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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666290, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981313

RESUMEN

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global infectious disease that seriously threatens human beings. The only licensed TB vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)'s protective efficacy varies significantly among populations and regions. It is very urgent to develop more effective vaccines. Methods: In this study, eleven candidate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were selected to predict peptides with high-affinity binding capacity for the HLA-DRB1*01:01 molecule. The immunodominant peptides were identified with the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and linked in silico to result in a novel polypeptide vaccine in Escherichia coli cells. The vaccine's protective efficacy was evaluated in humanized and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. The potential immune protective mechanisms were explored with Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, and ELISPOT. Results: Six immunodominant peptides screened from 50 predicted peptides were used to construct a new polypeptide vaccine named MP3RT. After challenge with M. tuberculosis, the colony-forming units (CFUs), lung lesion area, and the number of inflammatory cells in humanized mice rather than wild-type mice vaccinated with MP3RT were significantly lower than these in mice immunized with PBS. The humanized mice vaccinated with MP3RT revealed significant increases in IFN-γ cytokine production, IFN-γ+ T lymphocytes, CD3+IFN-γ+ T lymphocytes, and the MP3RT-specific IgG antibody. Conclusions: Taken together, MP3RT is a promising peptides-based TB vaccine characterized by inducing high levels of IFN-γ and CD3+IFN-γ+ T lymphocytes in humanized mice. These new findings will lay a foundation for the development of peptides-based vaccines against TB.

2.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 138, 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947329

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the primary types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the occurrence of which has been increasing worldwide. Although IBD is an intensively studied human microbiome-associated disease, research on Chinese populations remains relatively limited, particularly on the mucosal microbiome. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in the mucosal microbiome associated with UC from the perspectives of medical ecology and complex network analysis. RESULTS: In total, 56 mucosal microbiome samples were collected from 28 Chinese UC patients and their healthy family partners, followed by amplicon sequencing. Based on sequencing data, we analyzed species diversity, shared species, and inter-species interactions at the whole community, main phyla, and core/periphery species levels. We identified four opportunistic "pathogens" (i.e., Clostridium tertium, Odoribacter splanchnicus, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Flavonifractor plautii) with potential significance for the diagnosis and treatment of UC, which were inhibited in healthy individuals, but unrestricted in the UC patients. In addition, we also discovered in this study: (i) The positive-to-negative links (P/N) ratio, which measures the balance of species interactions or inhibition effects in microbiome networks, was significantly higher in UC patients, indicating loss of inhibition against potentially opportunistic "pathogens" associated with dysbiosis. (ii) Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence regarding species diversity and composition between UC patients and healthy controls. Here, significant differences were found at the major phylum and core/periphery scales, but not at the whole community level. Thus, we argue that the paradoxical results found in existing studies are due to the scale effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal changes in the ecology and network structure of the gut mucosal microbiome that might be associated with UC, and these changes might provide potential therapeutic mechanisms of UC. The four opportunistic pathogens that were identified in the present study deserve further investigation in future studies.

3.
Acta Oncol ; 60(5): 627-634, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793382

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine the survival and prognostic factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients undergoing radical (chemo)radiotherapy in the era of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Jing-Jin-Ji Esophageal and Esophagogastric Cancer Radiotherapy Oncology Group (3JECROG) conducted the first nationwide survey of nine institutions. Detailed information was accumulated on 5185 patients with ESCC who received definitive 3DCRT/IMRT between 2002 and 2018. Relevant prognostic factors were evaluated to assess their influence on overall and progression-free survivals. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 47.0 (0.9-157.4) months, the 1-year, 2-year, 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates of the whole group were 69.8%, 46.6%, 37.9% and 30.1%. The 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 54.1%, 36.6%, 30.5% and 24.9%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that sex, clinical stage, treatment modality and radiation dose were prognostic factors for OS. The survival of patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was better than that of patients who received radiotherapy alone or sequential chemoradiotherapy. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after CCRT had a better OS than patients receiving CCRT alone. Patients receiving higher radiation dose had a better OS than those patients receiving low-dose radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The survival of ESCC patients undergoing radical (chemo)radiotherapy was relatively satisfactory in the era of 3DCRTand IMRT. As the largest-scale multicenter research on esophageal cancer radiotherapy conducted in China, this study establishes national benchmarks and helps to provide references for subsequent related researches.

