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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-48, 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944697

RESUMEN

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) encoded by IGHV3-53 (VH3-53) targeting the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) have been isolated from different COVID-19 patients. However, the existence and prevalence of shared VH3-53-encoded antibodies in the antibody repertoires is not clear. Using antibody repertoire sequencing, we found that the usage of VH3-53 increased after SARS-CoV-2 infection. A highly shared VH3-53-J6 clonotype was identified in 9 out of 13 COVID-19 patients. This clonotype was derived from convergent gene rearrangements with few somatic hypermutations and was evolutionary conserved. We synthesized 34 repertoire-deduced novel VH3-53-J6 heavy chains and paired with a common IGKV1-9 light chain to produce recombinant mAbs. Most of these recombinant mAbs (23/34) possess RBD binding and virus neutralizing activities, and recognize ACE2 binding site via the same molecular interface. Our computational analysis, validated by laboratory experiments, revealed that VH3-53 antibodies targeting RBD are commonly present in COVID-19 patients' antibody repertoires, indicating many people have germline-like precursor sequences to rapidly generate SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, antigen-specific mAbs can be digitally obtained through antibody repertoire sequencing and computational analysis.

2.
Elife ; 102021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944777

RESUMEN

SARM1 regulates axonal degeneration through its NAD-metabolizing activity and is a drug target for neurodegenerative disorders. We designed and synthesized fluorescent conjugates of styryl derivative with pyridine to serve as substrates of SARM1, which exhibited large red-shifts after conversion. With the conjugates, SARM1 activation was visualized in live cells following elevation of endogenous NMN or treatment with a cell-permeant NMN-analog. In neurons, imaging documented mouse SARM1 activation preceded vincristine-induced axonal degeneration by hours. Library screening identified a derivative of nisoldipine as a covalent inhibitor of SARM1 that reacted with the cysteines, especially Cys311 in its ARM domain and blocked its NMN-activation, protecting axons from degeneration. The Cryo-EM structure showed that SARM1 was locked into an inactive conformation by the inhibitor, uncovering a potential neuroprotective mechanism of dihydropyridines.

3.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 188, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human oligodendrocyte precursor cells (hOPCs) are an important source of myelinating cells for cell transplantation to treat demyelinating diseases. Myelin oligodendrocytes develop from migratory and proliferative hOPCs. It is well known that NG2 and A2B5 are important biological markers of hOPCs. However, the functional differences between the cell populations represented by these two biomarkers have not been well studied in depth. OBJECTIVE: To study the difference between NG2 and A2B5 cells in the development of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. METHODS: Using cell sorting technology, we obtained NG2+/-, A2B5+/- cells. Further research was then conducted via in vitro cell proliferation and migration assays, single-cell sequencing, mRNA sequencing, and cell transplantation into shiverer mice. RESULTS: The proportion of PDGFR-α + cells in the negative cell population was higher than that in the positive cell population. The migration ability of the NG2+/-, A2B5+/- cells was inversely proportional to their myelination ability. The migration, proliferation, and myelination capacities of the negative cell population were stronger than those of the positive cell population. The ability of cell migration and proliferation of the four groups of cells from high to low was: A2B5- > NG2- > NG2+ > A2B5+. The content of PDGFR-α+ cells and the ability of cell differentiation from high to low was: NG2- > A2B5- > A2B5+ > NG2+. CONCLUSION: In summary, NG2+ and A2B5+ cells have poor myelination ability due to low levels of PDGFR-α+ cells. Therefore, hOPCs with a higher content of PDGFR-α+ cells may have a better effect in the cell transplantation treatment of demyelinating diseases.

