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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122829, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635219

RESUMEN

The successful application of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) depends on not only their unique chemical structures but also their morphology, size, and architecture. Spherical COFs (SCOFs) are attracted special attention due to the superiority of spherical materials in many applications. However, the synthesis of uniform large-sized SCOFs remains a challenge. Herein, by carefully optimizing the synthesis of a heteropore COF, we find that solvent type and catalyst concentration play important roles in determining the morphology and size of COFs, and eventually achieve the controllable synthesis of large SCOFs with uniform sizes ranging from 200 µm to 5 mm. The obtained SCOFs keep the dual-pore feature of the heteropore COF and show good stability and high crystallinity. To exhibit the superior application potential of SCOFs, the SCOFs with a size range of 200-300 µm were demonstrated to be promising solid-phase extraction (SPE) fillers. As-prepared SCOFs-packed SPE column could effectively remove ≥99% phytochrome matrix from 6 different vegetable samples in 10 s, accompanied by 72.56-112.37% recoveries of 33 chemical hazards with different physicochemical properties, thus showing greatly promising application prospects in sample pretreatment of nontargeted food safety analysis. By utilizing acid/base-adjusted reversible color change, millimeter-sized SCOFs were developed as an easy-to-operate and reusable naked-eye indicator of acids.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597014

RESUMEN

Mechanoreceptors endow humans with the sense of touch by translating the external stimuli into coded spikes, inspiring the rise of artificial mechanoreceptor systems. However, to incorporate slow adaptive receptors-like pressure sensors with artificial neurons remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate an artificial mechanoreceptor by rationally integrating a polypyrrole-based resistive pressure sensor with a volatile NbOx memristor, to mimic the tactile sensation and perception in natural skin, respectively. The artificial mechanoreceptor enables the tactile sensory coding by converting the external mechanical stimuli into strength-modulated electrical spikes. Also, tactile sensation enhancement is achieved by processing the spike frequency characteristics with the pulse coupled neural network. Furthermore, the artificial mechanoreceptor can integrate signals from parallel sensor channels and encode them into unified electrical spikes, resembling the coding of intensity in tactile neural processing. These results provide simple and efficient strategies for constructing future bio-inspired electronic systems.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627665

RESUMEN

The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the skeletal stability between sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) in the treatment of mandibular prognathism. Patients presenting with mandibular prognathism and scheduled for orthognathic surgery were randomized into either the SSRO group or the IVRO group. Changes at B-point were assessed by serial tracing of lateral cephalograms, which were taken preoperatively, and at 2 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. Ninety-eight patients were recruited, with 49 patients in each group. Between 2 weeks and 6 months postoperatively, there was significantly more surgical relapse in the horizontal direction (anterior movement) in the SSRO group when compared with the IVRO group (1.83 mm (SD 2.91 mm) vs 0.49 mm (SD 2.32 mm); p = 0.019). At 2 years, there was more surgical relapse in the horizontal direction in the SSRO group than in the IVRO group (0.27 mm (SD 0.34 mm) vs 0.10 mm (SD 0.29 mm); p = 0.014). There were also more absolute changes (irrespective of direction) at B-point in the SSRO group than in the IVRO group at postoperative 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years (p = 0.016, 0.049, and 0.045, respectively). The amounts of change at B-point as percentages of total mandibular setback were 1.3% and 3.5% in the IVRO group and SSRO group, respectively. There were no differences in vertical changes between the two groups at any time points. In conclusion, the horizontal stability at B-point was shown to be superior in the IVRO group compared with the SSRO group in the correction of mandibular prognathism during the 2-year follow-up. Although the exact clinical importance of this difference is unknown at this time, this possible benefit may be an important key factor when deciding which osteotomy technique to employ for mandibular setback.