4.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130367, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813335

RESUMEN

With the rapid worldwide development of industry and human activities, increasing amounts of multifarious contaminants have significantly threatened environmental ecosystems and human health. Solar photocatalytic decontamination, as an environmentally friendly technology, has been regarded as a good approach to eliminate water pollutants. To date, various photocatalysts have been developed for the purpose of water remediation. Zn-containing layered double hydroxides (Zn-LDHs) and their derivatives are promising candidates due to their suitable band edge positions (oxidation-reduction potentials) for high photocatalytic performances, flexible properties derived from adjustable components and tailorable electronic structures, chemical stabilities, and low toxicities. This review focuses on the fabrication and modification of Zn-LDHs and their photocatalytic applications for the elimination of contaminants in water, including the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, transfer of hazardous heavy metals to lower toxicity heavy metals, and bacterial inactivation. The mechanisms involved in the photocatalytic processes are also thoroughly reviewed. Finally, the emerging scientific and engineering opportunities and challenges in environmental photocatalysis are presented. This review provides basic insights into the construction of Zn-LDH-based materials with high photocatalytic activities and new perspectives on their applications for the photocatalytic elimination of contaminants, which is helpful for the development of photocatalysis for environmental remediation from the lab to industry.

5.
Foods ; 10(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808855

RESUMEN

The increase of urbanization is affecting the urban food system (UFS) in many areas, primarily production, processing, and consumption. The upgrading of the urban food consumption structure not only puts forward higher food production requirements, but also poses a challenge to resource consumption and technological innovation. Considerable case or review studies have been conducted on UFS, but there is no bibliometric review attempting to provide an objective and comprehensive analysis of the existing articles. In this study, we selected 5360 research publications from the core Web of Science collection from 1991 to 2020, analyzing contributions of countries, institutions, and journals. In addition, based on keyword co-occurrence and clustering analyses, we evaluated the research hotspots of UFS. The results show that global research interest in UFS has increased significantly during these three decades. The USA, China, and the UK are the countries with the highest output and closest collaborations. UFS research involves multiple subject categories, with environmental disciplines becoming mainstream. Food security, food consumption, and food waste are the three main research areas. We suggest that food sustainability and resilience, food innovation, and comparative studies between cities should be given more attention in the future.

6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 500, 2021 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893388

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in more than two million deaths at 2021 February . There is currently no approved therapeutics for treating COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein is considered a key therapeutic target by many researchers. Here we describe the identification of several monoclonal antibodies that target SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. One human antibody, CA521FALA, demonstrated neutralization potential by immunizing human antibody transgenic mice. CA521FALA showed potent SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. CA521FALA also demonstrated having a long half-life of 9.5 days in mice and 9.3 days in rhesus monkeys. CA521FALA inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in SARS-CoV-2 susceptible mice at a therapeutic setting with virus titer of the lung reduced by 4.5 logs. Structural analysis by cryo-EM revealed that CA521FALA recognizes an epitope overlapping with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-binding sites in SARS-CoV-2 RBD in the Spike protein. CA521FALA blocks the interaction by binding all three RBDs of one SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer simultaneously. These results demonstrate the importance for antibody-based therapeutic interventions against COVID-19 and identifies CA521FALA a promising antibody that reacts with SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to strongly neutralize its activity.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/farmacología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/farmacología , /inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , /inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , /virología , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , Pandemias , Unión Proteica/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Virales/inmunología , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , /fisiología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo
7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 595: 35-42, 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813222

