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1.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821552

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The optimal treatment strategy of combining systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is controversial. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicities of induction chemotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IC-RT) versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in NPC. METHODS: Of 448 stage II-IVb NPC patients treated with IC-RT or CCRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary outcome was overall survival, which was analysed by using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 66 months (interquartile range, 46-84 months). There was no statistically significant difference in the estimated 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distance metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS) between IC-RT group and CCRT group (OS: 89.5% vs 91.7%, P = .568; PFS: 85.2% vs 87.5%, P = .615; DMFS: 90.9% vs 91.7%, P = .847; LRFS: 92.0% vs 96.9%, P = .104). In the multivariate analysis, the treatment group (IC-RT vs CCRT) was not an independent prognostic factor for OS, PFS, DMFS and LRFS. Less advanced tumour stage and lymph node stage were predictive of higher OS. EBV-DNA level was an independent prognostic factor that was only significantly associated with LRFS. CONCLUSIONS: IC-RT achieves similar survival outcomes and treatment-related toxicities as CCRT in OS, PFS, DMFS and LRFS for patients with NPC. We need multicentre randomised controlled trials to reconfirm our data.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e214846, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825837

RESUMEN

Importance: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as a first-line therapy for patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma has been shown to improve overall and progression-free survival compared with standard sorafenib treatment. However, because of the high cost of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, assessment of its value by considering both efficacy and cost is needed. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab vs sorafenib for patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma from a US payer perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation was performed from June through September 2020, with a 6-year investment time period. Hypothetical patients were male and female adults 18 years or older who had a diagnosis of locally advanced metastatic or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by histologic or clinical features. Main Outcomes and Measures: Health care costs (adjusted to 2020 US dollars), life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab vs sorafenib were examined using a partitioned survival model. One-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to examine model uncertainty. The model was also used to estimate price reductions of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab that would achieve more favorable cost-effectiveness. Results: In the base case analysis of a hypothetical sample of 424 patients, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was associated with an increase of 0.623 life-years (1.840 vs 1.218 life-years) and 0.484 QALYs (1.412 vs 0.928 QALYs) and with an incremental cost of $156 210 per patient compared with sorafenib. The ICER was $322 500 per QALY (5th to 95th percentile, $149 364-$683 744 per QALY), with 0.6% and 5.1% chance of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $100 000 and $150 000 per QALY, respectively. The ICER never decreased below $150 000 per QALY in the 1-way sensitivity analyses. To achieve more favorable cost-effectiveness under the thresholds of $150 000 to $100 000 per QALY, the prices of atezolizumab and bevacizumab would need to be reduced by 37% to 47%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this economic evaluation, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was associated with clinical benefit but was not cost-effective compared with sorafenib for first-line treatment of unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma from a US payer perspective. A substantial reduction in price for atezolizumab plus bevacizumab would be needed to achieve favorable cost-effectiveness for this new therapy.

3.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808436

RESUMEN

The unavoidable noise often present in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, such as speckle noise, negatively impacts the subsequent processing of SAR images. Further, it is not easy to find an appropriate application for SAR images, given that the human visual system is sensitive to color and SAR images are gray. As a result, a noisy SAR image fusion method based on nonlocal matching and generative adversarial networks is presented in this paper. A nonlocal matching method is applied to processing source images into similar block groups in the pre-processing step. Then, adversarial networks are employed to generate a final noise-free fused SAR image block, where the generator aims to generate a noise-free SAR image block with color information, and the discriminator tries to increase the spatial resolution of the generated image block. This step ensures that the fused image block contains high resolution and color information at the same time. Finally, a fused image can be obtained by aggregating all the image blocks. By extensive comparative experiments on the SEN1-2 datasets and source images, it can be found that the proposed method not only has better fusion results but is also robust to image noise, indicating the superiority of the proposed noisy SAR image fusion method over the state-of-the-art methods.

