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1.
Dev Biol ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007453

RESUMEN

In Drosophila, the deposition of the germ plasm at the posterior pole of the oocyte is essential for the abdomen and germ cell formation during embryogenesis. To assemble the germ plasm, oskar (osk) mRNA, produced by nurse cells, should be localized and anchored on the posterior cortex of the oocyte. Processing bodies (P-bodies) are cytoplasmic RNA granules responsible for the 5'-3' mRNA degradation. Evidence suggests that the components of P-bodies, such as Drosophila decapping protein 1 and Ge-1, are involved in the posterior localization of osk. However, whether the decapping core enzyme, Drosophila decapping protein 2 (dDcp2), is also involved remains unclear. Herein, we generated a dDcp2 null allele and showed that dDcp2 was required for the posterior localization of germ plasm components including osk. dDcp2 was distributed on the oocyte cortex and was localized posterior to the osk. In the posterior pole of dDcp2 mutant oocytes, osk was mislocalized and colocalized with F-actin detached from the cortex; moreover, considerably fewer F-actin projections were observed. Using the F-actin cosedimentation assay, we proved that dDcp2 interacted with F-actin through its middle region. In conclusion, our findings explored a novel function of dDcp2 in assisting osk localization by modulating the formation of F-actin projections on the posterior cortex.

2.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 129-143, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021098

RESUMEN

Objective: Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) limits the development of liver transplantation technology. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of Bergenin on hepatic IR, particularly the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of the peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) pathway. Methods: Initial experiments were performed to confirm the non-toxicity of Bergenin. Mice were randomly divided into sham, IR, and IR + Bergenin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) groups, and serum and tissue samples were obtained at 2, 8 and 24 h for detection of liver enzymes (ALT and AST), inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß), ROS, cell death markers (Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1 and LC3) and related important pathways (PPAR-γ, P38 MAPK, NF-κB p65 and JAK2/STAT1). Results: Bergenin reduced the release of ROS, down-regulated inflammatory factors, and inhibited apoptosis and autophagy. Additionally, expression of PPAR-γ-related genes was increased and phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, NF-κB p65 and JAK2/STAT1-related proteins was decreased in Bergenin pre-treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Bergenin exerts hepatic protection by eliminating ROS, affecting the release of inflammatory factors, and influencing apoptosis- and autophagy-related genes via the PPAR-γ pathway in this model of hepatic IR injury.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228752, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027721

RESUMEN

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal deformity during adolescence, leading to altered postural control with compromised stability. To identify the effects of AIS on whole-body balance control during obstacle-crossing, 14 adolescents with Lenke 1 thoracic AIS and 14 healthy controls were compared in terms of the inclination angle (IA) of the body's center of mass (COM) relative to the center of pressure (COP), the rate of change of IA (RCIA) and the jerk index of IA. Between-side comparisons were also performed for the AIS group. The patients showed less smooth COM-COP motion in the sagittal plane with significantly increased anterior RCIA and IA jerk index during crossing with either the concave side (p = 0.001) or the convex side (p = 0.001) leading when compared to healthy controls. In the frontal plane, the patients showed close-to-zero RCIA (p = 0.002) while crossing with the leading limb, with an increased IA magnitude (p = 0.039) only while crossing with the concave-side limb leading. The patients with Lenke 1 thoracic AIS were found to cross obstacles with altered, compromised COM-COP control in both sagittal and frontal planes when compared to healthy controls. The results suggest that the thoracic spinal deformity in Lenke 1 AIS affects the whole-body balance control during obstacle-crossing, which should be monitored for signs of increased risk of loss of balance in the management of such patient groups.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028672

