Bacteria maintain copper balance by various copper response mechanisms. A plasmid gene encoding a methionine rich protein targeted to periplasm is adjacent to the sil operon that confers heavy metal resistance. However, the gene product Orf91 has not been characterized before. Using X-ray crystallography, we solved the structures of Orf91 in apo, cuprous ion-bound, and cupric ion-bound forms. An Orf91 protomer consists of three helices of which the C-terminal two helices belong to domain of unknown function 305 (DUF305), and two Orf91s dimerize into a six-helical bundle. The MxxHH motif specific for DUF305 is critical for cuprous ion binding, and the MxxMxxMHxxMM motif in the N-terminal helix contributes to cupric ion binding. The first histidine of MxxHH shows alternative conformations related to the redox state of copper ion. We suggest that Orf91 is an adaptable copper sponge in the periplasmic space.

2.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(1): 62-70, 2022 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35071506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The anatomical features of the atlantoaxial spine increase the difficulty of complete and safe removal of atlantoaxial intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tumors. Studies concerning surgical interventions via a posterior approach are limited. AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of atlantoaxial IDEM tumor resection using a one-stage posterior approach. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical databases for one-stage atlantoaxial IDEM tumor resection via a posterior approach between January 2008 and January 2018. The analyzed data included tumor position, histopathological type, pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Nurick grades, postoperative complication and recurrence status. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients who underwent C1-C2 Laminectomy and/or unilateral facetectomy via the posterior approach were enrolled in the study. In all cases reviewed, total tumor resection and concomitant C1-C2 fusion were achieved. The average follow-up was 35.3 ± 6.9 mo (range, 26-49 mo). A statistically significant difference was noted between the preoperative JOA score (11.2 ± 1.1) and the score at the last final follow-up (15.6 ± 1.0) (P < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was noted between the preoperative Nurick grade (2.3 ± 0.9) and that at the last follow-up (1.2 ± 0.4) (P < 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was noted between the preoperative and last follow-up C1-2 Cobb angle and C2-7 Cobb angle (P > 0.05). No mortalities, severe complications or tumor recurrence were observed during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Total resection of atlantoaxial IDEM tumors is feasible and effective via a posterior approach. Surgical reconstruction should be considered to avoid iatrogenic kyphosis and improve spinal stability and overall clinical outcomes.

3.
Insect Sci ; 2022 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075784

RESUMEN

Trehalose is the principal sugar circulating in the haemolymph of insects, and the trehalose synthesis is catalyzed by trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP). Insect TPS is a fused enzyme containing both TPS domain and TPP domain. Thus, many insects do not possess TPP genes as TPSs have replaced the function of TPPs. However, TPPs are widely distributed across the dipteran insects, while the roles they play remain largely unknown. In this study, three TPP genes from notorious dipteran pest Bactrocera minax (BmiTPPB, BmiTPPC1, and BmiTPPC2) were identified and characterized. The different temporal-spatial expression patterns of three BmiTPPs implied that they exert different functions in B. minax. Recombinant BmiTPPs were heterologously expressed in yeast cells, and all purified proteins exhibited enzymatic activities, despite the remarkable disparity in performance between BmiTPPB and BmiTPPCs. RNA interference revealed that all BmiTPPs were successfully down-regulated after dsRNA injection, leading to decreased trehalose content and increased glucose content. Also, suppression of BmiTPPs significantly affected expression of downstream genes and increased the mortality and malformation rate. Collectively, these results indicated that all three BmiTPPs in B. minax are involved in trehalose synthesis and metamorphosis. Thus, these genes could be evaluated as insecticidal target for managing B. minax, even other dipteran pests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022542

RESUMEN

Macrophages play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI), a major cause of acute liver failure or even death. Sapidolide A (SA) is a sesquiterpene lactone extracted from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., a folk medicine used in China to treat inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated whether SA exerted protective effects on macrophages, thus alleviated the secondary hepatocyte damage in an AILI. We showed that SA (5-20 µM) suppressed the phosphorylated activation of NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting the expression and activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and pyroptosis in LPS/ATP-treated mouse bone marrow-derived primary macrophages (BMDMs). In human hepatic cell line L02 co-cultured with BMDMs, SA (10 µM) protected macrophages from the pyroptosis induced by APAP-damaged L02 cells. Moreover, SA treatment reduced the secondary liver cell damage aggravated by the conditioned medium (CM) taken from LPS/ATP-treated macrophages. The in vivo assessments conducted on mice pretreated with SA (25, 50 mg/kg, ip) then with a single dose of APAP (400 mg/kg, ip) showed that SA significantly alleviated inflammatory responses of AILI by inhibiting the expression and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In general, the results reported herein revealed that SA exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, which suggests that SA has great a potential for use in the treatment of AILI patients.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015920

