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1.
Arch Oral Biol ; 123: 105033, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429068

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Consumers' oral physiology and salivary properties are greatly dependent on dietary backgrounds, and this in turn may impact food perception and preferences. Scarce studies are available on the oral physiology and salivary rheology of Chinese participants with different dietary and ethnic backgrounds. DESIGN: This study examined two ethnic groups, Chinese Han and Chinese Mongolian healthy young adults, and explored the differences in oral physiology and salivary rheological properties. Official data suggested that Chinese Mongolians tend to consume more red meat and dairy, and Chinese Han tend to consume more carbohydrates. 200 Han and 104 Mongolian participants were evaluated for the oral physiological and salivary rheological parameters (maximum bite force of incisor and molar teeth, maximum tongue pressure and maximum oral volume; the surface tension, shear viscosity and extensional viscosity of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva samples). RESULTS: Distinct differences between two ethnic groups were found, particularly in their bite forces and salivary physical properties. Chinese Mongolian participants had significantly higher incisor bite force (168 N) than Chinese Han (146 N). In addition, Chinese Han had significantly lower unstimulated whole saliva flow rate than Chinese Mongolians; and significantly higher salivary surface tension, shear viscosity and extensional viscosity, in both unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva samples. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese Han and Chinese Mongolian participants exhibited different oral physiological and salivary rheological properties; and considering the dietary differences between the two ethnicities, the findings from this study suggest possible associations between dietary habits and oral physiological & saliva rheological properties.

2.
Physiol Behav ; 232: 113284, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309703

RESUMEN

The aims of the study were (1) to compare oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior of consumers by age (Chinese young adults vs Chinese older adults) and by ethnicity (Chinese (Asian) vs. Dutch (Caucasian)) and (2) to explore relationships between oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior of Chinese consumers. Oral physiology (mastication performance, saliva flow rate and dental status) and anatomy (volume of oral cavity, tongue dimensions, facial anthropometry, height and weight) were determined in Chinese (Asian) young adults (n = 32; 18-30 yrs) and Chinese (Asian) older adults (n = 32; 60-85 yrs) and compared to previously determined oral physiology and anatomy of Dutch (Caucasian) young adults (n = 32; 18-30 yrs) and Dutch (Caucasian) older adults (n = 32; 65-85 yrs). Oral processing behavior (consumption time, chews per bite, bite size, eating rate) of solid foods (cooked carrot, sausage and tofu-gan) was quantified using video recordings. Regarding the effect of age on physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior, Chinese (Asian) older adults consumed all foods with lower eating rates compared to Chinese (Asian) young adults probably due to changes in oral physiology and anatomy. Regarding the effect of ethnicity on oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior, Chinese (Asians) had lower percentages of normal occlusion, slightly wider and shorter tongues, lower head height:width ratio and lower BMI compared to Dutch (Caucasians). Overall, Chinese adults displayed similar food oral processing behavior compared to Dutch adults. Consumption time, chews per bite and bite size did not differ between Chinese and Dutch adults. Only a small difference in eating rate were observed between these groups. Body weight and number of teeth were the physiological and anatomical parameters that related the strongest with oral processing behavior of solid foods. We conclude that age and ethnicity impact oral physiology, anatomy and oral processing behavior of solid foods. Oral physiology and anatomy only partially explain the variation in oral processing behavior of solid foods in consumer groups differing in ethnicity and age. Other factors such as culture and consumption habits are suggested to have a stronger influence on oral processing behavior.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359679

RESUMEN

Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has long been used for the treatment of common metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the main limitation of its wider application is ingredient complexity of this formula. Thus, it is critically important to identify the major active ingredients of GQD and to illustrate mechanisms underlying its action. Here, we compared the effects of GQD and berberine, a hypothetical key active pharmaceutical ingredient of GQD, on a diabetic rat model by comprehensive analyses of gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, proinflammatory cytokines, and ileum transcriptomics. Our results show that berberine and GQD had similar effects on lowering blood glucose levels, modulating gut microbiota, inducing ileal gene expression, as well as relieving systemic and local inflammation. As expected, both berberine and GQD treatment significantly altered the overall gut microbiota structure and enriched many butyrate-producing bacteria, including Faecalibacterium and Roseburia, thereby attenuating intestinal inflammation and lowering glucose. Levels of short-chain fatty acids in rat feces were also significantly elevated after treatment with berberine or GQD. Moreover, concentration of serum proinflammatory cytokines and expression of immune-related genes, including Nfkb1, Stat1, and Ifnrg1, in pancreatic islets were significantly reduced after treatment. Our study demonstrates that the main effects of GQD can be attributed to berberine via modulating gut microbiota. The strategy employed would facilitate further standardization and widespread application of TCM in many diseases.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(48): e23399, 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Compared with other malignant tumors, breast cancer patients have a higher incidence of depression and other psychiatric symptoms. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the association between long-term survival and depression in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: This review will include cohort studies only. Multiple databases will be searched by 2 independent reviewers, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO. The language of studies should be English and Chinese, published from inception to the September 2020. Two independent reviewers will carry out literature screening, research selection and data extraction. Revman5.3 software will be used to generate funnel map, assess heterogeneity, make the subgroup analysis and complete sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: This review will summarize the available evidence to determine the association between depression and survival in breast cancer patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will provide reference for the development of comprehensive treatment for breast cancer, and will promote further research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020202200.