4.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632543

RESUMEN

Ebola virus (EBOV) belongs to the Filoviridae family and causes severe illnesses such as hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate up to 90%. Now two antibody drugs termed Inmazeb and Ebanga have been approved for treating EBOV infection. However, clinical studies have demonstrated that the mortality rate of the patients who received these two antibody drugs remains above 30%. Therefore, novel therapeutics with better efficacy is still desired. The isolated human IgG1 constant domain 2 (CH2 domain) has been proposed as a scaffold for the development of C-based single domain antibodies (C-sdAbs) as therapeutic candidates against viral infections and other diseases. Here, we screened and identified a novel C-sdAb termed M24 that targets EBOV glycoprotein (GP) from a C-sdAb phage display library. M24 neutralizes the pseudotype EBOV with IC50 of 0.8 nmol/L (12 ng/mL) and has modest neutralizing activity against authentic EBOV. Epitope determination, including molecular docking and site mutation analysis, discloses that M24 binds to the internal fusion loop (IFL) within GP2, a transmembrane subunit of GP. Interestingly, we found that the binding of M24 to GP at pH 5.5 has dramatically decreased compared to the binding at pH 7.5, which may lead to weak efficacy in the neutralization of authentic EBOV. Since no sdAb against EBOV infection has been reported to date, our results not only give a proof of concept that sdAbs could be utilized for the development of potential therapeutic candidates against EBOV infection, but also provide useful information for the discovery and improvement of anti-EBOV agents.

5.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an extreme form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study concentrated on the role of Capillin, a polyacetylene compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris Thunb., in NASH development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Palmitic acid (PA) was treated with FL83B hepatocytes, and high-fat diet was given to mouse to construct the NASH model in vivo. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, flow cytometry, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were carried out to measure the viability and apoptosis of FL83B hepatocytes. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure the mRNA expressions of infiltration markers (Cd11c, Ccr2, and Ly6c), fibrosis genes (Tgfß1, Col1a1, and Timp1), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Western blot, immunofluorescence, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were implemented to examine the proteins of Caspase-3, Bcl2, Nrf2, HO-1, NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1, the ROS level, and oxidative stress markers (MDA, GSH-ST, SOD, and GSH-Px), and the lipid peroxidation level, respectively. Moreover, HE staining was manipulated to observe the histopathological changes in liver tissue. RESULTS: Capillin hampered PA-mediated hepatocytes apoptosis and enhanced cell viability. Furthermore, Capillin suppressed PA-mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes, promoted Nrf2/HO-1 expression, and repressed NLRP3-ASC-Caspase1 inflammasome. The in vivo studies indicated that Capillin vigorously improves liver fat accumulation, oxidative stress, and liver injury in NASH mice. Mechanistically, Capillin repressed NLRP3-ASC-Caspase1 inflammasome and up-regulated the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway in the liver. CONCLUSION: Capillin ameliorates hepatocyte injury by dampening oxidative stress and repressing NLRP3 inflammasome in NASH mice.

6.
Dev Comp Immunol ; : 104288, 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624358

RESUMEN

Calnexin (Cnx) is a membrane-bound lectin chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum. In this study, a novel Cnx homologue from the obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus was characterized, tentatively named ToCnx. The cDNA of ToCnx was 1803 bp, and it contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 600 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 67.5 kDa. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of ToCnx and other related fish Cnxs revealed that ToCnx had typical characteristics of fish Cnxs. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that ToCnx had the closest relationship with Cnxs from Takifugu flavidus and Takifugu rubripes. ToCnx transcripts were detected in all the tissues examined, and they were mainly expressed in the liver, kidney, and intestine. Upon Vibrio harveyi, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas hydrophila infection, ToCnx transcripts were all significantly upregulated in the kidneys. The recombinant calreticulin domain of ToCnx (rToCnx) was prepared by prokaryotic expression. In the absence of calcium, rToCnx was able to bind three Gram-negative bacteria (V. harveyi, E. tarda, and A. hydrophila) and two bacterial saccharides, such as lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. In the presence of calcium, rToCnx could agglutinate all the detected microorganisms. In addition, rToCnx possessed the effect of inhibiting the growth of three microbe strains. These observations suggested that ToCnx is an important participant in host immune defense against bacteria.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1080, 2021 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615498