4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 260, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although increasing evidence has demonstrated that human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are efficacious for the clinical treatment of skeletal disorders, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative disorders in joints and is characterized by gradual and irreversible cartilaginous tissue damage. Notably, immune factors were newly identified to be closely related to OA development. In this study, we explored the modulatory effects of clinical-grade hDPSCs on osteoarthritic macrophages and their protective effects on cartilaginous tissues in OA joints. METHODS: The cell morphology, immunophenotype, and inflammatory factor expression of osteoarthritic macrophages were explored by phase contrast microscope, transmission electron microscopy, immunostaining, flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Additionally, the factors and signaling pathways that suppressed macrophage activation by hDPSCs were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western-blotting. Furthermore, hDPSCs were administered to a rabbit knee OA model via intra-articular injection. Macrophage activation in vivo and cartilaginous tissue damage were also evaluated by pathological analysis. RESULTS: We found that hDPSCs markedly inhibited osteoarthritic macrophage activation in vitro. The cell morphology, immunophenotype, and inflammatory factor expression of osteoarthritic macrophages changed into less inflammatory status in the presence of hDPSCs. Mechanistically, we observed that hDPSC-derived hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor ß1 mediated the suppressive effects on osteoarthritic macrophages. Moreover, phosphorylation of MAPK pathway proteins contributed to osteoarthritic macrophage activation, and hDPSCs suppressed their activation by partially inactivating those pathways. Most importantly, injected hDPSCs inhibited macrophage activation in osteochondral tissues in a rabbit knee OA model in vivo. Further histological analysis showed that hDPSCs alleviated cartilaginous damage to knee joints. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings reveal a novel function for hDPSCs in suppressing osteoarthritic macrophages and suggest that macrophages are efficient cellular targets of hDPSCs for alleviation of cartilaginous damage in OA. hDPSCs treat OA via an osteoarthritic macrophages-dependent mechanisms. hDPSCs suppress the activation of osteoarthritic macrophages in vitro and in vivo and alleviate cartilaginous lesions in OA models.

6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 559: 8-14, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932903

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in human diseases, including sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Here, we aimed to investigate the functions of lncRNA NKILA in sepsis-engendered AKI. METHODS: HK2 cells stimulated with LPS were used to mimic sepsis-induced AKI in vitro. qRT-PCR was conducted for lncRNA NKILA and miR-140-5p levels. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis were employed to analyze cell viability and apoptosis. Western blot assay was utilized to measured protein levels. ELISA kits were used to examine the concentrations of IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was utilized to analyze the relationships among lncRNA NKILA, miR-140-5p and claudin 2 (CLDN2). RESULTS: LPS restrained HK2 cell viability and accelerated cell apoptosis and autophagy. LncRNA NKILA was increased in LPS-treated HK2 cells. LncRNA NKILA silencing reversed the promotional influence of LPS on cell progression in HK2 cells. miR-140-5p inhibition ameliorated lncRNA NKILA knockdown-mediated cell injury in LPS-mediated HK2 cells. CLDN2 was the target of miR-140-5p. MiR-140-5p elevation promoted cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation in LPS-induced HK2 cells, with CLDN2 elevation overturned the effects. CONCLUSION: LncRNA NKILA silencing protected HK2 cells from LPS-induced impairments by reducing CLDN2 through sponging miR-140-5p.

7.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946073

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Oculomotor paresis with cyclic spasms (OPCS) is a rare disorder in which the muscles innervated by the third cranial nerve undergo alternating rhythmic spasm and paralysis. This disease is usually noticeable at birth or developing during the first year of life. To date, most of the OPCS cases reported in the English-language literature were Caucasians. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we review OPCS patients published in China's high-quality journals and report 1 new case encountered in our clinic. The clinical characteristics of 29 Chinese OPCS patients are summarized. Our review demonstrates the same trend in the analysis values for the onset age, pupil, lid, eye movement, time of cycles, and preferentially involved side in Chinese OPCS patients in comparison with previous reviews. Moreover, we review a case combined with Marcus Gunn Syndrome, a case with rapid relief under oral carbamazepine treatment, and cases with atypical patterns of cyclic changes. DISCUSSION: Our study may broaden the current knowledge and phenotypic spectrum of OPCS.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946791