5.
Chin Med ; 15: 78, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754224

RESUMEN

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new global public health emergency. The therapeutic benefits of Cold‒Damp Plague Formula (CDPF) against COVID-19, which was used to treat "cold‒dampness stagnation in the lung" in Trial Versions 6 and 7 of the "Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19", have been demonstrated, but the effective components and their mechanism of action remain unclear. Methods: In this study, a network pharmacology approach was employed, including drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability prediction, protein‒protein interaction (PPI) network construction and analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, and virtual docking, to predict the bioactive components, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment. Results: The active compound of herbs in CDPF and their candidate targets were obtained through database mining, and an herbs-ingredients-targets network was constructed. Subsequently, the candidate targets of the active compounds were compared to those relevant to COVID-19, to identify the potential targets of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment. Subsequently, the PPI network was constructed, which provided a basis for cluster analysis and hub gene screening. The seed targets in the most significant module were selected for further functional annotation. GO enrichment analysis identified four main areas: (1) cellular responses to external stimuli, (2) regulation of blood production and circulation, (3) free radical regulation, (4) immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects. KEGG pathway analysis also revealed that CDPF could play pharmacological roles against COVID-19 through "multi components‒multi targets‒multi pathways" at the molecular level, mainly involving anti-viral, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory pathways; consequently, a "CDPF-herbs-ingredients-targets-pathways-COVID-19" network was constructed. In hub target analysis, the top hub target IL6, and ACE2, the receptor via which SARS-CoV-2 typically enters host cells, were selected for molecular docking analyses, and revealed good binding activities. Conclusions: This study revealed the active ingredients and potential molecular mechanism by which CDPF treatment is effective against COVID-19, and provides a reference basis for the wider application and further mechanistic investigations of CDPF in the fight against COVID-19.

6.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109465, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846552

RESUMEN

Saliva is an important component of food oral processing affecting the initial digestion and the formation of food bolus. It has been speculated that salivary biochemical properties could directly influence one's dietary habits, and vice versa. To date, there are few studies that investigate the possible relationships between dietary habits and salivary biochemical properties in Chinese participants from different dietary background. This study examined two Chinese ethnical groups of very different culture of food consumption, Han and Mongolian healthy young participants, as research participants to explore the differences in salivary biochemical properties and possible associations with dietary preferences. Chinese Mongolians tend to consume more red meat and dairy products, and Chinese Han tend to consume more carbohydrates as suggested by official data; therefore, a total of 304 healthy participants (200 Han and 104 Mongolian) were recruited for salivary compositional analysis. Results showed that for Mongolian participants' unstimulated salivary lipolytic activity (0.10 U/mL) and stimulated salivary lipolytic activity (0.09 U/mL) are significantly higher than those of the Han (0.03 U/mL, 0.04 U/mL) (p < 0.01), but their stimulated salivary α-amylase activity (2733 U/mL) was significantly lower than that of Han (3596 U/mL) (p < 0.01). Unstimulated and stimulated salivary total protein content of Chinese Han participants were significantly higher than those of Mongolian participants (p < 0.0001, p = 0.043). These findings have showed our initial hypothesis of possible associations between dietary habits and salivary biochemical properties.