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating benign and malignant ovarian or adnexal tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: English articles reporting on the diagnostic performance of MRI or 18F-FDG PET/CT in identifying benign and malignant ovarian or adnexal tumors published in PubMed and Embase between January 2000 and January 2021 were included in the meta-analysis. Two authors independently extracted the data. If the data presented in the study report could be used to construct a 2 × 2 contingency table comparing 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI, the studies were selected for the analysis. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Forest plots were generated according to the sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI. RESULTS: A total of 27 articles, including 1118F-FDG PET/CT studies and 17 MRI studies on the differentiation of benign and malignant ovarian or adnexal tumors, were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating benign and malignant ovarian or adnexal tumors were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.87-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.79-0.91), respectively, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity for MRI were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.95) and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79-0.89), respectively. CONCLUSION: While MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT both showed to have high and similar diagnostic performance in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian or adnexal tumors, MRI, a promising non-radiation imaging technology, may be a more suitable choice for patients with ovarian or accessory tumors. Nonetheless, prospective studies directly comparing MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnostic performance in the differentiation of benign and malignant ovarian or adnexal tumors are needed.

8.
Plant Physiol ; 187(1): 133-157, 2021 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618131

RESUMEN

Exine, the sporopollenin-based outer layer of the pollen wall, forms through an unusual mechanism involving interactions between two anther cell types: developing pollen and tapetum. How sporopollenin precursors and other components required for exine formation are delivered from tapetum to pollen and assemble on the pollen surface is still largely unclear. Here, we characterized an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, thin exine2 (tex2), which develops pollen with abnormally thin exine. The TEX2 gene (also known as REPRESSOR OF CYTOKININ DEFICIENCY1 (ROCK1)) encodes a putative nucleotide-sugar transporter localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Tapetal expression of TEX2 is sufficient for proper exine development. Loss of TEX2 leads to the formation of abnormal primexine, lack of primary exine elements, and subsequent failure of sporopollenin to correctly assemble into exine structures. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the carbohydrate composition of the tex2 primexine and found it accumulates increased amounts of arabinogalactans. Tapetum in tex2 accumulates prominent metabolic inclusions which depend on the sporopollenin polyketide biosynthesis and transport and likely correspond to a sporopollenin-like material. Even though such inclusions have not been previously reported, we show mutations in one of the known sporopollenin biosynthesis genes, LAP5/PKSB, but not in its paralog LAP6/PKSA, also lead to accumulation of similar inclusions, suggesting separate roles for the two paralogs. Finally, we show tex2 tapetal inclusions, as well as synthetic lethality in the double mutants of TEX2 and other exine genes, could be used as reporters when investigating genetic relationships between genes involved in exine formation.

9.
Small ; : e2102392, 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636135

RESUMEN

The unique structural advantage and physicochemical properties render some 2D materials emerging platforms for intracellular bioimaging, biosensing, or disease theranostics. Despite recent advances in this field, one major challenge lies in bypassing the endocytic uptake barrier to allow internalization of very large 2D materials that have longer retention time in cells, and hence greater potency as intracellular functional platforms than small, endocytosable counterparts. Here, an engineered cucurbit[6]uril carrying at its periphery multiple spiropyran pendants that readily translocates into cytosol, and then polymerizes laterally and non-covalently in a controlled manner, enabling direct generation of 2D materials inside living cells, is reported. The resultant 2D materials are single-monomer-thick and can in situ grow up to 0.8-1.2 µm in lateral size, experimentally proved too large to be endocytosed from outside the cells even after surface engineered with biorecognition entities. A Förster resonance energy transfer assay is further devised for real-time visualization of the polymerization dynamics in vivo, clearly demonstrating the rationale in this study. With the otherwise non-endocytosable large 2D materials gaining access to cytosol, potent intracellular signaling or theranostic platform that surpasses the intrinsic performance limit of conventional small counterparts are in sight.

