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1.
Bioengineered ; 13(2): 2044-2057, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001792

RESUMEN

Aging could be critical in limiting the application of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in tissue repair and reconstruction. However, no systematic study on the characteristics of SAT aging has been conducted. In this study, a scanning electronic microscope was used to detect the structural and compositional changes of SAT collected from nine females in three age groups. Multi-omics data of SAT from 37 females were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database, and 1860 genes, 56 miRNAs, and 332 methylated genes were identified as being differentially expressed during aging among non-obese females. Using Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA), 1754 DEGs were defined as aging-associated genes for non-obese females, distributed among ten co-expression modules. Through Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and Gene Set enrichment analysis on those aging-associated DEGs, SAT aging was observed to be characterized by variations in immune and inflammatory states, mitochondria, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and regulation of vascular development. SUPV3L1, OGT, and ARPC1B were identified as conserved and core SAT-aging-related genes, as verified by RT-qPCR among 18 samples in different age groups. Multi-omics regulatory networks of core aging-associated biological processes of SAT were also constructed. Based on WGCNA, we performed differential co-expression analysis to unveil the differences in aging-related co-expression patterns between obese and non-obese females and determined that obesity could be an important accelerating factor in aging processes. Our work provides a landscape of SAT aging, which could be helpful for further research in fields such as repair and reconstruction as well as aging.

2.
Anal Chem ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025203

RESUMEN

(Mi)RNAs are important biomarkers for cancers diagnosis and pandemic diseases, which require fast, ultrasensitive, and economical detection strategies to quantitatively detect exact (mi)RNAs expression levels. The novel coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2) has been breaking out globally, and RNA detection is the most effective way to identify the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we developed an ultrasensitive poly-l-lysine (PLL)-functionalized graphene field-effect transistor (PGFET) biosensor for breast cancer miRNAs and viral RNA detection. PLL is functionalized on the channel surface of GFET to immobilize DNA probes by the electrostatic force. The results show that PGFET biosensors can achieve a (mi)RNA detection range of five orders with a detection limit of 1 fM and an entire detection time within 20 min using 2 µL of human serum and throat swab samples, which exhibits more than 113% enhancement in terms of sensitivity compared to that of GFET biosensors. The performance enhancement mechanisms of PGFET biosensors were comprehensively studied based on an electrical biosensor theoretical model and experimental results. In addition, the PGFET biosensor was applied for the breast cancer miRNA detection in actual serum samples and SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in throat swab samples, providing a promising approach for rapid cancer diagnosis and virus screening.

3.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(1): 13-24, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975295

RESUMEN

Retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI) is of common occurrence in retinal and optic nerve diseases. The BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway has been examined to be neuroprotective in RIRI. In this study, we investigated the role of a potent selective TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyfavone (DHF) in rat retinas with RIRI. Our results showed that RIRI inhibited the conversion of BDNF precursor (proBDNF) to mature BDNF (mBDNF) and increased the level of neuronal cell apoptosis. Compared with RIRI, DHF+RIRI reduced proBDNF level and at the same time increased mBDNF level. Moreover, DHF administration effectively activated TrkB signaling and and downstream Akt and Erk signaling pathways which increased nerve cell survival. The combined effects of mBDNF/proBDNF increase and TrkB signaling activation lead to reduction of apoptosis level and protection of retinas with RIRI. Moreover, it was also found that astrocytes labeled by GFAP were activated in RIRI and NF-kB mediated the increased expressions of inflammatory factors and these effects were partially reversed by DHF administration. Besides, we also used RNA sequencing to analyze the differently expressed genes (DEGs) and their enriched (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) KEGG pathways between Sham, RIRI, and DHF+RIRI. It was found that 1543 DEGs were differently expressed in RIRI and 619 DEGs were reversed in DHF+RIRI. The reversed DEGs were typically enriched in PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, NF-kB signaling pathway, and Apoptosis. To sum up, the DHF administration alleviated apoptosis and inflammation induced by RIRI via activating TrkB signaling pathway and may serve as a promising drug candidate for RIRI related ophthalmopathy.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851094

RESUMEN

Heterostructures of quantum dots (QDs) and two-dimensional (2D) materials show promising potential for photodetection applications owing to their combination of high optical absorption and good in-plane carrier mobility. In this work, the performance of QD-2D photodetectors is tuned by band engineering. Devices are fabricated by coating MoS2 nanosheets with InP QDs, type-I core-shell InP/ZnS QDs, and type-II core-shell InP/CdS QDs. Comparative spectroscopic and photoelectric studies of different hybrids show that the energy band alignment and shell thickness can influence the efficiency of charge transfer (CT), energy transfer (ET), and defect-related processes between QDs and MoS2. Benefiting from efficient CT between the QDs and MoS2, a significant enhancement of responsivity and detectivity is observed in thick-shell InP/CdS QD-MoS2 devices. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using core-shell QDs for regulating the ET and CT efficiency in heterostructures and highlight the importance of interface band design in QD-2D and other low-dimensional photodetectors.