RESUMEN

With the increasing demand for high-energy-density energy storage devices, lithium metal batteries have rekindled the interest of researchers due to ultra-high specific capacity. However, the extremely unstable interfaces between the electrolyte and electrodes limit its application seriously. Herein, we introduce an organosilicon compound, 1,3-Divinyltetramethyldisiloxane (DTMDS), as multifunctional electrolyte additive to enhance the performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li batteries. DTMDS contains two functional groups: siloxane groups (Si-O) and unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds (CC). Siloxane groups can capture hydrogen fluoride (HF) in electrolyte, and the carbon-carbon double bonds can form thin and dense passivation layer on both cathode and anode surfaces by polymerization. As a result, the capacity retention of the batteries can retain more than 95% after 500 cycles. This work provides a valuable reference for the design of multifunctional additives and stabilizing the interfaces of high-voltage lithium metal batteries.

8.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 131, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882945

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is a main therapeutic method for cancers, including colon cancer. In the current study, we aim to explore the effects of circular RNA (circRNA) circ_0055625 in the progression and radiosensitivity of colon cancer and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The expression of circ_0055625 and musashi homolog 1 (MSI1) mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MSI1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays. Cell survival fraction, apoptosis, and invasion were investigated by colony formation assay, flow cytometry analysis, and transwell invasion assay, respectively. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell migration assays. The binding relationship between microRNA-338-3p (miR-338-3p) and circ_0055625 or MSI1 was predicted by online databases and identified by Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay. The effects of circ_0055625 silencing on the tumor formation and radiosensitivity of colon cancer in vivo were explored by in vivo tumor formation assay. RESULTS: Circ_0055625 and MSI1 were upregulated in colon cancer tissues and cells relative to control groups. Radiation treatment apparently increased the expression of circ_0055625 and MSI1 in colon cancer cells. Circ_0055625 knockdown or MSI1 silencing repressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and promoted cell apoptosis and radiosensitivity in colon cancer. Also, circ_0055625 silencing-mediated effects were attenuated by MSI1 overexpression. Additionally, circ_0055625 silencing reduced MSI1 expression, which could be attenuated by miR-338-3p inhibitor. Mechanically, circ_0055625 acted as a sponge for miR-338-3p to regulate MSI1. Furthermore, circ_0055625 knockdown hindered tumor growth and improved radiosensitivity in vivo. CONCLUSION: Circ_0055625 repression inhibited the progression and radioresistance of colon cancer by downregulating MSI1 through sponging miR-338-3p. This result might provide a theoretical basis for improving the therapy of colon cancer with radiation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , MicroARNs/genética , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética , ARN Circular/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ARN/genética , Carcinogénesis/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias del Colon/genética , Neoplasias del Colon/radioterapia , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/genética , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Silenciador del Gen , Humanos , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/biosíntesis , Pronóstico , Proteínas de Unión al ARN/biosíntesis , Tolerancia a Radiación/genética , Tolerancia a Radiación/efectos de la radiación , Transfección
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8837, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893349

RESUMEN

Microbes or parasites spread vector-borne diseases by mosquitoes without being affected themselves. Insecticides used in vector control produce a substantial problem for human health. This study synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Lawsonia inermis L. and were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, SEM with EDX, and XRD analysis. Green synthesized ZnO NPs were highly toxic against Anopheles stephensi, whose lethal concentrations values ranged from 5.494 ppm (I instar), 6.801 ppm (II instar), 9.336 ppm (III instar), 10.736 ppm (IV instar), and 12.710 ppm (pupae) in contrast to L. inermis treatment. The predation efficiency of the teleost fish Gambusia affinis and the copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of ZnO NPs. The predatory potency for G. affinis was 45 (I) and 25.83% (IV), copepod M. aspericornis was 40.66 (I) and 10.8% (IV) while in an ZnO NPs contaminated environment, the predation by the fish G. affinis was boosted to 71.33 and 34.25%, and predation of the copepod M. aspericornis was 60.35 and 16.75%, respectively. ZnO NPs inhibited the growth of several microbial pathogens including the bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) and the fungi (Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus flavus), respectively. ZnO NPs decreased the cell viability of Hep-G2 with IC50 value of 21.63 µg/mL (R2 = 0.942; P < 0.001) while the concentration increased from 1.88 to 30 µg/mL. These outcomes support the use of L. inermis mediated ZnO NPs for mosquito control and drug development.

