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1.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112716, 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957418

RESUMEN

The increase of unpalatable Stellera chamaejasme plants has become commonplace in degraded grasslands of China, which can hinder the establishment and growth of palatable plants and have an impact on sustainable development of livestock production. Controlling S. chamaejasme is thus a necessary, yet usually problematic step towards the degraded grassland. Various measures have been implemented to control S. chamaejasme but relatively little is known about the growth and development of S. chamaejasme in degraded grassland. Therefore, focusing on the life history traits of S. chamaejasme can provide theoretical support underpinning its management. In this study, different age classes of S. chamaejasme plants were surveyed and studied from a degraded typical steppe in China, and the variation of the phenotypic traits, biomass increasement, biomass allocation, reserves and nutrient content were described. These analyses could be of great importance in identifying the management practices of S. chamaejasme that are most consistent with the development of S. chamaejasme in degraded grasslands. We found that most of the phenotypic traits and biomass of all organs increased by different patterns with age class. Like many other species, there has been three developmental phases in S. chamaejasme, however, previous researches only focus on the S. chamaejasme in the adult reproductive phase, therefore leading to a delay between the time of S. chamaejasme's seedling and the time when it begins to establish. Our findings demonstrate that S. chamaejasme mainly distributes the biomass to belowground part (RMF and SMF), which is conducive to the survival of S. chamaejasme on degraded grasslands, making mowing fail to eradicate S. chamaejasme in practice. Partial least squares path modeling suggested that nutrient content (N) played a key role in flowering of S. chamaejasme, but the indirect effect was greater than direct effect. The results from this study highlight that control efforts and the management of S. chamaejasme should not only focus on the S. chamaejasme individual in unreproductive phase, but also on the belowground part of plant in reproductive phase.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5549796, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977104

RESUMEN

Objective: The role of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in cardiovascular diseases has been highlighted. Nevertheless, the associations of large-artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke with TMAO and blood lipid-related indices are little investigated. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was performed on 50 patients with LAA stroke and 50 healthy controls. Basic demographic data, common vascular risk factors, and blood lipid-related indices were collected. Plasma TMAO was detected through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression analyses were run to assess the associations of LAA stroke with plasma TMAO level and blood lipid-related indices. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was computed to assess the diagnostic performance of plasma TMAO level and blood lipid-related indices for LAA stroke. Results: Compared with healthy controls, the elevated plasma TMAO level (odds ratio [OR], 7.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.86, 17.25; p < 0.01) and Apo-B (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.06, 2.85; p = 0.03) were observed in LAA stroke patients, while lower Apo-A1 (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34, 0.91; p = 0.02), Apo-A1 to Apo-B ratio (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15, 0.56; p < 0.01), and HDL-C (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35, 0.91; p = 0.02) were found in LAA stroke patients after adjusted for age and gender. Moreover, plasma TMAO (AUC, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83, 0.95), Apo-A1 (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72, 0.89), Apo-B (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73, 0.90), Apo-A1 to Apo-B ratio (AUC, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78, 0.93), and HDL-C (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72, 0.89) showed good diagnostic values for LAA stroke in adjusted models. Conclusions: The plasma TMAO level, Apo-A1, Apo-B, and HDL-C are important biomarkers for LAA stroke patients.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6612592, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977107

RESUMEN

Glioblastoma is a highly invasive primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Cannabinoid analogue WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) exhibited a novel anticancer effect against human tumors. However, the anticancer potential and underlying mechanism of WIN against human glioma remain unclear. Herein, the anticancer efficiency and mechanism of WIN in U251 human glioma cells were investigated. The results showed that WIN dose-dependently inhibited U251 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. WIN treatment also effectively suppressed U251 tumor spheroids growth ex vivo. Further studies found that WIN induced significant apoptosis as convinced by the caspase-3 activation and release of cytochrome C. Mechanism investigation revealed that WIN triggered ROS-mediated DNA damage and caused dysfunction of VEGF-AKT/FAK signal axis. However, ROS inhibition effectively attenuated WIN-induced DNA damage and dysfunction of VEGF-AKT/FAK signal axis and eventually improved U251 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, our findings validated that WIN had the potential to inhibit U251 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induce apoptosis by triggering ROS-dependent DNA damage and dysfunction of VEGF-AKT/FAK signal axis.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964189