RESUMEN

Biallelic variants in EEF1B2 have recently been shown to cause a novel form of non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID) in two unrelated families. More patients are needed to delineate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of this gene. In this study, two patients in a family harboring pathogenic compound heterozygous variants in EEF1B2 were identified. They were characterized by non-syndromic ID and fever-sensitive seizures in childhood. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis showed significantly reduced levels of mRNA expression in two patients compared with unaffected controls. The level of EEF1B2 protein was hardly detected in both patients and their unaffected parents. The eef1b2 F0 knockout (crispant) zebrafish presented with abnormal development and light-induced hyperactivity. We identified novel pathogenic EEF1B2 variants within two siblings in a new family. The findings of the expression experiment and first crispant eef1b2 zebrafish model provided further clues to the role of EEF1B2 variants in the pathogenesis of autosomal-recessive ID.

6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 17, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Caused by the injury to the endometrial basal layer, intrauterine adhesions (IUA) are characterized by uterine cavity obliteration, leading to impaired fertility. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) have the potential to promote endometrial regeneration mainly through paracrine ability. PPCNg is a thermoresponsive biomaterial consisted of Poly (polyethylene glycol citrate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PPCN) mixed with gelatin, which has been reported as a scaffold for stem cell transplantation. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of hAMSCs combined with PPCNg transplantation in promoting the regeneration of injured endometrium. METHODS: hAMSCs were cultured in different concentrates of PPCNg in vitro, and their proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle were examined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the MSCs specific surface markers. The expression of pluripotent genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The multiple-lineage differentiation potential was further evaluated by detecting the differentiation-related genes using qRT-PCR and specific staining. The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat IUA model was established with 95% ethanol. hAMSCs combined with PPCNg were transplanted through intrauterine injection. The retention of DiR-labeled hAMSCs was observed by vivo fluorescence imaging. The endometrium morphology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson staining. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to detect biomarkers related to endometrial proliferation, re-epithelialization, angiogenesis and endometrial receptivity. The function of regenerated endometrium was evaluated by pregnancy tests. RESULTS: hAMSCs maintained normal cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in PPCNg. Immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR showed that hAMSCs cultured in PPCNg and hAMSCs cultured alone expressed the same surface markers and pluripotent genes. hAMSCs exhibited normal multilineage differentiation potential in PPCNg. Vivo fluorescence imaging results revealed that the fluorescence intensity of hAMSCs combined with PPCNg intrauterine transplantation was stronger than that of direct hAMSCs intrauterine transplantation. Histological assays showed the increase in the thickness of endometrial and the number of endometrial glands, and the remarkably decrease in the fibrosis area in the PPCNg/hAMSCs group. The expressions of Ki-67, CK7, CK19, VEGF, ER and PR were significantly increased in the PPCNg/hAMSCs group. Moreover, the number of implanted embryos and pregnancy rate were significantly higher in the PPCNg/hAMSCs group than in the hAMSCs group. CONCLUSIONS: PPCNg is suitable for growth, phenotype maintenance and multilineage differentiation of hAMSCs. hAMSCs combined with PPCNg intrauterine transplantation can facilitate the regeneration of injured endometrium by improving utilization rates of hAMSCs, and eventually restore reproductive capacity.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 282, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022390

RESUMEN

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are commended as photocatalysts for H2 evolution and CO2 reduction as they combine light-harvesting and catalytic functions with excellent reactant adsorption capabilities. For dynamic processes in liquid phase, the accessibility of active sites becomes a critical parameter as reactant diffusion is limited by the inherently small micropores. Our strategy is to introduce additional mesopores by selectively removing one ligand in mixed-ligand MOFs via thermolysis. Here we report photoactive MOFs of the MIL-125-Ti family with two distinct mesopore architectures resembling either large cavities or branching fractures. The ligand removal is highly selective and follows a 2-step process tunable by temperature and time. The introduction of mesopores and the associated formation of new active sites have improved the HER rates of the MOFs by up to 500%. We envision that this strategy will allow the purposeful engineering of hierarchical MOFs and advance their applicability in environmental and energy technologies.