10.
Elife ; 102021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688831

RESUMEN

The integrated stress response (ISR) is activated by phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2 in response to various stress conditions. Phosphorylated eIF2 (eIF2-P) inhibits eIF2's nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B, a twofold symmetric heterodecamer assembled from subcomplexes. Here, we monitor and manipulate eIF2B assembly in vitro and in vivo. In the absence of eIF2B's α-subunit, the ISR is induced because unassembled eIF2B tetramer subcomplexes accumulate in cells. Upon addition of the small-molecule ISR inhibitor ISRIB, eIF2B tetramers assemble into active octamers. Surprisingly, ISRIB inhibits the ISR even in the context of fully assembled eIF2B decamers, revealing allosteric communication between the physically distant eIF2, eIF2-P, and ISRIB binding sites. Cryo-electron microscopy structures suggest a rocking motion in eIF2B that couples these binding sites. eIF2-P binding converts eIF2B decamers into 'conjoined tetramers' with diminished substrate binding and enzymatic activity. Canonical eIF2-P-driven ISR activation thus arises due to this change in eIF2B's conformational state.

11.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112353, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735677

RESUMEN

In the present study, a novel oxidant (sodium dichloroisocyanurate, NaCl2(NCO)3; SDIC) combined with microorganisms was employed to achieve a higher performance of waste-activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation. Four concentrations of SDIC (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mg SDIC/mg SS) were studied in WAS fermentation systems. The results showed that the release of proteins and polysaccharides was enhanced by the addition of SDIC with values of 1002.25 mg COD/L and 680.25 mg COD/L, respectively, and these values increased 14.46-18.07 times (proteins) and 3.74-7.40 times (polysaccharides) compared with that of the blank test. Additionally, the short-chain fatty acids also increased 2.24 times. The rate of extraction of organic substances from the sludge increased from 3.03% to 33.33%. Furthermore, the fermented sludge with the SDIC treatment had higher hydrolytic acidification efficiencies for bovine serum albumin and glucose, increasing from 4.558% to 9.91% and 2.976%-6.764%, respectively. However, SDIC treatment of the conventional fermented sludge resulted in lower hydrolytic acidification efficiencies with values of 4.978%-1.781% and 3.334%-0.582%, respectively. Biological enzyme analysis also showed that SDIC enhanced α-glucosidase and protease activity but inhibited dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase activity. Proteobacteria and Comamonas were the main microbial communities observed in the WAS anaerobic fermentation.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Fermentación , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Hidrólisis , Triazinas
12.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 480-490, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723455

RESUMEN

Despite advances in technologies for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI), new integrated therapeutic approaches still need to be developed. In this study, we designed a perfusable, multifunctional epicardial device (PerMed) consisting of a biodegradable elastic patch (BEP), permeable hierarchical microchannel networks (PHMs) and a system to enable delivery of therapeutic agents from a subcutaneously implanted pump. After its implantation into the epicardium, the BEP is designed to provide mechanical cues for ventricular remodeling, and the PHMs are designed to facilitate angiogenesis and allow for infiltration of reparative cells. In a rat model of MI, implantation of the PerMed improved ventricular function. When connected to a pump, the PerMed enabled targeted, sustained and stable release of platelet-derived growth factor-BB, amplifying the efficacy of cardiac repair as compared to the device without a pump. We also demonstrated the feasibility of minimally invasive surgical PerMed implantation in pigs, demonstrating its promise for clinical translation to treat heart disease.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos/instrumentación , Infarto del Miocardio/terapia , Prótesis e Implantes , Animales , Materiales Biocompatibles , Diseño de Equipo , Neovascularización Fisiológica , Porcinos , Remodelación Ventricular
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24565, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725938