RESUMEN

Photosynthetic carbon converted to sucrose is vital for plant growth. Sucrose acts as a signaling molecule and a primary energy source that coordinates the source and sink development. Alteration in source-sink balance halts the physiological and developmental processes of plants, since plant growth is mostly triggered when the primary assimilates in the source leaf balance with the metabolic needs of the heterotrophic sinks. To measure up with the sink organ's metabolic needs, the improvement of photosynthetic carbon to synthesis sucrose, its remobilization, and utilization at the sink level becomes imperative. However, environmental cues that influence sucrose balance within these plant organs, limiting positive yield prospects, have also been a rising issue over the past few decades. Thus, this review discusses strategies to improve photosynthetic carbon assimilation, the pathways actively involved in the transport of sucrose from source to sink organs, and their utilization at the sink organ. We further emphasize the impact of various environmental cues on sucrose transport and utilization, and the strategic yield improvement approaches under such conditions.

9.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-6, 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947312

RESUMEN

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a member of the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) family, which could mediate various biological processes, for instance, the balance of the immune system, cell proliferation, differentiation, vascular tissue remodeling and reproduction ability regulation. A previous research showed that the AHR gene exerted important functions on the pig reproduction, implying that it could serve as a candidate gene related to animal reproductive traits. Here, the aim of this work was to identify potential insertion/deletion (indel) mutations of the AHR gene in three sheep breeds and analyze the associations between these mutations and reproductive traits. Results showed that a 24-bp indel was uncovered three genotypes (II, ID and DD) in the Australian White sheep (AuW) and Lanzhou fat-tail sheep (LZFT) population, while there were only two genotypes (ID and DD) in Luxi black-headed sheep (LXBH). Moreover, the Fisher's exact test showed that the 24-bp indel mutation was significantly associated with litter size and live litter size in AuW sheep (Fisher's p < 0.05). Therefore, the 24-bp indel of sheep AHR gene can contribute to sheep marker-assisted selection breeding and further improve the sheep reproductive performance.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145709, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940766

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heightening oxidative stress and inflammation is an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying air pollution health effects in people with asthma. Melatonin can suppress oxidative stress and inflammation in pulmonary and circulatory systems. However, the role of melatonin in the oxidative stress and physiological responses to air pollution exposure has not been examined in children with asthma. METHODS: In this panel study of 43 asthmatic children (5-13 years old), each child had 4 clinic visits with a 2-week interval between two consecutive visits. At each visit, urine samples were collected and subsequently analyzed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) as a surrogate of circulating melatonin and for malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as two biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress. At each clinic visit, children were measured for pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, a marker of pulmonary inflammation). None of the children reported to have taking melatonin supplementation. Concentrations of indoor and ambient PM2.5 and ozone (O3) were combined with individual time-activity data to calculate personal air pollutant exposures. RESULTS: We found that interquartile range increases in urinary MDA and 8-OHdG concentrations were associated with significantly increased urinary aMT6s concentrations by 73.4% (95% CI: 52.6% to 97.0%) and 41.7% (22.8% to 63.4%), respectively. Increases in daily personal exposure to O3 and to PM2.5 were each associated with increased urinary aMT6s concentrations. Increasing urinary aMT6s concentrations were associated with decreased FeNO and resonant frequency, indicating improved airway inflammation and lung elasticity, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that systemic oxidative stress heightened by air pollution exposure may stimulate melatonin excretion as a defense mechanism to alleviate the adverse effects.