8.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 25, 2022 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039061

RESUMEN

Models developed using Nanopore direct RNA sequencing data from in vitro synthetic RNA with all adenosine replaced by N6-methyladenosine (m6A) are likely distorted due to superimposed signals from saturated m6A residues. Here, we develop a neural network, DENA, for m6A quantification using the sequencing data of in vivo transcripts from Arabidopsis. DENA identifies 90% of miCLIP-detected m6A sites in Arabidopsis and obtains modification rates in human consistent to those found by SCARLET, demonstrating its robustness across species. We sequence the transcriptome of two additional m6A-deficient Arabidopsis, mtb and fip37-4, using Nanopore and evaluate their single-nucleotide m6A profiles using DENA.

9.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056765

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. is a traditional medicine used in the treatment of diabetes and chronic renal failure in southern China, Malaysia, and Thailand. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease and the number of diabetic patients in the world is increasing. This review aimed to systematically review the effects of O. stamineus in the treatment of diabetes and its complications and the pharmacodynamic material basis. (2) Methods: This systematic review was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), using the databases ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Web of Science. (3) Results: Thirty-one articles related to O. stamineus and diabetes were included. The mechanisms of O. stamineus in the treatment of diabetes and its complications mainly included inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, regulating lipid metabolism, promoting insulin secretion, ameliorating insulin resistance, increasing glucose uptake, promoting glycolysis, inhibiting gluconeogenesis, promoting glucagon-likepeptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and antiglycation activity. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and triterpenoids might be the main components for hypoglycemia effects in O. stamineus. (4) Conclusion: O. stamineus could be an antidiabetic agent to treat diabetes and its complications. However, it needs further study on a pharmacodynamic substance basis and the mechanisms of effective constituents.

10.
Food Funct ; 13(2): 825-833, 2022 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985089

RESUMEN

Polygonum multiflorum (PM), a popular functional food, and a herbal and dietary supplement, is widely used as a tonic in China and East Asia. In recent years, it has attracted great concern for its ability to cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). However, identifying individuals susceptible to IDILI remains challenging. This is a prospective study. For 6 patients whose serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels after consuming PM were abnormally elevated (susceptible group), 15 patients with normal levels of liver injury markers were matched (tolerant group) based on similar baseline characteristics. ProcartaPlex immunoassays were adopted to quantitatively detect 33 serum cytokines in the two groups of patients before consuming PM, to characterize the cytokine profile and screen differential cytokines. Subsequently, the susceptibility of a potential biomarker to regulate PM-induced liver injury was validated in animal models. There were significant differences in the cytokine profiles between the susceptible and tolerant groups, wherein the susceptible patients showed immune perturbation characterized by high expression of multiple inflammatory cytokines, especially the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α (P = 0.006). Among them, the cytokine TNF-α had the strongest correlation with ALT, where the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.6, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was more than 0.8. Animal experiments revealed that both PM water extract and its susceptibility component of liver injury, cis-stilbene glucoside, could cause liver injury in the mice pre-stimulated using TNF-α. Conversely, administration of the same dose of drugs on control mice did not show any hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, immune perturbation mainly mediated by TNF-α may regulate the susceptibility to PM-induced liver injury. This provides a new perspective for the study of susceptibility to IDILI.

11.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001746

RESUMEN

One novel naphthalene derivative, 2-octa-2',4',6'-atriynenaphthalene (1), together with eighteen known compounds (2-19) were isolated from the aerial parts of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Compounds 2, 8, 10, 13, 15-17 and 19 were obtained from the family Lamiaceae for the first time, and compounds 11 and 18 were firstly identified from the genus of Dracocephalum. All the isolates were evaluated for anti-complementary activities through the classical and alternative pathways, and the targets of the most active compounds on the complement activation cascade were also investigated.

12.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006554

RESUMEN

It has been reported that heavy metals have adverse effects on the immune system. However, the relationship between heavy metal exposure and allergic outcomes remains unclear. This systematic review was conducted to examine whether heavy metal exposure is associated with allergic outcomes during childhood. We performed a systematic search of all relevant articles in Web of Science, EMBASE, and PubMed, from inception through to November 2020. We used odds ratio (OR) and the standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to present estimates from individual studies. In addition, random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool the data. We also conducted the meta-regression and subgroup analysis to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. After duplicate removal, we finally included 35 articles in the systematic review and meta-analysis from an initial 11,181 articles. The overall results showed that copper (Cu) was associated with asthma (pooled SMD = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.13-2.86); in the subgroup analysis, the results indicated that lead (Pb) was associated with asthma (pooled OR = 6.27, 95% CI = 2.24-17.56), and Cu and Pb were connected with atopic dermatitis (SMD = - 1.05, 95% CI = - 1.45 to - 0.65; SMD = 5.68, 95% CI = 5.05-6.32), respectively. Mercury (Hg) was associated with atopic dermatitis (pooled OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.22) and wheeze (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05-1.37). The meta-analysis results indicate that Cu might be connected with childhood asthma, but not with other allergic diseases; Hg and Pb may have no association with allergic diseases during childhood. Given some limits observed in the current studies, more prospective cohort studies are still needed to verify our findings. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42020222167.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(1): 58, 2022 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031599