5.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851329

RESUMEN

Tantalum disulfide (TaS2), an emerging group VB transition metal dichalcogenide, with unique layered structure, rich phase diagrams, metallic behavior, higher carrier concentration and mobility is emerging as a prototype for revealing basic physical phenomena and developing practical applications. However, its photonics properties and even engineering-related processes are still rare. Here, the top-down experiment demonstration, including synthesis, thickness optimization and nonlinear optical application, has been reported. In addition, the ultrafast (∼373 fs) erbium-doped fiber pulse with a small time-bandwidth product (∼0.34) and long-term stability (∼25 days) was realized using the nonlinear absorption properties of the high-quality 2H-TaS2 nanosheet. These results suggest an experimental route for further ultrafast photonics exploration based on metallic transition metal dichalcogenides.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1230, 2021 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876042

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a common infectious disease in tropical and semitropical regions, and it is typically neglected. Leptospirosis-associated acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is one of its fatal complications. The use of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of Leptospira interrogans infection has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 62-year-old female who was transferred to our hospital with dyspnea, and severe hemoptysis and was supported by a tracheal intubation ventilator. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) reported Leptospira interrogans. A diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage caused by leptospirosis was made. After immediately receiving antibiotics and hormone therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery upon discharge. CONCLUSION: Leptospirosis presenting as severe diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis. mNGS can help identify pathogens and treat them early, which can improve prognosis.

7.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; : 1461672211061935, 2021 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906005

RESUMEN

In the era of technology, smartphone use occupies an important position in our lives. The present research focused on the psychological consequence of frequent smartphone use and possible way to remedy it. We proposed that frequent smartphone use could damage people's sense of control and in turn trigger nostalgia. Moreover, nostalgia could directly compensate for the low sense of control induced by frequent smartphone use. Five studies (N = 918) were conducted. Study 1 found through a field study that frequent smartphone use increases nostalgia. Studies 2 and 3 found through 14-day tracking and a laboratory experiment that frequent smartphone use decreased people's sense of control and then triggered nostalgia. Furthermore, nostalgia could enhance the low sense of control, and it worked by increasing self-esteem (Studies 4 and 5). The findings show the negative impact of frequent smartphone use, and nostalgia is an effective way to remedy it without preventing people from using smartphones.

8.
Mod Rheumatol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918108

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluates the role of diet in determining knee osteoarthritis risk. METHODS: Literature search was conducted in Ovid, PubMed, Science Direct, and Springer. To estimate knee osteoarthritis risk with high use of vegetarian, prudent, and omnivorous diets, dairy products, vitamin C/E, and carotenoids, the odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) reported by included studies were pooled. RESULTS: Fifteen studies (97,157 individuals) were included. High use of vegetarian diet {OR 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 0.97]}, prudent diet [OR 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.98)/RR 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.97)], and dairy [OR 0.66 (95% CI: -0.08, 1.39)/RR 0.58 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.75)] were associated with lower risk of knee osteoarthritis but risk was relatively higher with high use of omnivorous diet [OR 1.13 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.30)/RR 1.06 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.29) and 1.05 (0.78, 1.33)]. High intake of vitamin C [OR 0.92 (0.29, 1.56)] or E [OR 0.93 (0.64, 1.21)] did not reduce knee osteoarthritis risk, but high use of carotenoids was associated with the lower risk [OR 0.66 (0.37, 0.96)]. CONCLUSIONS: Knee osteoarthritis risk is low with high use of vegetarian diet, prudent diet, and dairy, but cannt be reduced by high intakes of vitamin C/E.

9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(23): 4428-4437, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788008

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in elderly individuals and characterized by impaired cognition and accumulation of ß-amyloid (Aß). Activating autophagy to clear Aß is a plausible approach for AD treatment. The levels of Aß and autophagy signaling factors in APP695/PS1-dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1) mice were detected by immuno histological analysis, real-time PCR, and the western blotting assay. The progression of AD was determined by Aß levels, activated neurons (MAP2+), and microglia (Iba-1+). The learning ability was measured using a Morris water maze. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were checked to determine oxidative stress. AD mice exhibited impaired autophagy and a decreased level of SIRT5. SIRT5 overexpression promoted autophagy, manifested by elevated Becn1 and ratio of LC3b-II/I, as well as suppressed oxidative stress. The SIRT5-ameliorated neuron damage was correlated with suppressed activation of microglia and astrocytes. Elevated SIRT5 expression decreased the inflammation in AD brains and neurons. Inhibition of autophagy abolished the protective role of SIRT5 in neurons during AD. Our findings suggested that SIRT5 overexpression could ameliorate the progression of AD both in vitro and in vivo through activating autophagy. We presented ectopic expression of SIRT5 as a promising therapeutic approach for AD.