11.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805780

RESUMEN

As a potential energy crop with high biomass yield, Miscanthus lutarioriparius (M. lutarioriparius), endemic to the Long River Range in central China, needs to be investigated for its acclimation to stressful climatic and soil conditions often found on the marginal land. In this study, traits related to acclimation and yield, including survival rates, plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), tiller number (TN), water use efficiency (WUE), and photosynthetic rates (A), were examined for 41 M. lutarioriparius populations that transplanted to the arid and cold Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that the average survival rate of M. lutarioriparius populations was only 4.16% over the first winter but the overwinter rate increased to 35.03% after the second winter, suggesting that plants having survived the first winter could have acclaimed to the low temperature. The strikingly high survival rates over the second winter were found to be 95.83% and 80.85%, respectively, for HG18 and HG39 populations. These populations might be especially valuable for the selection of energy crops for such an area. Those individuals surviving for the two consecutive winters showed significantly higher WUE than those measured after the first winter. The high WUE and low stomatal conductance (gs) observed in survived individuals could have been responsible for their acclimation to this new and harsh environment. A total of 61 individuals with productive growth traits and strong resistance to cold and drought were identified for further energy crop development. This study showed that the variation of M. lutarioriparius held great potential for developing energy crops following continuous field selection.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856526

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatosplenic γ δ T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) with aggressive clinical behavior. To date, no standard therapy for HSTCL has been established. This study analyzed the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis for patients with HSTCL to determine the best therapeutic approach. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatments, and responses to treatment of patients in our center between January 2001 and June 2021, and also reviewed related literature. RESULTS: Median patient age was 38 years (range 16-60 years) and the patients included eight males and six females. HSTCL in these patients typically presented with B symptoms (71.4%), splenomegaly (100%), and hepatomegaly (50.0%), but lymphadenopathy was extremely rare. In these patients, routine laboratory testing showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase (71.4%), liver dysfunction (42.9%), and decreased fibrinogen (35.7%). In the induction phase, five of the 14 patients received chemotherapy regimens containing anthracycline (CHOP, or CHOP plus bortezomib or Chidamide), and six were treated with non-CHOP chemotherapy. Seven patients responded to induction treatment, four of whom received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and then achieved a complete response in the consolidation phase. survival time of patients who received alloHCT range from 10 to 27 months. CONCLUSION: Hepatosplenic γ δ T-cell lacks a standard therapy and is often refractory to conventional chemotherapy regimens. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation may improve the prognosis of HSTCL.

13.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830917

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a promising modality that is designed to provide non-invasive quantitative three-dimensional information regarding the tumor distribution in living animals. However, BLT suffers from inferior reconstructions due to its ill-posedness. This study aims to improve the reconstruction performance of BLT. METHODS: We propose an adaptive grouping block sparse Bayesian learning (AGBSBL) method, which incorporates the sparsity prior, correlation of neighboring mesh nodes, and anatomical structure prior to balance the sparsity and morphology in BLT. Specifically, an adaptive grouping prior model is proposed to adjust the grouping according to the intensity of the mesh nodes during the optimization process. RESULTS: Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that AGBSBL yields a high position and morphology recovery accuracy, stability, and practicality. CONCLUSION: The proposed method is a robust and effective reconstruction algorithm for BLT. Moreover, the proposed adaptive grouping strategy can further increase the practicality of BLT in biomedical applications.

14.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871800

RESUMEN

This study was designed to investigate the role of miR-671-5p in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke (IS). Middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) in C57BL/6 mice as well as oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in a mouse hippocampal HT22 neuron line were used as in vivo and in vitro models of IS injury, respectively. miR-671-5p agomir, miR-671-5p antagomir, pcDNA3.1-NF-κB, and negative controls were transfected into cells using riboFECT CP reagent. miR-671-5p agomir, pcDNA3.1-NF-κB, and negative vectors were administered into MCAO/R mice via intracerebroventricular injection. The results showed that miR-671-5p was significantly downregulated and that miR-671-5p agomir alleviated injury and neuroinflammation induced by ischemic reperfusion. A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that NF-κB is a direct target of miR-671-5p. Reverse experiments showed that miR-671-5p agomir reduced neuroinflammation via suppression of NF-κB expression in both in vitro and in vivo models of IS. Our data suggest that miR-671-5p may be a viable therapeutic target for diminishing neuroinflammation in patients with IS.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867526