10.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 9380-9390, 2021 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606537

RESUMEN

Sucralose is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, free of nutrients and calories. Its approval and uses correlate with many of the worldwide epidemiological changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Multiple animal studies by us and others showed that sucralose exacerbated ileitis in SAMP1/YitFc mice and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of sucralose on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and the associated mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice received 1.5 mg ml-1 sucralose in drinking water for 6 weeks. Then, 2.5% DSS was added to drinking water for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis (UC). The results showed that, compared with the DSS group, administration of sucralose exacerbated the severity of colitis as indicated by the further decrease in body weight, increase in disease activity index (DAI) and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as the activation of the TLR5-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway, and the disturbances of intestinal barrier function, along with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Our findings indicate that sucralose may increase the susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis through causing dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and damage to the intestinal barrier.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599821

RESUMEN

We compared healthcare worker SARS-CoV-2 infection rates between March-August 2020 in two similar hospitals with high versus low airborne infection isolation room utilization rates but otherwise identical infection control policies. We found no difference in healthcare worker infection rates between the two hospitals nor between patient-facing vs non-patient-facing providers.

12.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 269, 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610799

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infection in patients with acute pancreatitis, especially severe acute pancreatitis patients, is a common and important phenomenon, and the distributions and drug resistance profiles of bacteria causing biliary infection and related risk factors are dynamic. We conducted this study to explore the characteristics of and risk factors for bacterial infection in the biliary tract to understand antimicrobial susceptibility, promote the rational use of antibiotics, control multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and provide guidance for the treatment of acute pancreatitis caused by drug-resistant bacteria. METHODS: The distribution of 132 strains of biliary pathogenic bacteria in patients with acute pancreatitis from January 2016 to December 2020 were analyzed. We assessed drug resistance in the dominant Gram-negative bacteria and studied the drug resistance profiles of multidrug-resistant bacteria by classifying Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative bacteria. We then retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and risk factors associated with 72 strains of Gram-negative bacilli, which were divided into multidrug-resistant bacteria (50 cases) and non-multidrug-resistant bacteria (22 cases). RESULTS: The main bacteria were Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli had a 66.67% detection rate. Acinetobacter baumannii had more than 50.00% drug resistance to carbapenems, ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae had 100.00% drug resistance, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had 66.67% resistance to carbapenems. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the administration of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins was an independent risk factor for Gram-negative multidrug-resistant biliary bacterial infection in acute pancreatitis patients. CONCLUSION: Drug resistance among biliary pathogens in acute pancreatitis patients remains high; therefore, rational antimicrobial drug use and control measures should be carried out considering associated risk factors to improve diagnosis and treatment quality in acute pancreatitis patients.

13.
Appl Opt ; 60(28): 8634-8643, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613088

RESUMEN

Glasses-free light field displays have significantly progressed due to advances in high-resolution microdisplays and high-end graphics processing units (GPUs). However, for near-eye light-field displays requiring portability, the fundamental trade-off regarding achieved spatial resolution remains: retinal blur quality must be degraded; otherwise, computational consumption increases. This has prevented synthesizing the high-quality light field from being fast. By integrating off-the-shelf gaze tracking modules into near-eye light-field displays, we present wearable virtual reality prototypes supporting human visual system-oriented focus cues. An optimized, foveated light field is delivered to each eye subject to the gaze point, providing more natural visual experiences than state-of-the-art solutions. Importantly, the factorization runtime can be immensely reduced, since the image resolution is only high within the gaze cone. In addition, we demonstrate significant improvements in computation and retinal blur quality over counterpart near-eye displays.