RESUMEN

Although reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated tumor treatments are predominant in clinical applications, ROS-induced protective autophagy promotes cell survival, especially in hypoxic tumors. Herein, X-ray triggered nitrite (NO2-) is used for hypoxic prostate cancer therapy by inhibiting autophagy and inducing nitrosative stress based on an electrophilic zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-82-PVP). After internalization of pH-responsive ZIF-82-PVP nanoparticles, electrophilic ligands and Zn2+ are delivered into cancer cells. Electrophilic ligands not only can consume GSH under hypoxia but can also capture low-energy electrons derived from X-rays to generate NO2-, which inhibits autophagy and further elevates lethal nitrosative stress levels. In addition, dissociated Zn2+ specifically limits the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells through ion interference. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that ZIF-82-PVP nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation can effectively promote the apoptosis of hypoxic prostate cancer cells. Overall, this nitrosative stress-mediated tumor therapy strategy provides a novel approach targeting hypoxic tumors.

5.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(5): 1817-1826, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966375

RESUMEN

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) has emerged as a pressing challenge to pulmonary infection and lung damage. The LL37 peptide is an efficient antimicrobial agent against PA strains, but its application is limited because of fast clearance in vivo, biosafety concerns, and low bioavailability. Thus, an albumin-based nanodrug delivery system with reduction sensitivity was developed by forming intermolecular disulfide bonds to increase in vivo LL37 performance against PA. Cationic LL37 can be efficiently encapsulated via electrostatic interactions to exert improved antimicrobial effects. The LL37 peptide exhibits greater than 48 h of sustained released from LL37 peptide nanoparticles (LL37 PNP), and prolonged antimicrobial effects were noted as the incubation time increased. Levels of inflammatory cytokines secreted by peritoneal macrophages, including TNF-α and IL-6, were reduced significantly after LL37 PNP treatment following PA stimulation, indicating that LL37 PNP inhibits PA growth and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. In a murine model of acute PA lung infection, LL37 PNP significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-1ß expression and alleviated lung damage. The accelerated clearance of PA indicates that LL37 PNP could improve PA lung infection and the subsequent inflammation response more efficiently compared with free LL37 peptide. In conclusion, this excellent biocompatible LL37 delivery strategy may serve as an alternative approach for the application of new types of clinical treatment in future.

6.
Biochemistry ; 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969982

RESUMEN

To date more than 150 kinds of RNA chemical modifications have been identified in cellular RNAs, among which N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent mRNA modification in higher eukaryotes. m6A is widely conserved among eukaryotes and tends to occur in a RRACH consensus motif. This consensus motif is identified as early as the 1970s and positively influences the subsequent epigenetic studies. This viewpoint discusses the discovery of this m6A consensus motif and the latest studies around it.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942245

RESUMEN

Titanium implants have been widely used as one of the most effective treatments of bone defects. However, the lack of osteogenesis and bacteria-resistant activities result in high infection and loosening rates of titanium implants. Anodic oxidation could easily construct titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) array on the surface of titanium, and the rough surface of TNTs is beneficial to the growth of osteoblast-related cells on the surface. And TNTs could be excellent drug carriers because of their single-entry tubular hollow structure. In this review, we aim at detailing the application of TNTs as drug carriers in the field of bone implants. Starting from the topography of TNTs, we illustrated the biological activity of the TNTs surface, the drugs for loading in TNTs, and the controlled and responsive release strategies of drug-loaded TNTs, respectively. At the end of this review, the shortcomings of TNTs as the drug carrier in the field of bone implants are discussed, and the development direction of this research field is also prospected.

8.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2021 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964000

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory response after the ischemic injury are important pathophysiologic mechanisms that cause brain tissue loss and neurological deficit. This study aims to observe the expression and role of carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase with specificity for carbonyl compounds such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), in the brain after ischemic injury and to investigate the influence of CBR1 on ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. CBR1 expresses in the neurons, astrocyte, and microglia in the normal brain. The expression of CBR1 decreased in the ischemic regions following cerebral ischemia, and also reduced in primary neurons after OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation); however, the expression of CBR1 significantly increased in microglia in the ischemic penumbra. Furthermore, TAT-CBR1 fusion protein played neuroprotective effects in reducing the infarct volume and improving neurological outcomes after ischemic injury. Mechanistically, CBR1 decreased the levels of 4-HNE in the brain after stroke; it also modulated microglial polarization toward the M2 phenotype, which was well-known to confer neuroprotection after ischemic injury. Our results demonstrate that CBR1 provides neuroprotection against ischemic injury by reducing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, making a promising agent for cerebral ischemia treatment.