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of earthquake on sleep quality of adults who had experienced Tangshan Earthquake either as infants or fetuses and also investigate whether CRHR1 polymorphism influenced sleep quality in subjects exposed to seismic stress.Totally 556 subjects were enrolled in the current study and were divided into 3 groups, those who had experienced Tangshan Earthquake as infants (group I) or fetuses (group II), and those who had not experienced Tangshan Earthquake (group III). Sleep was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PQSI). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CRHR1 gene were analyzed.Fifty two (9.4%) subjects had sleep disturbance, including 17 (9.9%) subjects in group I, 24 (13.4%) subjects in group II, and 11 (5.3%) subjects in group III (χ2 = 7.373, P = .025). Moreover, subjects with CRHR1 genotype T/T had a significantly lower rate of sleep disturbance (7.8%) than subjects with genotype C/T and C/C (14.7%; χ2 = 4.845, P  = .028). Furthermore, subjects with rs7209436 genotype C had an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of sleep disturbance versus those who were not genotype C (OR = 1.978, 95% CI (1.045, 3.744).Prenatal and postnatal exposure to seismic stress significantly increases subsequent risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Terremotos , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/genética , Receptores de Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/genética , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/genética , Adulto , Adultos Sobrevivientes de Eventos Adversos Infantiles , Desastres , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Sueño/genética
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24762, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725942

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Chemokines are majorly involved in inflammatory and immune responses. The interferon-γ-inducible chemokines C-X-C motif chemokines 9 and 10 (CXCL9 and CXCL10) are considerably associated with Th1 cells and monocytes, and their expression levels rapidly increase during the early episodes of renal allograft rejection and various infectious diseases. CXCL13 is one of the most potent B-cell and T follicular helper-cell chemoattractants. The expression of CXCL13 in the presence of infection indicates an important chemotactic activity in multiple infectious diseases. C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) can attract monocytes and macrophages during inflammatory responses. However, there are no studies on the role of these chemokines in posttransplant infection in kidney transplant recipients.In this study, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL13, and CCL2 were analyzed using the Bio-Plex suspension array system before transplant and 30 days after transplant.The serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL13 30 days after kidney transplant were associated with infection within 1 year after transplant (P = .021 and P = .002, respectively). The serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL13 before surgery and those of CCL2 and CXCL10 before and after surgery were not associated with infection within 1 year after transplant (P > .05). The combination of postoperative day (POD) 30 CXCL9 and postoperative day 30 CXCL13 provided the best results with an area under the curve of 0.721 (95% confidence interval, 0.591-0.852), with a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 68.5% at the optimal cutoff value of 52.72 pg/mL.As important chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL13 could be used to predict the occurrence of infection after kidney transplant.


Asunto(s)
Quimiocina CXCL13/sangre , Quimiocina CXCL9/sangre , Infecciones/etiología , Enfermedades Renales/sangre , Trasplante de Riñón/efectos adversos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Quimiocina CCL2/sangre , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Renales/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periodo Posoperatorio , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Periodo Preoperatorio , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e25142, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725996

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The hospital-acquired influenza (HAI) were usually contributed to severe outcomes among the inpatients. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize and quantify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HAI. METHODS: We performed a literature search thorough PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases for observational studies. Random/fix-effects models were used to obtain pooled proportion, odds ratio (OR), and weighted mean difference (WMD). RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 1483 HAI and 71849 non-hospital-acquired influenza infections (NHAI) cases were included.The proportion of the HAI among the influenza cases was 11.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.19%-19.55%) and it was increased after 2012 (6.15% vs 12.72%). The HAI cases were significantly older (WMD = 9.51, 95% CI: 0.04-18.98) and the patients with chronic medical diseases were at increased risk of HAI (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.57-2.19). Among them, metabolic disorders (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 2.46-26.64) ranked the highest danger, followed by malignancy (OR = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.12-4.76), any chronic diseases (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.08-9.31), immunosuppression (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.25-3.64), renal diseases (OR = 1.72, 95% CI:1.40-2.10), heart diseases (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44), and diabetes (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44). The HAI cases were more likely to experience longer hospital stay (WMD = 10.23, 95% CI: 4.60-15.85) and longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay (WMD = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.50-4.48). In the outcomes within 30 days, those population was still more likely to receive hospitalization (OR = 6.55, 95% CI: 5.19-8.27), death in hospital (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.65-2.40) but less likely to discharged (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16-0.24). CONCLUSION: The proportion of the HAI among the influenza cases was relatively high. Reinforcement of the surveillance systems and vaccination of the high-risk patients and their contacts are necessary for the HAI control.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Infección Hospitalaria/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Gripe Humana/etiología , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa
16.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110859, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775365