RESUMEN

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal primary brain tumor with a poor median survival less than 15 months. Despite the development of the clinical strategies over the decades, the outcomes for GBM patients remain dismal due to the strong proliferation and invasion ability and the acquired resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, developing new biomarkers and therapeutic strategies targeting GBM is in urgent need. In this study, gene expression datasets and relevant clinical information were extracted from public cancers/glioma datasets, including TCGA, GRAVENDEEL, REMBRANDT, and GILL datasets. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed and NEK2 was picked as a candidate gene for subsequent validation. Human tissue samples and corresponding data were collected from our center and detected by immunohistochemistry analysis. Molecular biological assays and in vivo xenograft transplantation were performed to confirm the bioinformatic findings. High-throughput RNA sequencing, followed by KEGG analysis, GSEA analysis and GO analysis were conducted to identify potential signaling pathways related to NEK2 expression. Subsequent mechanism assays were used to verify the relationship between NEK2 and NF-κB signaling. Overall, we identified that NEK2 is significantly upregulated in GBM and the higher expression of NEK2 exhibited a poorer prognosis. Functionally, NEK2 knockdown attenuated cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis of GBM while NEK2 overexpression promoted the GBM progression. Furthermore, High-throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis indicated that NEK2 was positively related to the NF-κB signaling pathway in GBM. Mechanically, NEK2 activated the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway by phosphorylating NIK and increasing the activity and stability of NIK. In conclusion, NEK2 promoted the progression of GBM through activation of noncanonical NF-κB signaling, indicating that NEK2- NF-κB axis could be a potential drug target for GBM.

16.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5323, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993992

RESUMEN

Wu-tou decoction has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine prescription for thousands of years. It is composed of five herbs, namely, Radix Aconiti Preparata, Ephedrae Herba, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhiza Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba. In addition, the original prescription also contains honey, but in modern research, the existence of honey is commonly ignored. To investigate the effect of absorption in rats after oral wu-tou decoction within or without honey. In this research, a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was investigated to the quantitative analysis of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, paeoniflorin, calycosin-7-glucoside, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin and benzoylmesaconine in rat plasma after single and continuous oral decoctions. The results of pharmacokinetic parameters showed that Cmax , CL/F, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ in the honey group were significantly increased than those in the non-honey group except for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine. It obtained the same trend regardless of single or continuous oral administration. The research showed that honey could promote the absorption of some effective components in wutou decoction in rats, enhance bioavailability, and provide a theoretical basis for the scientific and rational compatibility of the original prescription.

17.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055374, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017252

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis assessed the associations of myocardial fibrosis detected by late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE)-MRI with the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis reported in accordance with the guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane by Ovid databases for studies published up to 27 August 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective or respective cohort studies were included if they reported the HR and 95% CIs for MACCEs/MACEs in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes and LGE-MRI-detected myocardial fibrosis compared with patients without LGE-MRI-detected myocardial fibrosis and if the articles were published in the English language. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Pooled HRs and 95% CIs were analysed using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using forest plots and I2 statistics. RESULTS: Eight studies with 1121 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were included in this meta-analysis, and the follow-up ranged from 17 to 70 months. The presence of myocardial fibrosis detected by LGE-MRI was associated with an increased risk for MACCEs (HR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.42 to 4.71; p=0.002) and MACEs (HR: 5.28; 95% CI 3.20 to 8.70; p<0.001) in patients with diabetes. Subgroup analysis revealed that ischaemic fibrosis detected by LGE was associated with MACCEs (HR 3.80, 95% CI 2.38 to 6.07; p<0.001) in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ischaemic myocardial fibrosis detected by LGE-MRI was associated with an increased risk of MACCEs/MACEs in patients with diabetes and may be an imaging biomarker for risk stratification. Whether LGE-MRI provides incremental prognostic information with respect to MACCEs/MACEs over risk stratification by conventional cardiovascular risk factors requires further study.