9.
Diagn Pathol ; 16(1): 39, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933120

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Danon disease (DD) is a rare x-linked dominant multisystemic disorder with a clinical triad of severe cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and mental retardation. It is caused by a defect in the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP2) gene, which leads to the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing glycogen granule deposits in skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers. So far, more than 50 different mutations in LAMP2 have been identified. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an 18-year-old male patient who was hospitalized for heart failure. Biopsy of the left lateral femoral muscle revealed scattered autophagic vacuoles in the muscle fibers with increased glycogen. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to detect gene mutations of the proband sample and a novel frameshift mutation (c.1052delG) has been identified in exon 8 of LAMP2, which leads to truncation of the protein. CONCLUSION: We found a novel frameshift mutation, a hemizygous mutation (c.1052delG) in exon 8 of LAMP2, identified as presenting the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype. Genetic analysis is the gold standard for the diagnosis of DD and is essential to determine appropriate treatment strategies and to confirm the genetic risk of family members.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956442

RESUMEN

BaTiO3-based ferroelectrics have been extensively studied due to their large dielectric constants and a high saturated polarization, which have the potential to store or supply electricity of very high energy and power densities. In order to further improve the energy efficiency η and the recyclable energy density Wrec, an A, B-site co-doped (Ba0.95,Sr0.05)(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 ceramic target was used for sputter deposition of film capacitor structures on Si. This film composition reduces the remnant polarization Pr, while the choice of a low-temperature, templated sputtering process facilitates the formation of high-density arrays of columnar nanograins (average diameter d ∼20 nm) and grain boundary dead layers. This self-assembled nanostructure further delays the saturation of the electric polarization, leading to a high energy density Wrec of ∼148 J/cm3 and a high energy efficiency η of ∼90%. Moreover, the (Ba0.95,Sr0.05)(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 film capacitors retain their high energy storage performance in a broad range of working temperature (-175-300 °C) and operating frequency (1 Hz-20 kHz). They are also fatigue-free after up to 2 × 109 switching cycles. Our work provides a new method and a cost-effective processing route for the creation and integration of high-performance dielectric capacitors for energy storage applications.

11.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934959

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatectomy combined with intraoperative radiofrequency ablation (IORFA) is a strategy to eliminate all tumors in patients with multiple colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). This study aimed to evaluate the surgical and oncological outcomes of hepatectomy + IORFA for multiple unresectable CRLM. METHODS: We included patients who underwent combined hepatectomy and IORFA for multiple unresectable CRLM (n = 67) or hepatectomy alone (n = 268) for CRLM. Patients were matched in a 1:1 propensity score analysis to compare the short- and long-term outcomes between groups. RESULTS: Patients in hepatectomy + IORFA group had a median number of 10 liver lesions. Postoperative morbidity and the rate of major complications was similar between groups (P = 0.362, P = 1.000). The median overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and hepatic recurrence free survival (HRFS) was similar between groups (3-year OS: 54.2% versus 60.9%, P = 0.389; 3-year PFS: 7.9% versus 19.6%, P = 0.148; 3-year HRFS: 16.7% versus 31.5%, P = 0.202). Re-hepatectomy or radiofrequency ablation was used to treat 47.5% of hepatic recurrences, and the median OS was significantly higher than for patients treated with systemic treatment alone (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Combining hepatectomy and IORFA could provide comparable survival rates for patients with multiple unresectable CRLM compared to those with resectable CRLM treated with hepatectomy alone.

12.
Anal Chem ; 93(15): 6214-6222, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829776

RESUMEN

Due to the inherent mechanism limitation of photocatalytic fuel cell based self-powered biosensors (PFC-SPBs), it was difficult to distinguish the power density of various photoactive materials or recognition events in one detection process, which made it lack multitarget quantitative capacity. In order to solve this problem, we proposed an electron-transfer-regulated conversion strategy for the construction of multiplexed PFC-SPBs. Herein, the n-type CdS/Fe2O3 nanorod array (NR) heterojunction and p-type CuBr semiconductor were used as photoactive materials to prepare the photoanode and photocathode. Based on the appropriate Fermi level differentiation between these two photoelectrodes, a self-powered sensing platform driven by visible light without external energy supply was achieved. In this design, two kinds of common and easily coexisting mycotoxins OTA and AFB1 acted as model analytes. The coupling of "signal off" and "signal on" was realized by controlling the electronic transmission on the interface between the photoanode and photocathode, so as to achieve the simultaneous detection of two mycotoxins. This work established a proof-of-concept for the integration of a dual-photoelectrode with dual-assay that could provide the innovative inspiration for the formation of a general multiplexed self-powered sensing platform.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(17): 6328-6332, 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885296