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to explore the anti-inflammatory role of microRNAs (miR)-21 and miR-23 targeting the TLR/TNF-α pathway in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation (IHR) injury in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gene expression levels of the miR-21/23a, and their predicted target genes were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 treatment-naive severe OSA patients, and 20 matched subjects with primary snoring (PS). Human monocytic THP-1 cell lines were induced to undergo apoptosis under IHR exposures, and transfected with miR-21-5p mimic. Both miR-21-5p and miR-23-3p gene expressions were decreased in OSA patients as compared with that in PS subjects, while TNF-α gene expression was increased. Both miR-21-5p and miR-23-3p gene expressions were negatively correlated with apnea hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index, while TNF-α gene expression positively correlated with apnea hypopnea index. In vitro IHR treatment resulted in decreased miR-21-5p and miR-23-3p expressions. Apoptosis, cytotoxicity, and gene expressions of their predicted target genes-including TNF-α, ELF2, NFAT5, HIF-2α, IL6, IL6R, EDNRB, and TLR4-were all increased in response to IHR, while all were reversed with miR-21-5p mimic transfection under IHR condition. The findings provide biological insight into mechanisms by which IHR-suppressed miRs protect cell apoptosis via inhibit inflammation, and indicate that over-expression of the miR-21-5p may be a new therapy for OSA.

5.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 28, 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028988

RESUMEN

Following publication of the original paper [1], an error was reported in the processing of Fig. 2. The correct Fig. 2 is supplied below and the original article [1] has been corrected. The publishers apologize for the error.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033495

RESUMEN

Non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement is an emerging issue that potentially can be applied to cardiovascular disease monitoring and prediction. Recently, many groups have proposed the pulse transition time (PTT) method to estimate blood pressure for long-term monitoring. However, the PTT-based methods for blood pressure estimation are limited by non-specific estimation models and require multiple calibrations. This study aims to develop a low-cost wearable piezoelectric-based system for continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. The pressure change in the radial artery was extracted by systolic and diastolic feature points in pressure pulse wave (PPW) and the pressure sensitivity of the sensor. The proposed system showed a reliable accuracy of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mean absolute error (MAE) ± standard deviation (SD) 1.52 ± 0.30 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, MAE ± SD 1.83 ± 0.50), and its performance agreed with standard criteria of MAE within 5 mmHg and SD within ±8 mmHg. In conclusion, this study successfully developed a low-cost, high-accuracy piezoelectric-based system for continuous beat-to-beat SBP and DBP measurement without multiple calibrations and complex regression analysis. The system is potentially suitable for continuous, long-term blood pressure-monitoring applications.

7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 135-138, 2020 Feb 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034738

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for the detection of fetal chromosome 16 aneuploidy through multi-method verification and follow-up of pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: From January 2016 to December 2017, 7972 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies accepted the NIPS test after 10th gestational week with informed consent. Those with fetal chromosome 16 abnormality suggestive by the NIPS test were subjected to prenatal diagnosis including chromosomal karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). RESULTS: Of the 7972 pregnant women tested by NIPS, 16 (0.2%) were predicted to have fetal chromosome 16 abnormality. The average age of the 16 pregnant women was 33.5 ± 5.24, and the average gestational week was 19.88±2.47. Chromosomal karyotyping verified that 3 fetuses had mosaicisms and 1 carried pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, which yielded a positive predictive value (PPV) of 18.8%. CMA has detected 7 fetuses with genomic abnormalities, which yielded a PPV of 43.8%. Eleven of the 16 women (68.8%) have given birth to healthy babies. CONCLUSION: For pregnant women with a high risk of chromosome 16 aneuploidy suggested by NIPS, the prognosis of fetus should be evaluated by multiple methods. Compared with conventional karyotyping analysis, molecular methods such as CMA are far superior.

9.
Elife ; 92020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048992

RESUMEN

Naïve human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide a unique experimental platform of cell fate decisions during pre-implantation development, but their lineage potential remains incompletely characterized. As naïve hPSCs share transcriptional and epigenomic signatures with trophoblast cells, it has been proposed that the naïve state may have enhanced predisposition for differentiation along this extraembryonic lineage. Here we examined the trophoblast potential of isogenic naïve and primed hPSCs. We found that naïve hPSCs can directly give rise to human trophoblast stem cells (hTSCs) and undergo further differentiation into both extravillous and syncytiotrophoblast. In contrast, primed hPSCs do not support hTSC derivation, but give rise to non-self-renewing cytotrophoblasts in response to BMP4. Global transcriptome and chromatin accessibility analyses indicate that hTSCs derived from naïve hPSCs are similar to blastocyst-derived hTSCs and acquire features of post-implantation trophectoderm. The derivation of hTSCs from naïve hPSCs will enable elucidation of early mechanisms that govern normal human trophoblast development and associated pathologies.