4.
Foods ; 10(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809138

RESUMEN

A massive amount of chalaza with nearly 400 metric tons is produced annually as waste in the liquid-egg industry. The present study aimed to look for ways to utilize chalaza as a natural emulsifier for high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) at the optimal production conditions to expand the utilization of such abundant material. To the author's knowledge, for the first time, we report the usage of hen egg chalaza particles as particulate emulsifiers for Pickering (HIPEs) development. The chalaza particles with partial wettability were fabricated at different pH or ionic strengths by freeze-drying. The surface electricity of the chalaza particles was neutralized when the pH was adjusted to 4, where the chalaza contained a particle size around 1500 nm and held the best capability to stabilize the emulsions. Similarly, the chalaza reaches proper electrical charging (-6 mv) and size (700 nm) after the ionic strength was modified to 0.6 M. Following the characterization of chalaza particles, we successfully generated stable Pickering HIPEs with up to 86% internal phase at proper particle concentrations (0.5-2%). The emulsion contained significant stability against coalescence and flocculation during long term storage due to the electrical hindrance raised by the chalaza particles which absorbed on the oil-water interfaces. Different rheological models were tested on the formed HIPEs, indicating the outstanding stability of such emulsions. Concomitantly, a percolating 3D-network was formed in the Pickering HIPES stabilized by chalaza which provided the emulsions with viscoelastic and self-standing features. Moreover, the current study provides an attractive strategy to convert liquid oils to viscoelastic soft solids without artificial trans fats.

5.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 235: 110234, 2021 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813288

RESUMEN

Histamine plays a central role in various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation is a novel effector mechanism of neutrophils to defend against various stimuli. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the role of histamine on bovine NET formation, and examined its preliminary molecular mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that histamine had no significant influence on PMNs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) viability. Confocal microscopy analyses identified NET structures by co-localizing the main components of NETs, and NET quantification revealed that histamine-triggered NETs were released in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 proteins were significantly elevated in histamine-challenged PMNs. By applying functional inhibitors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase), ERK and p38, histamine-triggered NETs were markedly reduced, indicating their importance in histamine-triggered NET formation. Our findings described histamine-triggered NET formation, and revealed its potential molecular mechanisms via NADPH oxidase, ERK and p38 pathways. This is the first study to depict histamine-triggered NET formation, which could provide a new insight into histamine-related diseases.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 385, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837179

RESUMEN

Human antigen R (HuR) is a widespread RNA-binding protein involved in homeostatic regulation and pathological processes in many diseases. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease and acute cardiovascular events. However, the role of HuR in atherosclerosis remains unknown. In this study, mice with smooth muscle-specific HuR knockout (HuRSMKO) were generated to investigate the role of HuR in atherosclerosis. HuR expression was reduced in atherosclerotic plaques. As compared with controls, HuRSMKO mice showed increased plaque burden in the atherosclerotic model. Mechanically, HuR could bind to the mRNAs of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 and AMPKα2, thus increasing their stability and translation. HuR deficiency reduced p-AMPK and LC3II levels and increased p62 level, thereby resulting in defective autophagy. Finally, pharmacological AMPK activation induced autophagy and suppressed atherosclerosis in HuRSMKO mice. Our findings suggest that smooth muscle HuR has a protective effect against atherosclerosis by increasing AMPK-mediated autophagy.

7.
Head Neck ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792110

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy and toxicities among different induction chemotherapy regimens in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for literature up to September 16, 2019. Two researchers independently selected the articles, evaluated the quality of the literature, and extracted and analyzed the data. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in survival outcomes, mucositis, or gastrointestinal adverse events among the four regimens. The probability of GP being the best induction scheme to improve OS was 43.7%. The completion rate of concurrent chemotherapy with the GP regimen was significantly reduced than the other three regimens. CONCLUSIONS: The survival outcomes of the four regimens in LA-NPC were comparable. Considering only OS, GP showed the highest probability of improving the survival of LA-NPC, while it also affected the completion of concurrent chemotherapy.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800648

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a significant threat to people's lives. Compliance with preventive behaviors, recommended by public health authorities, is essential for infection control. In the remission stage, one year after the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, we advanced a moderated parallel mediation model of the link between risk perception and compliance with preventive behaviors as well as a serial mediation model of the link between optimism and compliance with preventive behaviors, explaining the roles of various psychosocial factors in these associations. In January 2021, 200 participants under 50 years of age, located in 80 Chinese cities, participated in an online survey assessing risk perception, compliance with preventive behaviors, fear, anxiety, political trust, government dependency, and dispositional optimism. The results showed that the effect of risk perception on compliance with preventive behaviors was mediated by political trust and fear, and was moderated by government dependency. Anxiety and fear serially mediated the effect of optimism on compliance with preventive behaviors. Our study provided implications for future research to reduce negative emotions, strengthen confidence in the government, and sustain moderate government dependency accompanied by individual self-efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125039, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845317