RESUMEN

The defect concentration in the prototypical metal-organic framework UiO-66 can be well controlled during synthesis, leading to precisely tunable physicochemical properties for this structure. However, there has been a long-standing debate regarding the nature of the compensating species present at the defective sites. Here, we present unambiguous spectroscopic evidence that the missing-linker defect sites in an ambient environment are compensated with both carboxylate and water (bound through intermolecular hydrogen bonding), which is further supported by ab initio calculations. In contrast to the prevailing assumption that the monocarboxylate groups (COO-) of the modulators form bidentate bonding with two Zr4+ sites, COO- is found to coordinate to an open Zr4+ site in an unidentate mode. The neighboring Zr4+ site is terminated by a coordinating H2O molecule, which helps to stabilize the COO- group. This finding not only provides a new understanding of defect termination in UiO-66, but also sheds light on the origin of its catalytic activity.

14.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928669

RESUMEN

AIMS: To optimize the dosing regimen in patients with severe renal impairment based on population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PPK/PD) analysis. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics and safety of nemonoxacin was evaluated in a single-dose, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel-group study after single oral dose of 0.5 g nemonoxacin capsule in 10 patients with severe renal impairment and 10 healthy controls. Both blood and urine samples were collected within 72 hours after admission and determined the concentrations. A PPK model was built using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. The probability of target attainment (PTA) and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) against S. Pneumoniae and S. aureus was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: The data best fitted to a two-compartment model, from which the PPK parameters were estimated, including clearance (8.55 L/h), central compartment volume (80.8 L), and peripheral compartment volume (50.6 L). The accumulative urinary excretion was 23.4±6.5% in severe renal impairment patients and 66.1±16.8% in healthy controls. PPK/PD modeling and simulation of 4 dosage regimens found that nemonoxacin 0.5 g q48h was the optimal dosing regimen in severe renal impairment patients, evidenced by higher PTA (92.7%) and CFR (>99%) at nemonoxacin MIC ≤ 1 mg/L against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus. The alternative regimens (0.25 g q24h; loading dose 0.5 g on Day 1 followed by 0.25 g q24h) were insufficient to cover the pathogens even if MIC = 1 mg/L. CONCLUSION: An extended dosing interval (0.5 g q48h) may be appropriate for optimal efficacy of nemonoxacin in case of severe renal impairment.

15.
Life Sci ; 277: 119487, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862107

RESUMEN

AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a lipid metabolism disorder. Naringin (a main active ingredient in Ganshuang granules) is a flavanone that has been demonstrated to exert hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects. The present study aimed to use a novel tissue-engineered fatty liver model to assess the effects and mechanisms of naringin on NAFLD. MAIN METHODS: Intracellular triglyceride (TG) was examined by oil red O staining and commercial kits. The proteins associated with lipid metabolism were measured by western blotting and/or qPCR. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was measured by ELISA. A CCK8 assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of naringin. Molecular docking was used to predict the interactions and binding patterns between naringin and target proteins. KEY FINDINGS: Naringin significantly reduced intracellular TG accumulation by 52.7% in tissue-engineered fatty (TEF) livers, and also the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Naringin downregulated CD36 and proliferator activated-receptor γ expression, reducing the uptake of FFAs; naringin also downregulated de novo liposynthetases by reducing acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase etc. in TEF livers. Moreover, naringin increased the expression of proliferator activated-receptor α (PPAR-α) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 to improve the oxidation of fatty acids. The levels of VLDL secreted from TEF livers were reduced by 24.7% after naringin treatment. Molecular docking analyses determined the bioactivity of naringin through its specific binding to CD36 and PPAR-α. SIGNIFICANCE: Naringin improved lipid metabolism disorders in TEF livers by reducing fatty acid uptake and de novo lipogenesis and increasing fatty acid oxidation. CD36 and PPAR-α might be specific targets of naringin.

16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 597: 215-222, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872878

RESUMEN

Continuous preparation of sensing fibers that respond to multiple stimuli is of great significance to the development of smart textile and clothing. However, in most cases, the production of sensing fibers is restricted to laboratory scale by factors of equipment and technology, thus it is still challenging to achieve industrial-scale fibers. In this study, continuous preparation of dual-responsive sensing fibers (DRSF) by a set of process designs with custom-built equipment, which consists of core fibers, functional layers, parallel electrodes and protective layers are reported. Combining vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanobelts with a unique device design, DRSFs exhibited a significant electrical output when stimulated by heat or blue light (460 nm), where the factors of the aspect ratio of one-dimensional nanostructures have also been explored. Furthermore, proof-of-concept electronic textiles with DRSFs woven into fabric were demonstrated.