10.
Biomacromolecules ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053355

RESUMEN

Tumor angiogenesis with the vascular network formation provides nutrition and oxygen for cancer cells, promoting the proliferation and metastasis of malignant tumors. Bevacizumab (Bev) as an efficient antiangiogenic antibody is able to normalize the tumor vasculature with better blood flow and reduced interstitial fluid pressure, allowing drugs with more uniform distribution and deeper penetration into the tumor, while it is highly difficult to realize the simultaneous delivery of Bev and anticancer drugs localized at the tumor tissue. Here we prepared tumor-adhesive and pH-degradable PVA microgels for tumor localized delivery of Bev and docetaxel (DTX), to achieve efficient anti-angiogenesis and enhanced cancer chemotherapy. PVA microgels (~200 µm) decorated with tissue-adhesive dopamine (DA) moieties were fabricated by a combination of high-throughput microfluidics technology and photo-crosslinking chemistry with a considerable co-encapsulation efficiency for Bev and DTX. PVA microgels exhibited sustained drug release at the tumoral acidic conditions as the microgel degradation, and DA moieties on the microgels facilitated Bev with long retention at the tumor tissue, highly blocking the VEGF and inhibiting the tumor angiogenesis, as compared to free Bev or no DA-decorated microgels. In addition, the antitumor activity on the 4T1-Luc breast tumor mouse model treated with Bev/DTX co-loaded microgels showed obviously superior tumor growth inhibition than other treatment groups, in which the combinational therapy efficacy of Bev and DTX mediated by the tumor-adhesive microgels was further confirmed by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. These PVA microgels with efficient anti-angiogenesis and enhanced cancer chemotherapy provide a highly potential platform to treat different malignant tumors as well as the recurrent and metastatic tumors.

11.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054325

RESUMEN

Objective: To increase our knowledge of the characteristics of rare gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) spinal metastatic diseases and share our experience of dealing with these diseases.Methods: A total of 6 patients with spinal cord compression caused by GISTs spinal metastases operated in our department were identified from Oct, 2010 to Oct, 2018. The clinical and operative notes, radiographic images, and pathological reports with histochemistry of all these patients were reviewed.Results: Among these six, four were male. The average age was 57.2 ± 9.0 years-old. The average duration between GISTs resections and diagnosis of spinal metastases was 80.8 ± 91.9 months. Four patients died from their disease during follow-up. The average duration between operation and death was 8.5 ± 4.4 months.Conclusions: Generally, patients with GISTs spinal metastatic diseases had a poor prognosis. The average survival of these patients did not exceed 12 months. Palliative treatments are recommended mainly to control symptoms.

12.
Apoptosis ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056038

RESUMEN

Treatment of advanced BRAFV600-mutant melanoma using BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) eventually leads to drug resistance and selects for highly metastatic tumor cells. We compared the most differentially dysregulated miRNA expression profiles of vemurafenib-resistant and highly-metastatic melanoma cell lines obtained from GEO DataSets. We discovered miR-152-5p was a potential regulator mediating melanoma drug resistance and metastasis. Functionally, knockdown of miR-152-5p significantly compromised the metastatic ability of BRAFi-resistant melanoma cells and overexpression of miR-152-5p promoted the formation of slow-cycling phenotype. Furthermore, we explored the cause of how and why miR-152-5p affected metastasis in depth. Mechanistically, miR-152-5p targeted TXNIP which affected metastasis and BRAFi altered the methylation status of MIR152 promoter. Our study highlights the crucial role of miR-152-5p on melanoma metastasis after BRAFi treatment and holds significant implying that discontinuous dosing strategy may improve the benefit of advanced BRAFV600-mutant melanoma patients.

13.
J Biomol NMR ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056065

RESUMEN

Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) provide valuable NMR parameters that can be used for structural calculation and verification. Measuring RDCs requires aligning macromolecules using one of various types of alignment media. Of different alignment media options, stretched or compressed polyacrylamide gels are advantageous due to their chemical stability. However, polyacrylamide interacts with proteins and significantly broadens NMR resonances. In this study, we found that the amide-containing compounds asparagine, glutamine and propionamide improve spectral quality of proteins in polyacrylamide gel without significantly reducing the magnitude of RDC values. Moreover, we showed that propionamide is an attractive additive that increases protein solubility without interfering with protein stability, ligand binding or NMR pulse width, suggesting its potential applications for our NMR methods.