14.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601668

RESUMEN

Exposure to stress plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of hypertension via neuroinflammation pathways. Microglial neuroinflammation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) exacerbates stress-induced hypertension (SIH) by increasing sympathetic hyperactivity. Mitochondria of microglia are the regulators of innate immune response. Sigma-1R (σ-1R) localizes to the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria communication, in part through its chaperone activity. The present study aims to investigate the protective role of σ-1R on microglial-mediated neuroinflammation. Stress-induced hypertension (SIH) was induced in rats using electric foot shocks and intermittent noise. Arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were measured to evaluate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activities. SKF10047 (100 µM), an agonist of σ-1R, was administrated to rats, then σ-1R localization and MAM alterations were detected by immuno-electron microscopy. Mitochondrial calcium homeostasis was examined in primary microglia and/or BV-2 microglia cells. The effect of SKF10047 treatment on the mitochondrial respiratory function of cultured microglia was measured using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Confocal microscopic images were performed to indicate mitochondrial dynamics. Stress reduces σ-1R's localization at the MAMs, leading to decreased ER-mitochondria contact and IP3R-GRP75-VDAC calcium transport complexes expression in the RVLM of rats. SKF10047 promotes the length and coverage of MAMs in the prorenin-treated microglia. Prorenin treatment increases mitoROS levels, and inhibits Ca2+ signalling between the two organelles, therefore negatively affects ATP production in BV2 cells, and these effects are reversed by SKF10047 treatment. We found mitochondrial hyperfusion and microglial M1 polarization in prorenin-treated microglia. SKF10047 suppresses microglial M1 polarization and RVLM neuroinflammation, subsequently ameliorates sympathetic hyperactivity in stress-induced hypertensive rats. Sigma-1 receptor activation suppresses microglia M1 polarization and neuroinflammation via regulating endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact and mitochondrial functions in stress-induced hypertension rats.

15.
Exp Aging Res ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that older adults have positive emotional bias. However, how sleep characteristics such as sleep continuity moderate this emotional bias in older adults is less understood. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine whether positive emotional memory bias is associated with sleep continuity in older adults. METHODS: We recruited 92 community-dwelling older adults for a cross-sectional study. Participants underwent 1 week of objective actigraphic sleep monitoring and completed a visuospatial associative memory task at baseline and 1 week later. RESULTS: Older adults exhibited better memory performance for positive pictures than for neutral and negative pictures at baseline, and this positive emotional bias was maintained for at least 1 week. Crucially, this effect was moderated by sleep continuity: Older adults with shorter wake after sleep onset times (WASO) exhibited this positive bias, whereas those with longer WASO did not. DISCUSSION: The present results are the first to demonstrate that positive emotional bias is moderated by sleep continuity in older adults. These findings have implications for emotion regulation in older adults and highlight the need for targeted interventions to increase their sleep continuity, which may help to improve emotional processing in this population.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112823, 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597843

RESUMEN

To alleviate the risk of textile effluent, the development of highly effective bioremediation strategies for synthetic dye removal is needed. Herein, we aimed to assess whether intensified bioactivity of Bacillus pumilus ZB1 by oxidative stress could improve the removal of textile dyes. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induced oxidative stress significantly promoted laccase expression of B. pumilus ZB1. Both the level of hydrogen dioxide and superoxide anion showed a significant positive correlation with laccase activity (RSQ = 0.963 and 0.916, respectively) along with the change of MMS concentration. The regulation of laccase expression was closely related to oxidative stress. The overexpressed laccase in the supernatant improved the decolorization of synthetic dyes (16.43% for Congo Red, 54.05% for Crystal Violet, and 41.61% for Reactive Blue 4). Laccase was subsequently expressed in E. coli. Investigation of the potential of bacterial laccase in dye remediation using Congo Red showed that an effective degradation of azo dye could be achieved with laccase treatment. Laccase remediation alleviated the cytotoxicity of Congo Red to human hepatocytes. In silico study identified eight amino acid residues of laccase involved in binding with Congo Red. Overall, regulation of oxidative stress towards bacterium can be used as a promising approach for the improvement of bacterial bioactivity in synthetic dye remediation.