7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 118: 104852, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758761

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Food comminution during chewing is due to intra-oral particle selection and subsequent breakage. Under conditions of habitual chewing and a nearly complete selection, the influence of initial breakage on particle size reduction was studied in trials with a first chewing cycle (N = 1) from a sequence of randomized trials with various cycle numbers. Furthermore, relationships were examined between degree of fragmentation from breakage (r-fr), molar maximal bite force (MBF) and chewing efficiency (the number of cycles needed to half the initial particle size, N(1/2-Xo)). DESIGN: Thirty-one subjects with a natural dentition chewed samples of 2 half-cubes (9.6 × 9.6x4.8 mm) of Optosil®, using sequences with 1-7 cycles, in 2-10 randomized trials; 10 trials with one cycle. Particle size distributions by underweight, characterized by median particle size, X50, were obtained using sieving. N(1/2-Xo) was derived from the log(X50)-log(N) relationship. and r-fr from the cumulative distribution of underweight fractions of damaged particles for N = 1. MBF was determined on both sides of the jaw using a force transducer and averaged. CONCLUSIONS: A strong, decreasing regression occurred in X50 at N = 1 with r-fr (R2 = 0.934, p < 0.001). The decreasing regression of N(1/2-Xo) with r-fr was moderately strong (R2 = 0.454; p < 0.001). Thus, initial size reduction is strongly determined by breakage and overall reduction partly, when chewing small amounts of particles. N(1/2-Xo) vs. MBF and r-fr vs. MBF were weakly related (R2≤0.124, p = 0.052-0.127). The lack of a pronounced relationship between r-fr and MBF suggests that either MBF is not relevant but supra-threshold force, or that another factor, occlusion, may influence breakage.

8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 7504798, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695831

RESUMEN

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not only an important microvascular complication of diabetes but also the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Studies have shown that the occurrence and development of DN are closely related to morphological and functional changes in podocytes. A series of morphological changes after podocyte injury in DN mainly include podocyte hypertrophy, podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation, podocyte detachment, and podocyte apoptosis; functional changes mainly involve podocyte autophagy. More and more studies have shown that multiple signaling pathways play important roles in the progression of podocyte injury in DN. Here, we review research progress on the pathological mechanism of morphological and functional changes in podocytes associated with DN, to provide a new target for delaying the occurrence and development of this disorder.

9.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-11, 2020 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610023

RESUMEN

Psoriasis vulgaris (PV) not only affects patients' skin health but also increases the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, which brings both physical and mental harms. Its pathogenesis is complex, and the multitarget effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is especially advantageous. Because a considerable number of randomized controlled trials related to TCM exhibit design defects, small sample size, or inadequate intervention time, so the status of TCM in the treatment of PV cannot be fully clarified. We reviewed the controlled clinical trials published over the past decade and selected 17 high-quality articles from over 2000 papers. The results suggest that TCM might be beneficial for decrease in PASI scores, thus, TCM might be an effective alternative therapy for PV management. The safety of TCM on PV was also assessed in our analysis. The more strictly designed and long-term observations of TCM for PV are supposed to be conducted in the future.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220922

RESUMEN

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifarious metabolic disorder that could severely damage multiple organs. The emergence of MetS has markedly increased medical burden for patients. The treatment of MetS involves multitarget regulation, which is the advantage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Many high-quality studies related to TCM for MetS have been conducted in recent years; however, no overall efficacy analysis has been reported. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM against MetS, we reviewed randomized controlled trials of MetS published in the past decade and then selected and analyzed 16 high-quality articles from over 800 papers. The results showed that TCM might be beneficial in improving body weight as well as in regulating glucose and lipid metabolisms; thus, TCM might be an ideal alternative therapy for MetS management. Treatment safety was also estimated in our analysis. A more elaborately designed and long-term observation of TCM for MetS should be performed in the future.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 173, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132984

RESUMEN

The present study sought to examine the therapeutic effect of a novel antidiabetic monomer combination (AMC) in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); while also elucidating the potential functional mechanism. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to establish T2DM. The AMC group showed significant reduction in weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and experienced reduced insulin resistance based on oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp testing ("gold standard" for determining in vivo insulin sensitivity). Further, AMC restored the altered intestinal flora by increasing the abundance of the beneficial bacteria Akkermansia, and decreasing the number of harmful bacteria, including Bacteroides, Odoribacter, Prevotella 9, Alistipes, and Parabacteroides. Components of the host-microbial metabolome were also significantly changed in the AMC group compared to the HFD group, including hydroxyphenyllactic acid, palmitoleic acid, dodecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and erucic acid. Furthermore, AMC was found to inhibit inflammation and suppress signaling pathways related to insulin resistance. Lastly, spearman correlation analysis revealed relationships between altered microbial community and co-metabolite levels, co-metabolites and inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the potential mechanism responsible for AMC-mediated alleviation of insulin resistance was suggested to be involved in modulation of bacteria-cometabolism-inflammation responses.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1248-1256, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927921