17.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid cancer cells can express oestrogen receptor alpha, which is encoded by the ESR1 gene and may bind to oestrogen to induce the occurrence and development of papillary thyroid cancer. The BRAFV600E mutation is also an important biomarker for the occurrence and progression of papillary thyroid cancer. However, the association between the BRAFV600E mutation and oestrogen receptor alpha expression has not been identified. This study aims to investigate the association between ESR1 expression and the BRAFV600E mutation and its clinical significance. METHODS: Oestrogen receptor alpha and BRAFV600E proteins were detected by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 1105 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at our institution. Messenger RNA expression counts of ESR1 and clinicopathologic information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. RESULTS: Oestrogen receptor alpha protein expression was significantly associated with BRAFV600E protein. The positive rate of oestrogen receptor alpha protein in papillary thyroid cancer patients was significantly higher in males, younger patients and patients with the multifocal type. In papillary thyroid cancer patients with positive BRAFV600E protein, oestrogen receptor alpha expression was significantly correlated with central lymph node metastasis. Data from the The Cancer Genome Atlas database also suggested that the ESR1 messenger RNA level was associated with the BRAFV600E mutation. Furthermore, classification analysis performed according to a tree-based classification method demonstrated that higher ESR1 messenger RNA expression indicated poorer overall survival in papillary thyroid cancer patients with the BRAFV600E mutation. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of BRAFV600E mutations is increased in patients with higher ESR1 messenger RNA levels, and the BRAFV600E protein might be co-expressed with oestrogen receptor alpha, which could be an indicator of cervical lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(15): 5755-5762, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843221

RESUMEN

Discovery and optimization of new catalysts can be potentially accelerated by efficient data analysis using machine-learning (ML). In this paper, we record the process of searching for additives in the electrochemical deposition of Cu catalysts for CO2 reduction (CO2RR) using ML, which includes three iterative cycles: "experimental test; ML analysis; prediction and redesign". Cu catalysts are known for CO2RR to obtain a range of products including C1 (CO, HCOOH, CH4, CH3OH) and C2+ (C2H4, C2H6, C2H5OH, C3H7OH). Subtle changes in morphology and surface structure of the catalysts caused by additives in catalyst preparation can lead to dramatic shifts in CO2RR selectivity. After several ML cycles, we obtained catalysts selective for CO, HCOOH, and C2+ products. This catalyst discovery process highlights the potential of ML to accelerate material development by efficiently extracting information from a limited number of experimental data.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(15): 5826-5835, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848163

RESUMEN

Parastichy, the spiral arrangement of plant organs, is an example of the long-range apparent order seen in biological systems. These ordered arrangements provide scientists with both an aesthetic challenge and a mathematical inspiration. Synthetic efforts to replicate the regularity of parastichy may allow for molecular-scale control over particle arrangement processes. Here we report the packing of a supramolecular truncated cuboctahedron (TCO) into double-helical (DH) nanowires on a graphite surface with a non-natural parastichy pattern ascribed to the symmetry of the TCOs and interactions between TCOs. Such a study is expected to advance our understanding of the design inputs needed to create complex, but precisely controlled, hierarchical materials. It is also one of the few reported helical packing structures based on Platonic or Archimedean solids since the discovery of the Boerdijk-Coxeter helix. As such, it may provide experimental support for studies of packing theory at the molecular level.

20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 1010-1025, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867825

RESUMEN

The majority of cellular DNAs in eukaryotes are organized into linear chromosomes. In addition to chromosome DNAs, genes also reside on extrachromosomal elements. The extrachromosomal DNAs are commonly found to be circular, and they are referred to as extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs). Recent technological advances have enriched our knowledge of eccDNA biology. There is currently increasing concern about the connection between eccDNA and cancer. Gene amplification on eccDNAs is prevalent in cancer. Moreover, eccDNAs commonly harbor oncogenes or drug resistance genes, hence providing a growth or survival advantage to cancer cells. eccDNAs play an important role in tumor heterogeneity and evolution, facilitating tumor adaptation to challenging circumstances. In addition, eccDNAs have recently been identified as cell-free DNAs in circulating system. The altered level of eccDNAs is observed in cancer patients relative to healthy controls. Particularly, eccDNAs are associated with cancer progression and poor outcomes. Thus, eccDNAs could be useful as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the formation, characteristics and biological importance of eccDNAs, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms associated with their roles in cancer progression. We also discuss their potential applications in the detection and treatment of cancer. A better understanding of the functional role of eccDNAs in cancer would facilitate the comprehensive analysis of molecular mechanisms involved in cancer pathogenesis.

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