RESUMEN

Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by severe cytokine storms, a hyperinflammatory condition intimately related to the development of fatal outcomes. Why some individuals seem particularly vulnerable to severe cytokine storms is still unknown. Primary immunodeficiency (PID)-related genes are inherited factors that dysregulate host inflammatory responses to infection, especially hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-related genes, established as contributors to the development of excessive cytokine storms. We analyzed the association between PID gene variants with severe cytokine storms in COVID-19. We conducted whole-exome sequencing in 233 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and identified four PID gene (UNC13D, AP3B1, RNF168, DHX58) variants were significantly enriched in COVID-19 patients experiencing severe cytokine storms. The total percentage of COVID-19 patients with variants in UNC13D or AP3B1, two typical HLH genes, was dramatically higher in high-level cytokine group than in low-level group (33.3 vs. 5.7%, P < 0.001). Germline variants in UNC13D and AP3B1 were associated with the development of severe cytokine storms, fatal outcomes in COVID-19. These findings advance the understanding of individual susceptibility to severe cytokine storms and help optimize the current management of COVID-19.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(5): 1234-1249, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867842

RESUMEN

Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) was recently shown to play an important role in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was to assess the role of DKK1 in the regulation of smooth muscle cell function by mechanical stretch and the mechanisms underlying this process. Methods: Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to sham or abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) surgery. The expression level of DKK1 was examined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Analyses of DKK1 function in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration were performed. Transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes and pathways regulated by DKK1. Smooth muscle-specific Dkk1 knockout mice were used to confirm the function of DKK1 in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to confirm DNA-protein interactions. Promoter luciferase analysis was used to detect transcription factor activity. Results: We found that AAC significantly increased DKK1 protein levels in the thoracic aorta and coronary artery in vivo. In vitro, high-level stretch (18%) induced the expression of DKK1 in VSMCs. Knocking down DKK1 inhibited VSMC proliferation and migration under high-level stretch (18%). We identified ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) as a target gene of DKK1. Knockdown of UHRF1 with small interfering RNAs partially reversed the regulatory effect of recombinant DKK1 on VSMCs. Specific deletion of DKK1 in VSMCs was sufficient to attenuate the AAC-induced upregulation of UHRF1, thickening of arterial media and increase in VSMC proliferation. Furthermore, we found that DKK1 regulated UHRF1 expression through the YAP-TEAD pathway. TEAD1 and TEAD4 bound directly to the promoter of UHRF1, and blocking the YAP-TEAD interaction inhibited UHRF1 upregulation due to DKK1. Conclusions: This study reveals that DKK1 mediates the mechanical stretch regulation of smooth muscle cell function by modulating UHRF1 expression through the YAP-TEAD pathway.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881299

RESUMEN

Currently, cathodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensors, which could effectively reduce background interference, are urgently required for ultrasensitive environmental monitoring. Herein, porphyrin-based covalent organic framework (TAPP-COF) thin films were fabricated via a bottom-up growth approach on the liquid/liquid interface and applied as a photocathode material to "on-off-on" PEC sensing of Pb2+. Benefitting from the unique charge channels of COFs and the good photoelectric properties of porphyrin, the as-prepared TAPP-COF thin films presented an improved photocathodic current, with a strongly enhanced "signal-on" response with low background. Then, CdSe@SiO2 quantum dots (QDs), as a quenching agent, were introduced through a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to obtain a "signal off" PEC response. Afterward, with the introduction of target Pb2+, CdSe@SiO2 QDs were detached from TAPP-COF thin films, and the PEC response transformed into a signal-on state. Benefiting from the multiple-quenching and steric hindrance effect of CdSe@SiO2 QDs and the photocathodic property of TAPP-COFs, accurate monitoring of Pb2+ in a wide detection range from 0.05 to 1000 nM with a lower detection limit of 0.012 nM was realized based on the proposed on-off-on PEC approach. Notably, the methodology provides an efficient platform for ultrasensitive determination of heavy metal ions, which would play a significant role in environmental monitoring and public safety fields.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887908