14.
Microb Pathog ; : 104056, 2020 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058023

RESUMEN

Luteolin (LUT) is a naturally occurring compound found in a various of plants. Few recent studies have reported LUT antimicrobial activities against bacterial pathogens, however, the fundamental LUT mediated antimicrobial mechanism has never been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of LUT and its mode of action against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, either as planktonic cells or as biofilms. Here, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of LUT against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were determined using the broth microdilution method, and the antimicrobial mode of LUT was elucidated by evaluating the variations in both cell membrane integrity and cell morphology. Moreover, the biofilm inhibition was measured by crystal violet staining assay, while its qualitative imaging was achieved by confocal laser scanning microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope. MIC and MBC values of LUT against S. aureus were 16-32 and 32-64 µg/mL, and 32-64 and 64-128 µg/mL for L. monocytogenes. LUT destroyed the cell membrane integrity, as evidenced by a significant increase in the number of non-viable cells, and well-defined variations in cell morphology. Moreover, LUT presented robust inhibitory effects on the biofilm formation, enhanced antibiotics diffusion within biofilms and killed efficiently mono- and dual-species biofilm cells. Overall, LUT demonstrates potent antimicrobial properties on planktonic and biofilm cells, and the biofilm formation, and thus has the potential use as a natural food preservative in foods.

15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110308, 2020 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058168

RESUMEN

PM2.5 particles are regarded as prominent risk factors that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the composition of PM2.5 is rather complicated. This study aimed to provide a model particle that simulates the behavior of actual PM2.5, for subsequent use in exploring mechanisms and major complications arising from PM2.5. To establish model particles of PM2.5, a series of monodisperse SiO2 microspheres with different average grain diameters were mixed according to the size distribution of actual PM2.5. The organic carbon (OC) was removed from PM2.5 and coated onto the SiO2 model particle, to formulate simulant PM2.5. Results showed that the size distribution of the model particle was highly approximate to that of the PM2.5 core. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) composition profile of the simulated PM2.5 were approximate to PM2.5, and loading efficiency was approximately 80%-120%. Furthermore, compared to the control, SiO2-only model particle had negligible cytotoxicity on cell viability and oxidative stress of HUVECs, and marginal effect on the lipid metabolism and atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-/- mice. In contrast, simulated PM2.5 exhibited similar cytotoxic and detrimental effects on lipid metabolism and atherosclerotic plaque formation with actual PM2.5. Traffic-related PM2.5 had negative effects on endothelial function and led to the formation of atherosclerosis via oxidative stress. The simulated PM2.5 simulated the outcomes of actual PM2.5 exposure. Here, we show that SiO2 particle model cores coated with OC could significantly assist in the evaluation of the effects of specific organic compositions bound on PM2.5, specifically in the context of environmental health and safety.

16.
FASEB J ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043676

RESUMEN

The development of the neuromuscular junction depends on signaling processes that involve protein phosphorylation. Motor neuron releases agrin to activate muscle protein Dok-7, a key tyrosine kinase essential for the formation of a mature and functional neuromuscular junction. However, the signaling cascade downstream of Dok-7 remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 technique and quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis to study the tyrosine phosphorylation events triggered by agrin/Dok-7. We found tyrosine phosphorylation level of 36 proteins increased specifically by agrin stimulation. In Dok-7 mutant myotubes, however, 13 of the 36 proteins failed to be enhanced by agrin stimulation, suggesting that these 13 proteins are Dok-7-dependent tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, could work as downstream molecules of agrin/Dok-7 signaling. We validated one of the proteins, Anxa3, by in vitro and in vivo assays. Knocking down of Anxa3 in the cultured myotubes inhibited agrin-induced AChR clustering, whereas reduction of Anxa3 in mouse muscles induced abnormal postsynaptic development. Collectively, our phosphoproteomics analysis provides novel insights into the complicated signaling network downstream of agrin/Dok-7.