RESUMEN

Rice straw (RS) is one of abundant agricultural waste for biogas production in China. However, the low carbon-methane conversion rate limits its wide application due to the low degradation rate of RS during fermentation. This study investigated the effect of acclimatized paddy soil microorganisms using swine wastewater on degradation of RS before anaerobic digestion. The total organic carbon, reducing sugar and NH4+-N content of paddy soil + RS + swine wastewater (PRS) (653.50 mg/L) was higher than that of other groups after 19 days. The carboxymethyl cellulose activity (4.01 IU), cellulose/lignin ratio (5.25) and the degradation rate of lignin (51.96%) in PRS were higher than those of other groups. The Firmicutes (21.02%), Chloroflexi (12.48%), Proteobacteria (20.92%), and Bacteroidetes (25.78%) were the main fermentation phyla in PRS during acclimatization. These results indicated that the acclimatized paddy soil microorganisms using swine wastewater (SW) could degrade RS more efficiently.

10.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826105

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Levornidazole is a novel nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent active against anaerobes. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of levornidazole after single and multiple oral doses of levornidazole tablets in healthy Chinese subjects and propose the dosing regimen based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with a single ascending dose (250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg) and multiple doses of 500 mg levornidazole q12h for 7 days. Food effect on PK and absolute bioavailability were investigated at the 500 mg dose level. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine the PK parameters of levornidazole. The probability of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fraction of response (CFR) were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation to predict the clinical efficacy of levornidazole tablets. RESULTS: Plasma concentration reached peak about 0.5 h after single dose (250-1500 mg) of levornidazole tablets. The maximal concentration (Cmax) and exposure (AUC0-∞) of levornidazole increased linearly with dose. High-fat diet did not affect the absorption extent of levornidazole tablets. The absolute oral bioavailability of levornidazole tablets was 98.3% ± 7.6%, associated with large apparent volume of distribution (48.68 ± 4.92 l) and long half-life (11.93 ± 1.28 h). The urinary excretion of levornidazole was 7.99%. Levornidazole, administered at either 500 mg q12h or 750 mg q24h, achieved a CFR > 95.4% and PTA > 99% for B. fragilis (minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1.0 mg/l) infections. CONCLUSION: Levornidazole tablets are absorbed rapidly and completely and distributed extensively with a long half-life and low urinary excretion after a single dose or multiple doses in healthy Chinese subjects. Levornidazole tablets can be taken with or without food. Levornidazole tablets 500 mg q12h and 750 mg q24h are expected to achieve the desired efficacy in B. fragilis infections. CLINICAL TRAIL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number CTR20160786 at http://www.chinadrugtrials.org.cn/ .

11.
Cell Rep ; 34(9): 108803, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657376

RESUMEN

Cell types are the basic building units of multicellular life, with extensive diversities. The evolution of cell types is a crucial layer of comparative cell biology but is thus far not comprehensively studied. We define a compendium of cell atlases using single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) data from seven animal species and construct a cross-species cell-type evolutionary hierarchy. We present a roadmap for the origin and diversity of major cell categories and find that muscle and neuron cells are conserved cell types. Furthermore, we identify a cross-species transcription factor (TF) repertoire that specifies major cell categories. Overall, our study reveals conservation and divergence of cell types during animal evolution, which will further expand the landscape of comparative genomics.