10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(11): e1009587, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818337

RESUMEN

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often exhibit diverse disease progressions associated with various infectious ability, symptoms, and clinical treatments. To systematically and thoroughly understand the heterogeneous progression of COVID-19, we developed a multi-scale computational model to quantitatively understand the heterogeneous progression of COVID-19 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The model consists of intracellular viral dynamics, multicellular infection process, and immune responses, and was formulated using a combination of differential equations and stochastic modeling. By integrating multi-source clinical data with model analysis, we quantified individual heterogeneity using two indexes, i.e., the ratio of infected cells and incubation period. Specifically, our simulations revealed that increasing the host antiviral state or virus induced type I interferon (IFN) production rate can prolong the incubation period and postpone the transition from asymptomatic to symptomatic outcomes. We further identified the threshold dynamics of T cell exhaustion in the transition between mild-moderate and severe symptoms, and that patients with severe symptoms exhibited a lack of naïve T cells at a late stage. In addition, we quantified the efficacy of treating COVID-19 patients and investigated the effects of various therapeutic strategies. Simulations results suggested that single antiviral therapy is sufficient for moderate patients, while combination therapies and prevention of T cell exhaustion are needed for severe patients. These results highlight the critical roles of IFN and T cell responses in regulating the stage transition during COVID-19 progression. Our study reveals a quantitative relationship underpinning the heterogeneity of transition stage during COVID-19 progression and can provide a potential guidance for personalized therapy in COVID-19 patients.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259530, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748592

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease (AD), as one of most common dementia, mainly affects older people from the worldwide. In this study, we intended to explore the possible mechanism of improving cognitive function and protecting the neuron effect by electroacupuncture. METHOD: We applied senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice as AD animal model, used Morris water maze, HE staining, 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing of gut microbiota and ELISA to demonstrate our hypothesis. RESULTS: electroacupuncture improved the learning and memory abilities in SAMP8 mice (P<0.05) and could protect the frontal lobe cortex and hippocampus of SAMP8 mice; electroacupuncture significantly decreased the expression of IL-1ß (P<0.01), IL-6 (P<0.01) and TNF-α (P<0.01 in hippocampus, P<0.05 in serum) in serum and hippocampus; electroacupuncture balanced the quantity and composition of gut microbiome, especially of the relative abundance in Delta-proteobacteria (P<0.05) and Epsilon-proteobacteria (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: electroacupuncture treatment could inhibit the peripheral and central nerve system inflammatory response by balancing the gut microbiota.

12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 736911, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790705

RESUMEN

Zinc dyshomeostasis has been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy; however, the dynamic regulation of intracellular zinc and its downstream signaling in cardiac hypertrophy remain largely unknown. Using Zincpyr1 staining, we found a significant decrease of intracellular Zinc concentration in phenylephrine (PE)-induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). We then screened SLC39 family members responsible for zinc uptake and identified Slc39a2 as the only one altered by PE treatment. Slc39a2 knockdown in NRVMs reduced the intracellular Zinc level, and exacerbated the hypertrophic responses to PE treatment. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated Slc39a2 overexpression enhanced zinc uptake and suppressed PE-induced Nppb expression. RNA sequencing analysis showed a pro-hypertrophic transcriptome reprogramming after Slc39a2 knockdown. Interestingly, the innate immune signaling pathways, including NOD signaling, TOLL-like receptor, NFκB, and IRFs, were remarkably enriched in the Slc39a2-regulated genes. Slc39a2 deficiency enhanced the phosphorylation of P65 NFκB and STAT3, and reduced the expression of IκBα. Finally, the expression of IRF7 was significantly increased by Slc39a2 knockdown, which was in turn suppressed by IRF7 knockdown. Our data demonstrate that zinc homeostasis mediated by a Slc39a2/IRF7 regulatory circuit contributes to the alteration of innate immune signaling in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