17.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053064

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In pharmaceutical field, it is vital to ensure a consistent product containing a single solid-state form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the drug product. However, some APIs are suffering from the risk of transformation of their target forms during processing, formulation and storage. METHODS: The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant category of excipients and demonstrate the availability and importance of using excipients as a key strategy to manipulate pharmaceutical polymorphic transformation. RESULTS: The excipient effects on solvent-mediated phase transformations, solid-state transitions and amorphous crystallization are significant. Common pharmaceutical excipients including amino acids and derivatives, surfactants, and various polymers and their different manipulation effects were summarized and discussed. CONCLUSION: Using appropriate excipients plays a role in manipulating polymorphic transformation process of corresponding APIs, with promising application of guaranteeing the stability and effectiveness of drug dosage forms.

18.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126033, 2020 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004882

RESUMEN

Degradation of phenols with different substituent groups (including -OCH3, -CHO, -NHCOCH3, -NO2, and -Cl) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes has been studied previously based on the removal efficiency and •OH detection. Innovatively, formations of CO2 gas and various inorganic ions were examined to probe the mineralization process combined with quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. As results, all phenols were efficiently degraded within 8 h with high COD removal efficiency. Three primary intermediates (hydroquinone, 1,4-benzoquinone and catechol) were identified during electrochemical oxidation and degradation pathway was proposed. More importantly, CO2 transformation efficiency ranked as: no N or Cl contained phenols (p-CHO, p-OCH3 and Ph) > N-contained phenols (p-NHCOCH3 and p-NO2) > Cl-contained phenols (p-Cl and o,p-Cl). Carbon mass balance study suggested formation of inorganic carbon (H2CO3, CO32- and HCO3-) and CO2 after organic carbon elimination. Inorganic nitrogen species (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-) and chlorine species (Cl-, ClO3- and ClO4-) were also formed after N- and Cl-contained phenols mineralization, while no volatile nitrogen species were detected. The phenols with electron-withdrawing substituents were easier to be oxidized than those with electron-donating substituents. QSAR analysis indicated that the reaction rate constant (k1) for phenols degradation was highly related to Hammett constant (∑σo,m,p) and energy gap (ELUMO - EHOMO) of the compound (R2 = 0.908), which were key parameters on evaluating the effect of structural moieties on electronic character and the chemical stability upon radical attack for a specific compound. This study presents clear evidence on mineralization mechanisms of phenols degradation at BDD anodes.

19.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006351

RESUMEN

Programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1, CD274, B7-H1) has been identified as the ligand for the immune inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 protein (PD1/PDCD1). PDL1 is a member of B7 family of immune molecules and this protein together with PDL2, are two ligands for PD1 expressed on activated lymphoid cells. By binding to PD1 on activated T cells, PDL1 may inhibit T cell responses by inducing apoptosis. Accordingly, it leads to the immune evasion of cancers and contribute to tumor growth, thus PDL1 is regarded as therapeutic target for malignant cancers. We selected PDL1 specific nanobodies from a high quality dromedary camel immune library by phage display technology, three anti-PDL1-VHHs were developed.

20.
Shock ; 53(3): 284-292, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045395

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an underlying infection that quickly triggers tissue damage in multiple organ systems. To date, there are no established useful prognostic biomarkers for sepsis survival prediction. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptor S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) are potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for sepsis, as both are active regulators of sepsis-relevant signaling events. However, the identification of an S1PR1-related gene signature for prediction of survival in sepsis patients has yet to be identified. This study aims to find S1PR1-associated biomarkers which could predict the survival of patients with sepsis using gene expression profiles of peripheral blood to be used as potential prognostic and diagnostic tools. METHODS: Gene expression analysis from sepsis patients enrolled in published datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus was utilized to identify both S1PR1-related genes (co-expression genes or functional-related genes) and sepsis survival-related genes. RESULTS: We identified 62-gene and 16-gene S1PR1-related molecular signatures (SMS) associated with survival of patients with sepsis in discovery cohort. Both SMS genes are significantly enriched in multiple key immunity-related pathways that are known to play critical roles in sepsis development. Meanwhile, the SMS performs well in a validation cohort containing sepsis patients. We further confirmed our SMSs, as newly developed gene signatures, perform significantly better than random gene signatures with the same gene size, in sepsis survival prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results have confirmed the significant involvement of S1PR1-dependent genes in the development of sepsis and provided new gene signatures for predicting survival of sepsis patients.

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