18.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019866

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common forms of arthritis, and hypertonic dextrose prolotherapy has long been used clinically to treat knee OA. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammation-related protein-expression profile characterizing the efficacy of the hypertonic dextrose prolotherapy in knee OA as prognostic markers. METHODS: OA patients over the age of 65 were recruited for Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index, knee X ray evaluation and knee joint synovial fluid analysis before and after hypertonic dextrose prolotherapy. The expressions of inflammation-related factors were measured using a novel cytokine antibody array methodology. The cytokine levels were quantified by quantitative protein expression and analyzed by ELISA using the patients' knee-joint synovial fluid. RESULTS: The WOMAC Index and minimum joint space width prior to receiving the intra-articular injection and at 2-week intervals were compared. 12 patients who received OA intervention were enrolled and finally a clinical evaluation of 12 knee joints and knee synovial fluid samples were analyzed. In this study, after receiving hypertonic dextrose prolotherapy, the OA patients clearly demonstrated a significant improvement in WOMAC index and increasing tendency in the medial minimum joint space width after intervention. Meanwhile, we observed a significantly associated tendency between the high-glucose treatment of knee OA and the upregulation of MMP2, TIMP-1, EGF, CXCL9 and IL-22. CONCLUSION: These findings provide knee OA patients receiving hypertonic dextrose prolotherapy, which accompanying with the improvement of knee pain, stiffness, and function and increasing tendency in the medial minimum joint space width.

19.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13315, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020261

RESUMEN

Evidence of the impact of exposure to multiple mycotoxins and environment enteric dysfunction (EED) on child growth is limited. Using data from a birth cohort study, the objectives of this study were to (a) quantify exposure to multiple mycotoxins (serum aflatoxin [AFB1 ] and ochratoxin A [OTA], urinary fumonisin [UFB1 ] and deoxynivalenol [DON]), as well EED (lactulose:mannitol [L:M] ratio); (b) examine the potential combined effects of multiple mycotoxin exposure and EED on growth. Multivariate regressions were used to identify associations between growth measurements (length, weight, anthropometric z-scores, stunting and underweight) at 24-26 months of age and exposure to mycotoxins and EED at 18-22 months (n = 699). Prevalence of AFB1 , DON, OTA and UFB1 exposure ranged from 85% to 100%; average L:M ratio was 0.29 ± 0.53. In individual mycotoxin models, AFB1 exposure was negatively associated with weight, WAZ, increased odds of stunting (odds ratio [OR]: 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.52; p = 0.004) and underweight (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.38; p = 0.046). Irrespective of other mycotoxin exposure and presence of EED, AFB1 was negatively associated with length, weight, head circumference, LAZ and WAZ, and with increased odds of stunting and underweight, UFB1 was associated with increased odds of underweight, and DON was negatively associated with head circumference. EED was associated with the impaired length and weight. These findings suggest that certain mycotoxins and EED may have independent impacts on different facets of growth and that aflatoxin dominates such impacts. Thus, programs reducing exposure to mycotoxin and EED through multi-sectoral nutrition-sensitive interventions have the potential to improve child growth.

20.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 12(1): 699-710, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993112

RESUMEN

Background: Pulmonary part-solid nodules (PSNs) reportedly have a high possibility of malignancy, while benign PSNs are common. This study aimed to reveal the differences between benign and malignant PSNs by comparing their thin-section computed tomography (CT) features. Methods: Patients with PSNs confirmed by postoperative pathological examination or follow-up (at the same period) were retrospectively enrolled from March 2016 to January 2020. The clinical data of patients and CT features of benign and malignant PSNs were reviewed and compared. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal the predictors of malignant PSNs. Results: A total of 119 PSNs in 117 patients [age (mean ± standard deviation), 56±11 years; 70 women] were evaluated. Of the 119 PSNs, 44 (37.0%) were benign, and 75 (63.0%) were malignant (12 adenocarcinomas in situ, 22 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas, and 41 invasive adenocarcinomas). There were significant differences in the patients' age and smoking history between benign and malignant PSNs. In terms of CT characteristics, malignant and benign lesions significantly differed in the following CT features: whole nodule, internal solid component, and peripheral ground-glass opacity. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed that well-defined border [odds ratio (OR), 4.574; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.186-17.643; P=0.027] and lobulation (OR, 61.739; 95% CI, 5.230-728.860; P=0.001) of the nodule, as well as irregular shape (OR, 9.502; 95% CI, 1.788-50.482; P=0.008) and scattered distribution (OR, 13.238; 95% CI, 1.359-128.924; P=0.026) of the internal solid components were significant independent predictors distinguishing malignant PSNs. However, the lesion shape, density, and margin were similar between malignant and benign lesions. Conclusions: Well-defined and lobulated PSNs with irregular and scattered solid components are highly likely to be malignant.

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