13.
Nat Prod Rep ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650613

RESUMEN

Covering: 2010 to 2020Benzocycloheptane is a fundamental and unique structural motif found in pharmaceuticals and natural products. The total syntheses of natural products bearing the benzocycloheptane subunit are challenging and there are only a few efficient approaches to access benzocycloheptane. Thus, new methods and innovative strategies for preparing such natural products need to be developed. In this review, recent progress in the total syntheses of natural products bearing the benzocycloheptane motif is presented, and key transformations for the construction of benzocycloheptane are highlighted. This review provides a useful guide for those engaged in the syntheses of natural products containing the benzocycloheptane motif.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 236, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664225

RESUMEN

The liver plays an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. Here, we show the role of human antigen R (HuR), an RNA regulator protein, in hepatocyte steatosis and glucose metabolism. We investigated the level of HuR in the liver of mice fed a normal chow diet (NCD) and a high-fat diet (HFD). HuR was downregulated in the livers of HFD-fed mice. Liver-specific HuR knockout (HuRLKO) mice showed exacerbated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis along with enhanced glucose tolerance as compared with control mice. Mechanistically, HuR could bind to the adenylate uridylate-rich elements of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN) mRNA 3' untranslated region, resulting in the increased stability of Pten mRNA; genetic knockdown of HuR decreased the expression of PTEN. Finally, lentiviral overexpression of PTEN alleviated the development of hepatic steatosis in HuRLKO mice in vivo. Overall, HuR regulates lipid and glucose metabolism by targeting PTEN.

15.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 45, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some studies have stated that intrauterine insemination (IUI) with controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) might increase the pregnancy rate, while others suggest that IUI in the natural cycle (NC) should be the first line of treatment. It remains unclear whether it is necessary to use COS at the same time when IUI is applied to treat isolated male factor infertility. Thus, we aimed to investigate efficacy of IUI with COS for isolated male factor infertility. METHODS: A total of 601 IUI cycles from 307 couples who sought medical care for isolated male factor infertility between January 2010 and February 2020 were divided into two groups: NC-IUI and COS-IUI. The COS-IUI group was further divided into two subgroups according to the number of pre-ovulatory follicles on the day of HCG: cycles with monofollicular development (one follicle group) and cycles with at least two pre-ovulatory follicles (≥ 2 follicles group). The IUI outcomes, including clinical pregnancy, live birth, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates were compared. RESULTS: The clinical pregnancy, live birth, spontaneous abortion, and ectopic pregnancy rates were comparable between the NC-IUI and COS-IUI group. Similar results were also observed among the NC-IUI, one follicle, and ≥ 2 follicles groups. However, with respect to the multiple pregnancy rate, a trend toward higher multiple pregnancy rate was observed in the COS-IUI group compared to the NC-IUI group (8.7% vs. 0, P = 0.091), and a significant difference was found between the NC-IUI and ≥ 2 follicles group (0 vs. 16.7%, P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: In COS cycles, especially in those with at least two pre-ovulatory follicles, the multiple pregnancy rate increased without a substantial gain in overall pregnancy rate; thus, COS should not be preferred in IUI for isolated male factor infertility. If COS is required, one stimulated follicle and one healthy baby should be the goal considering the safety of both mothers and foetuses.

16.
Org Lett ; 23(6): 2114-2119, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689374

RESUMEN

An unprecedented 19-membered allenic macrolide archangiumide (1) was discovered from the myxobacterium Archangium violaceum SDU8 by integrating NMR-based metabolic profiling and genome mining. Its biosynthesis pathway was proposed based on the architectural analysis of the encoding trans-AT PKS genes and validated by isotope labeling. The methodology of combing 2D NMR-based metabolic profiling and bioinformatics-aided structure prediction, as exemplified by this study, is anticipated to improve discovery efficiency of a broader range of microbial "dark matter".

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 592: 448-454, 2021 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714763

RESUMEN

Lithium sulfur batteries (LSBs) with high energy density hold some promising applications in the wearable and flexible devices. However, it has been still challenging to develop a simple and feasible approach to prepare flexible LSB cathodes with both robust mechanical strength. Herein, flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes with controllable thicknesses are successfully fabricated via a facile blade-coating method. Due to the strong cohesion among CNTs bundles and the well-designed structure, the flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes are demonstrated to be with a combination of impressive mechanical strength and enhanced electrochemical performance. For the flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes with the sulfur mass loading of 4 mg cm-2, the areal capacity is close to 3.0 mA h cm-2, and the breaking stress is up to 5.59 MPa with 7.77% strain. Meanwhile, the pouch cell exhibits excellent cyclic stability at both flat/bent conditions. All demonstrate that the flexible S@C-CNTs cathodes may satisfy the demands of practical application. Moreover, this methodology is suitable for designing other flexible battery electrodes, such as flexible Si@C-CNTs anodes for lithium ion batteries, flexible P@C-CNTs anodes for sodium/potassium ion batteries, etc.