18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 124: 104848, 2021 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600428

RESUMEN

Finite element method based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (FEM-based RUS) allows elasticity measurement for a material with high quality factor (Q) and arbitrary geometry by minimizing the differences between its theoretically calculated resonant frequencies and the corresponding experimentally measured ones. As Q decreases, some experimental frequencies remain undetermined, which makes it difficult to pair the calculated and experimental frequencies and to correctly identify the elastic constants. Additional difficulty need be tackled for irregularly-shaped low-Q materials due to the adoption of time-consuming FEM, thus efficiency of the identification method needs to be focused on. To apply FEM-based RUS to low-Q materials, a new elastic constant identification method is proposed based on a differential evolution algorithm in this paper. This method can perform a global search combining with local optimizations in the elastic constant space, and improve the overall efficiency by limiting the number of the frequency calculations. By using numerical experiments, the effectiveness of the proposed method under different frequency missing situations was verified and its efficiency was measured from the required frequency calculation numbers, showing an approximate two third reduction compared with an existing method. Finally, the elastic constants of an actual irregular cortical bone-mimicking material (Q ≈ 25) were measured using the two methods, yielding consistent Young's moduli (calculated from the identified constants) with the data provided by the manufacturer and a similar improvement in computational efficiency of the proposed method.

19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1183: 338976, 2021 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627520

RESUMEN

Aptamer-functionalized nanoparticles have been widely studied as targeted probes in biomedical applications for targeted therapy and imaging. The rigidity of the nanoparticle could stabilized the spatial structure of the aptamer, ensuring the selectivity and affinity for target recognition in the complex environment. The main aim of this article study was to explore the effect of the spatial structure of aptamer in the interaction between aptamer nanoprobes and receptors. We designed and synthesized aptamer functionalized nanoparticle systems with different derivation lengths, and developed a unique kinetic analysis to quantify affinity interactions. The system used silver decahedral nanoparticles (Ag10NPs), which was then chemically functionalized with thrombin (or IgE) aptamers of different tail lengths to produced different nanoprobes, and employed thrombin (or IgE) as target on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor to evaluate the binding of these nanoprobes. Kinetic analysis of the SPR binding curve was performed to evaluated the affinity between nanoprobes and targets. Under the premise of eliminating multivalent interactions, we found that the distance between aptamer and nanoparticle could affect the affinity between nanoprobe and target. Furthermore, we found that keeping a certain distance between aptamer and nanoparticle could effectively improved the recognition efficiency of the aptamer nanoprobe and target. It shows that the rigidity of nanomaterials could maintain the spatial structure of the aptamer.


Asunto(s)
Aptámeros de Nucleótidos , Técnicas Biosensibles , Nanopartículas , Cinética , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639539

RESUMEN

Knowledge about associations between school-based initiatives and physical activity patterns is limited. The purpose of this paper was to examine associations between factors in the school environment, physical activity and sedentary time during school time. The cross-sectional study included 1139 adolescents aged 13-14 from 34 schools. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured using hip-worn accelerometers. Factors in the school environment included health policy, a mobile phone ban during breaks, organized physical activities during breaks and activity breaks during lessons reported by teachers. The frequency and duration of breaks and physical education (PE) lessons were collected from school schedules. The results showed significant associations between health policy (ß = 3.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37, 5.23), the mobile phone ban (ß = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.94) and PE; total duration (ß = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.11), average duration (ß = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) and frequency (ß = 1.73, 95% CI: 0.50, 3.04) and moderate-vigorous physical activity. There were negative associations between health policy (ß = -6.41, 95% CI: -10.24, -2.67), the mobile phone ban (ß = -3.75, 95% CI: -7.25, -0.77) and PE; total duration (ß = -0.15, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.08) and average duration (ß = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.27, -0.03) and time spent sedentary. Adolescents attending schools with health policies, mobile phone bans and more time for PE showed higher levels of physical activity and lower sedentary time.

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