13.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797502

RESUMEN

Epilepsy (SE) is a common and serious neurological disease. NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome participates in the pathogenesis of SE, while its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we attempted to explore the mechanism of action of NLRP3 inflammasome in SE. SE mouse model was constructed by administration of kainic acid (KA). Astrocytes were treated with KA to mimic SE cell model. MCC950 (NLRP3 inhibitor) and Z-YVAD-FMK (Caspase-1 inhibitor) were used to treat astrocytes to inhibit the activity of NLRP3 and Caspase-1. Nissl staining was performed to examine the morphology of neuron. Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence staining were performed to assess protein expression. SE mouse model exhibited an increase of neuronal loss, and an up-regulation of Cleaved-Caspase-1, IL-1ß and IL-18 in hippocampus. The levels of GFAP+ADK+ cells were significantly increased in SE mice. MCC950 or Z-YVAD-FMK abolished these impacts conferred by KA in SE mice. Moreover, KA treatment enhanced the expression of NLRP3, Cleaved-Caspase-1, IL-1ß and IL-18 in astrocytes, which was rescued by knockdown of NLRP3 or Caspase-1. Additionally, CREB, p-CREB, REST were up-regulated, and SP1 was down-regulated in the KA-treated SE mice and KA-treated astrocytes. Inhibition of NLRP3 or Caspase-1 rescued these proteins expression in KA-treated astrocytes. CREB or REST silencing reduced adenosine kinase (ADK) expression, while SP1 knockdown enhanced ADK expression in KA-treated astrocytes. In conclusion, NLRP3 inflammasome activation enhances ADK expression to accelerate SE in mice through regulating CREB/REST/SP1 signaling pathway. Thus, inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome may be a treatment for SE.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797650

RESUMEN

It is urgent to develop high-performance cathode materials for rechargeable batteries to address the globally growing concerns of energy shortage and environmental pollution. Among many candidate materials, Mn-based materials are promising and already used in some commercial batteries. Yet, their applicable future in reversible energy storage is severely plagued by the notorious Mn dissolution behaviors associated with structural instability during long-term cycling. As such, interfacial strategies aiming to protect Mn-based electrodes against Mn dissolution are being widely developed in recent years. A variety of interface-driven designs have been reported to function efficiently in suppressing Mn dissolution, necessitating a timely summary of recent advancements in the field. In this review, various interfaces, including the prebuilt interface and the electrochemically induced interface, to suppress Mn dissolution for Mn-based cathodes are discussed in terms of their fabrication details and functional outcomes. Perspectives for the future of interfacial strategies aiming at Mn dissolution suppression are also shared.

15.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(11): 1016-9, 2021 Jul 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812017

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and correlation of spinopelvic sagittal parameters and facet joint angle on degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. METHODS: From July 2016 to September 2019, a total of 120 patients with L4-L5 single segment degenerative spondylolisthesis were selected as observation objects (spondylolisthesis group), and 120 patients with L4-L5 single-segment degenerative spinal stenosis matched by gender and age were selected as the control group. The following parameters were measured by imaging data:pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), L4-L5 cephalic facet joint angle, caudal facet joint angle and facet asymmetry.The differences of parameters between the two groups were compared and the meaningful parameters were analyzed by Logistic regression. The correlations between facet joint direction and spinopelvic parameters in patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis were analyzed. RESULTS: There were significant differences in PI, PT, LL, SVA, cephalic facet angle and caudal facet angle between two groups (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that PI, PT and cephalic facet joint angle were the risk factors for lumbar spondylolisthesis (P<0.05). The sagittal of the cephalic facet joint in spondylolisthesis group was significantly correlated with PI and PT(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: High PI, PT and sagittal of cephalic facet joint are the risk factors for lumbar spondylolisthesis, and the sagittal degree of facet joints is closely related to high PI and PT.


Asunto(s)
Espondilolistesis , Articulación Cigapofisaria , Humanos , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Región Lumbosacra , Estudios Retrospectivos , Espondilolistesis/diagnóstico por imagen , Articulación Cigapofisaria/diagnóstico por imagen
16.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(11): 1038-1047, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596083

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy (MDCO) is frequently used for the surgical correction of flatfoot. This study aims to investigate the biomechanical effect of the different diagonal screw design on a novel-designed embedded calcaneal plate for MDCO using finite element analysis (FEA), mechanical test and digital image correlation (DIC) measurement. METHODS: Four groups according to the varied implanted plate were set as control group (Group 1), non-diagonal screw (Group 2), one-diagonal screw (Group 3), and two-diagonal screws groups (Group 4). For FEA, A 450 N load was applied to on the anterior process of the calcaneus from top to bottom. Observational indices included the stress on the cortical and cancellous bone of the calcaneus surrounding the implant, the plate itself as well as screws, and the displacement of the overall structure. In addition, this study also used in vitro biomechanics test to investigate the stiffness of the structure after implantation, and used DIC to observe the displacement of the calcaneus structure after external force. RESULTS: Under a simulated load in FEA, there are significant overall instability and high stress concentration on the calcaneal surrounding host bone and the plate/screws system, respectively, in group 2 compared with other groups. Regard to the mechanical testing with DIC system, significant increased rotation stability, maximum force and stiffness with the addition of diagonal screws. In comparison to Group 2, the increase of 112% and 157% in maximum force as well as 104% and 176% in stiffness were found in Group 3 and 4, respectively. CONCLUSION: For reducing stress concentration and enhancing overall stability, more than one-diagonal screw design is recommended and two-diagonal screws design will be superior. This study provided biomechanical references for further calcaneal implants design to prevent clinical failure after MDCO.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(42): 50093-50100, 2021 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649425