RESUMEN

Autotetraploid rice, which is developed through chromosome set doubling using diploid rice, produces high-quality kernels that are rich in storage proteins. However, little information is available about the content of different proteins in autotetraploid rice and their proteomic analysis. The dynamic changes in four storage proteins, namely, albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin, were analyzed in the endosperm of autotetraploid rice (AJNT-4x) and in that of its diploid counterpart (AJNT-2x) for comparison. The contents of the four proteins were all higher during endosperm development in AJNT-4x than in AJNT-2x, but their change and composition were almost the same in the two materials. Then, iTRAQ was employed to analyze the glutelin profiles of AJNT-4x and AJNT-2x at 10 DAF, 15 DAF, and 20 DAF. A total of 1326 proteins were identified in AJNT-4x and AJNT-2x using high-throughput LC-MS/MS. Among the 1326 identified proteins, there were 362 DEPs in AJNT-4x compared with AJNT-2x and 372 DEPs between different developmental stages in AJNT-4x. Eight important upregulated proteins were identified by qRT-PCR, including B8AM24, B8ARJ0, B8AQM6, A2ZCE6, and P37833. Among them, B8AM24 and B8ARJ0 were related to the lysine biosynthesis process. GO enrichment analysis revealed that the critical functions of DEPs exhibited little overlap between the 10, 15, and 20 DAF groups. Endosperm glutelin accumulation was regulated mainly by different DEPs during the early stage, and 15 DAF was a critical regulating point for glutelin accumulation. KEGG pathway analysis showed that ribosomal proteins were significantly higher in AJNT-4x than in AJNT-2x at 10 DAF, and protein processing, biosynthesis, and metabolism of amino acids were higher and more active in AJNT-4x at 15 DAF, while the peroxisome was richer in AJNT-4x at 20 DAF. The PPI network showed that ribosomal proteins gradually decreased with increasing endosperm development. These results provide new insights into dynamic glutelin expression differences during endosperm development in autotetraploid rice, which will aid in the development of rice cultivars with increased yield and improved grain nutritional quality.


Asunto(s)
Endospermo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Endospermo/metabolismo , Glútenes/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteómica , Producción de Cultivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Glútenes/genética , Procesamiento Proteico-Postraduccional
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(13): 15017-15030, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764752

RESUMEN

A process to dealloy a Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb (TLM) titanium alloy to create a porous surface structure has been reported in this paper aiming to enhance the bioactivity of the alloy. A simple nanoporous topography on the surface was produced through dealloying the as-solution treated TLM alloy. In contrast, dealloying the as-cold rolled alloy created a hierarchical micro/nanoporous topography. SEM and XPS were performed to characterize the topography and element chemistry of both porous structures. The roughness, hydrophilicity, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were tested. The elements of Zr, Mo, Sn, and Nb were depleted at the nanoporous TLM surface with a diameter of 15.6 ± 2.3 nm. Dissolving the microscale α phase from the alloy surface contributed to the formation of the microscale grooves on the surface. The simple nanoporous topographical surface exhibited hydrophilicity and higher protein adsorption ability, which facilitated the early adhesion of osteoblasts compared with the hierarchical micro/nanoporous surface. On the other hand, the hierarchical micro/nanoporous surface improved cell proliferation and differentiation and still retained the contact guidance function, which implied good bonding for osseointegration. This research revealed the effect of phase composition on the surface morphology of dealloying titanium alloy and the synergistic effect of micron and nanometer topography on the function of osteoblasts. This paper therefore provides insights into the surface topological design of titanium-based biomaterials with improved biocompatibility.