RESUMEN

Visible-light-driven environmental contaminants control using 2D photocatalytic nanomaterials with an unconfined reaction-diffusion path is advantageous for public health. Here, cost-effective siliceous composite microsheets (FeSiO-MS) combined with two distinct refined α-Fe2O3 nanospecies as photofunctional catalysts were constructed via a one-pot synthesis approach. Through precise control of Fe2+ precursor addition, specially configured α-Fe2O3 nanofibers combined with FeOx cluster-functionalized siliceous microsheets of ∼15 nm gradually evolved from the iron oxide-bearing molecular sieve, endowing a superior light-response characteristic of the formed nanocomposite. The catalytic experiment along with the ESR study demonstrated that the produced FeSiO-MS showed reinforced photo-Fenton reactivity, which was effective for rapid phenol degradation under visible light radiation. Moreover, the phenol removal process was found to be regulated by the specially configured types and concentrations of iron oxides. Notably, the obtained composites exhibited a considerable visible-light-induced bactericidal effect against E. coli. The constructed FeSiO-MS nanocomposites as integrated and eco-friendly photocatalysts exhibit enormous potentials for environmental and hygienic application.

19.
Insect Sci ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890408

RESUMEN

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) have been extensively investigated in lepidopteran moths, but their evolution and function in hemipteran species remain unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that an odorant-binding protein, OBP4, of the mirid bug Adelphocoris lineolatus functions as a candidate hemipteran PBP but clustered with lepidopteran antennae-binding proteins (ABPs) rather than in the PBP/general odorant-binding protein (GOBP) clade. In this study, we hypothesized that origin and function of PBPs in hemipteran bugs may differ from those of lepidopteran moths. To test this hypothesis, we first constructed a phylogenetic tree using insect OBPs from sister hemipteran and holometabolous lineages, and the results indicated that neither OBP4 nor other types of candidate PBPs of mirid bugs clustered with the lepidopteran PBP/GOBP clade. Then, a fluorescence competitive binding assay was employed to determine binding affinities of recombinant OBP4 protein to host plant volatiles, with functional groups different from A. lineolatus sex pheromone components. The results revealed that OBP4 highly bound the female adult attractant 3-hexanone and 15 other mirid bug biologically active plant volatiles. Finally, we examined cellular expression profiles of OBP4 in putative antennal sensilla that are related to female A. lineolatus host plant location. The fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical labeling assay showed that the OBP4 gene was highly expressed in the multiporous olfactory sensilla medium-long sensilla basiconica rather than in the short sensilla basiconica or uniporous sensilla chaetica. These results, together with those of our previous studies, indicate that OBP4 not only functions in recognition of bug-produced sex pheromones in males, but is probably involved in detection of host plant volatiles in both A. lineolatus sexes. Our findings support the hypothesis that the origin and function of PBPs in hemipteran bugs differ from those of well-known PBPs in lepidopteran moths, which provides a novel perspective on evolutionary mechanisms of sex pheromone communication across insect orders.

20.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 303-6, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798314

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the imaging features of focus of knee joint tendon in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) technique. METHODS: One hundred KOA patients and 100 healthy subjects were included. All the KOA patients were palpated by the sequence of foot yangming meridian, foot shaoyang meridian, foot taiyang meridian and foot three yin-meridians, and the focus of knee tendon and its frequency were recorded by MSUS technique. The top-5 focus of knee tendon of KOA patients and the corresponding focus of knee tendon of healthy subjects were selected as the observation sites to compare the differences of thickness of ligament and tendon soft tissue in the extension and flexion positions of the knee joint. RESULTS: The top-5 focus of knee tendon of KOA patients were located in medial inferior patella, medial tibial condyle, inferior patella, Zusanlici and Hedingci. The thickness of ligaments and tendons in extension and flexion positions in KOA patients were thicker than that in healthy subjects (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The focus of knee joint tendon in KOA patients shows significantly thickened musculoskeletal imaging features.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Articulación de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Tendones/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía
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