RESUMEN

Rational design of the sulfur cathode structure enables effective adsorption of polysulfides and accelerates the sulfur reduction reaction, which is of great significance to the practical application of lithium-sulfur batteries. Here, P-doped carbon foam (PCF) as a sulfur host for the lithium-sulfur battery cathode was successfully synthesized by a facile strategy. The tailored hierarchical pore structure combined with P doping not only facilitates Li+ diffusion but also enhances the adsorption and accelerates the catalytic conversion of lithium polysulfides, thus significantly improving lithium storage performance of the PCF/S cathode.

18.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641428

RESUMEN

Poly(methyl acrylate)-b-poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone/maleic anhydride/styrene) (PMA-b-P (NVP/MAH/St)) quaternary amphiphilic block copolymer prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) was used to improve the anti-hydrolysis and dispersion properties of aluminum nitride (AIN) powders that were modified by copolymers. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Hydrogen nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (1H-NMR). The results demonstrate that the molecular weight distribution of the quaternary amphiphilic block copolymers is 1.35-1.60, which is characteristic of controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution. Through charge transfer complexes, NVP/MAH/St produces a regular alternating arrangement structure. After being treated with micro-crosslinking, AlN powder modified by copolymer PMA-b-P(NVP/MAH/St) exhibits outstanding resistance to hydrolysis and can be stabilized in hot water at 50 °C for more than 14 h, and the agglomeration of powder particles was improved remarkably.

19.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(9): nwaa209, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691723

RESUMEN

Hydrogel optical light-guides have received substantial interest for applications such as deep-tissue biosensors, optogenetic stimulation and photomedicine due to their biocompatibility, (micro)structure control and tissue-like Young's modulus. However, despite recent developments, large-scale fabrication with a continuous synthetic methodology, which could produce core-sheath hydrogel fibers with the desired optical and mechanical properties suitable for deep-tissue applications, has yet to be achieved. In this study, we report a versatile concept of integrated light-triggered dynamic wet spinning capable of continuously producing core-sheath hydrogel optical fibers with tunable fiber diameters, and mechanical and optical propagation properties. Furthermore, this concept also exhibited versatility for various kinds of core-sheath functional fibers. The wet spinning synthetic procedure and fabrication process were optimized with the rational design of the core/sheath material interface compatibility [core = poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate-co-acrylamide); sheath = Ca-alginate], optical transparency, refractive index and spinning solution viscosity. The resulting hydrogel optical fibers exhibited desirable low optical attenuation (0.18 ± 0.01 dB cm-1 with 650 nm laser light), excellent biocompatibility and tissue-like Young's modulus (<2.60 MPa). The optical waveguide hydrogel fibers were successfully employed for deep-tissue cancer therapy and brain optogenetic stimulation, confirming that they could serve as an efficient versatile tool for diverse deep-tissue therapy and brain optogenetic applications.

20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714478

RESUMEN

The stimulatory effect of biochar addition on dry anaerobic digestion (AD) has been rarely investigated. In this study, the effects of commonly used biochars (bamboo, rice husk, and pecan shell) on dry co-AD were investigated using mesophilic batch digesters fed with pig manure and food waste as substrates. The results show that the specific methane yield was mildly elevated with the addition of biochars by 7.9%, 9.4%, and 12.0% for bamboo, rice husk, and pecan shell-derived biochar additions, respectively. Biochar did facilitate the degradation of poorly biodegradable organics. In comparison, there was no significant effect on the peak methane production rate by the supplementation of the selected biochars. Among the three mechanisms of enhancing methanogenesis by biochar (buffering, providing supporting surface, and enhancing electron transfer), the first two mechanisms did not function significantly in dry co-AD, while the third mechanism (i.e., enhancing electron transfer) might play an important part in dry AD process. It is recommended that the utilization of biochar for the enhancement of biomethanation in dry AD should be more focused on mono digestion in future studies.

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