18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 124, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736601

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The reformulated simethicone emulsion from Berlin Chemical AG might develop white flocculate precipitate covering the gastric mucosa when used before esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). We aim to investigate whether combining the reformulated simethicone emulsion with 5% sodium bicarbonate solution could prevent the development of white precipitate and improve visibility during EGD. METHODS: Our clinical study involved 523 patients. They were randomly assigned to two groups. In Group A, patients received a warm solution containing 30 ml 5% sodium bicarbonate solution and 15 ml reformulated simethicone emulsion. In Group B, patients received 45 ml 40 °C lukewarm water. Visibility scores were recorded and analyzed. Flushes, volume of flush water, overall time taken for EGD and complications during or after the procedure were also recorded. RESULTS: We found that no white precipitate was observed during EGD in Group A. Moreover, visibility scores in Group A were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Patients in Group A had fewer flushes (P < 0.01) and smaller volume of flush water (P < 0.01). In addition, the overall time taken for the EGD procedure was significantly shorter in Group A (P < 0.01). The percentage of patients who had no adverse response was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with a mixed solution of 15 ml reformulated simethicone emulsion and 30 ml 5% sodium bicarbonate solution can prevent the development of white precipitate, substantially enhancing mucosal visibility safely. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The registered name of the trial is "Efficacy of using premedication with reformulated simethicone emulsion during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination". Its Current Controlled Trials number is ChiCTR1900021689. Its date of registration is 11 September 2019. Retrospectively registered, http://www.medresman.org.cn/uc/sindex.aspx .


Asunto(s)
Simeticona , Bicarbonato de Sodio , Método Doble Ciego , Endoscopía Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Premedicación
19.
J Int Med Res ; 49(3): 3000605211002379, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788649

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine if plasma exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) can predict survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). METHODS: The study enrolled patients with IPAH that underwent right heart catheterization. Plasma was collected and exosomal miRNAs were extracted. Exosomes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, Western blot analysis and particle size distribution analysis. MiRNAs were evaluated using a miRNA microarray and validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: This study included 12 patients with IPAH in the study group and 48 patients with IPAH in the validation group. The mean ± SD follow-up duration was 60.3 ± 35.4 months in the overall cohort. The levels of miR-596 were higher in the nonsurvivors compared with the survivors. The levels of miR-596 significantly correlated with survival time, mean right atrial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and cardiac index. High levels of miR-596 and PVR were significantly associated with poor overall survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that exosomal miR-596 (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.119; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.402, 3.203) and PVR (HR = 1.146; 95% CI 1.010, 1.300) were independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of plasma exosomal miR-596 were significantly associated with disease severity and poor prognosis of patients with IPAH.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , MicroARNs , Biomarcadores , Hipertensión Pulmonar Primaria Familiar , Humanos , MicroARNs/genética , Pronóstico , Arteria Pulmonar
20.
Food Chem ; 354: 129497, 2021 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752112

RESUMEN

Aflatoxin B1 is the potential chemical contaminant of most concern during the production and storage of fermented tea. In this work, a simple, fast, sensitive, accurate, and inexpensive method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous detection of four aflatoxins in fermented tea based on a modified sample pretreatment method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Aflatoxins were extracted using acetonitrile and purified using mixed fillers (carboxyl multiwalled carbon nanotubes, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, silica gel). Under optimum LC-MS conditions, the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.02-0.5 µg·kg-1. Recoveries from aflatoxins-fortified tea samples (1-12 µg·kg-1) were in the range of 78.94-105.23% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 18.20%. The proposed method was applied successfully to determine aflatoxin levels in fermented tea samples.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxinas/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Tés de Hierbas/análisis , Aflatoxinas/aislamiento & purificación , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Límite de Detección , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Gel de Sílice/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
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