18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(3): e25838, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity accompanied by lower levels of health-related physical fitness (HRPF) is a major threat to public health both internationally and locally. Children with intellectual disability, especially adolescents, have a higher risk of being overweight/obese and having poor HRPF levels. Therefore, more interventions are needed to help this population attain their optimal health levels. However, there has been relatively limited research on this population compared with on their typically developing peers. OBJECTIVE: The proposed study aims to fill this knowledge gap by developing and examining the success of a physical activity (PA) intervention for the target population. METHODS: The proposed study will be a 12-week, school-based randomized controlled trial. The participants (N=48) will be recruited from special schools for students with mild intellectual disability and then randomly allocated to either the intervention group (IG) or the wait-list control group (CG). During the intervention period, the participants in the IG will receive a fun game-based moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) training program (2 sessions/week, 60 minutes/session, for a total of 24 sessions). The intensity of the activities will increase in a progressive manner. Participants in the CG will receive no program during the study period, but the same PA program will be provided to them after the completion of the study. To observe and evaluate the sustaining effects of the intervention, follow-up testing will be scheduled for the participants 12 weeks after the intervention concludes. The study outcomes will include primary outcomes (obesity- and fitness-related outcomes) and a secondary outcome (blood pressure). All of the measurements will be taken at 3 time points. After the follow-up tests, the same PA training program will be provided to the participants in the CG. RESULTS: This study is ongoing. The participants were recruited from October 2020 to November 2020. The total duration of the study is 13 months. Study results are expected at the end of 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed study is expected to reduce obesity and improve HRPF levels in children with intellectual disability. If proven effective, the intervention will be made accessible to more special schools and mainstream schools with students with intellectual disability. Furthermore, the study can serve as an example for international researchers, policy makers, and members of the public who are seeking to tackle the problem of obesity and poor HRPF among children with intellectual disability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04554355; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04554355. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/25838.

19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 886-907, 2021 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although blood concentration of biologics is an important composition of disease management in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, complexity and uncertainty of biological management encourage many disputes in predicting the outcome of IBD patients through blood concentration of biologics. AIM: To verify the predictive value of blood concentration of biologics on endoscopic inactivity in IBD patients under different situations. METHODS: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science up to May 2020 and identified IBD patients as the research cohort as well as the correlations between blood concentration of biologics and endoscopic inactivity in IBD patients as the research direction. RESULTS: A total of 23 articles with 30 clinical studies and 1939 IBD patients were included. The predictive cut-off value of blood concentration of infliximab on mucosal healing should be 2.7-10.6 µg/mL in IBD. Blood concentration of infliximab reaching 5.0-12.7 µg/mL or more increased the probability of fistula healing/closure in perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease. Blood concentration of adalimumab reaching 7.2-16.2 µg/mL or more could predict mucosal healing in IBD. The predictive cut-off value of blood concentration of adalimumab on fistula healing/closure should be 5.9-9.8 µg/mL in perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease. Blood concentration of vedolizumab surpassing 25.0 µg/mL indicated mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis patients under maintenance therapy and the predictive cut-off value of blood concentration on mucosal healing or endoscopic remission under induction therapy in IBD could be 8.0-28.9 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: Blood concentration of biologics should not be utilized to predict endoscopic inactivity of IBD independently due to discrepancies in clinical studies, whereas conducting therapeutic drug monitoring intensively contributes to precise therapy.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1843, 2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758179

RESUMEN

One long-standing issue in the paleoclimate records is whether East Asian Summer Monsoon peaked in the early Holocene or mid-Holocene. Here, combining a set of transient earth system model simulations with proxy records, we propose that, over northern China, monsoon rainfall peaked in the early Holocene, while soil moisture and tree cover peaked in the mid-Holocene. The delayed ecosystem (soil moisture and tree cover) response to rainfall is caused by the vegetation response to winter warming and the subsequent feedback with soil moisture. Our study provides a mechanism for reconciling different evolution behaviors of monsoon proxy records; it sheds light on the driving mechanism of the monsoon evolution and monsoon-ecosystem feedback over northern China, with implications to climate changes in other high climate sensitivity regions over the globe.

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