RESUMEN

Lipophenols are regarded as an emerging source of functional food ingredients. However, little is known about their in vivo digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Thus, the pharmacokinetic characteristics in rat and the gut microbial degradation of tyrosol acyl esters (TYr-Es) with fatty acids of C12:0, C18:0, and C18:2 were investigated for the first time. Major metabolites including tyrosol sulfate and tyrosol glucuronide, rather than the parent compounds, were detected in rat plasma after oral administration of TYr-Es. The increased plasma half-life (T1/2) and mean residence time demonstrated that TYr-Es display a longer duration of action in vivo than TYr, potentially leading to higher oral bioavailability. TYr-Es could be hydrolyzed by the gut microbiota to free TYr, which may result in the appearance of the second absorption peak in pharmacokinetic profiles. Therefore, TYr-Es exhibit improved bioavailability compared to that of TYr because of their prolonged duration of action.


Asunto(s)
Ésteres/farmacocinética , Alcohol Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Ésteres/química , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Ácidos Grasos/química , Cinética , Masculino , Alcohol Feniletílico/química , Alcohol Feniletílico/farmacocinética , Plasma/química , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
13.
J Texture Stud ; 51(1): 169-184, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443131

RESUMEN

A test using a solid food is relevant to measure chewing ability (CA) as (a) it includes an integrated functioning of all oral structures involved, (b) an impairment of chewing a solid food causes inevitably diet restrictions, and (c) chewing efficiency (CE) can easily be defined. CE is the number of chewing cycles, N(1/2-Xo), needed to attain a particular chewing outcome (a median particle size, X 50 , which is half the initial particle size Xo) whereas chewing performance (CP) is a state of chewing outcome (X 50 ) at an arbitrary number of chewing cycles. The use of CE is preferable for CA because inter-subject ratios are constant regardless of the initial conditions of the test food. Furthermore, the inter-subject variation is two times larger for CE values than for CP ones, yielding a better inter-subject differentiation of CA. However, a determination of CP needs only one N-value, and that of CE at least two N-values for enabling an interpolation of N(1/2-Xo). Using samples of only two half-cubes (9.6 x 9.6 x 4.8 mm; limiting test load) of Optosil (an artificial test food), and detailed previous information on log(X 50 )-log(N) relationships (Liu et al., Archives of Oral Biology, 2018, 91, 63-77) as a "gold standard," a short procedure has been developed for a priori choosing two appropriate N-numbers, and the subsequent determination of a subject's CE. This procedure has been developed using results from 20 young adults (23.7 years, SD 1.1) and was validated in 10 middle-aged and older adults (52.3 years, SD 10.1), where impairments in the dentition were reflected in the CE-values. Our short procedure to determine CE will improve studies on relationships between CA and food preference, or between CA and dental factors and/or physiological factors. The first type of relationship may be of interest for food industry whereas the second type may be of interest for population studies in rapidly aging societies and for clinical studies in dentistry. Results can be compared between subjects and studies without bias by using CE rather than CP as a measure of CA.

14.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 3054213, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781663

RESUMEN

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the progressive and irreversible disease. With the development of the disease, the function of beta cells declines significantly. Current treatments cannot reverse the course of the disease. The role of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the DM treatment has been recognized widely, while there are few long-term observation reports. In this study, we introduced a case of DM treated by classical prescription alone for 10 years, which would provide the reference for clinical practice. Case Presentation: A 64-year-old male complained of a 2-month history of dry mouth, frequent urination, and blurred vision and found increased blood glucose for 3 days. The patient's glycated hemoglobin was 14.2%, fasting plasma glucose fluctuated at 12-15 mmol/L, and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) was 32.9 µg/min. The male was treated with 10 years of continuous classical prescription alone. After 3 months of TCM treatment, the patient's blood glucose level decreased significantly and blurred vision symptoms improved. With continued TCM treatment, his UAER normalized. Subsequently, he continued outpatient consultation, and his TCM prescription was adjusted according to clinical symptoms. After 10 years of continuous TCM treatment, his blood glucose remained stable, urinary microalbumin quantitation showed no abnormalities, and blurred vision disappeared. Conclusions: This case provides specific treatment plans and effective references for long-term control of blood glucose, prevention and treatment of diabetes complications, delay of disease progression, and protection of impaired islet function in the treatment of diabetes with TCM. TCM may become a meaningful alternative DM treatment in the future.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores/sangre , Glucemia/metabolismo , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/sangre , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 108: 104539, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539845

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: With an increasing number of elderly in China, it becomes imperative to establish a comprehensive understanding of their physiological capabilities and investigate fundamental mechanisms underpinning the discrepancies between Chinese individuals and other ethnical groups, which will facilitate government policymaking, design and development of special food products. DESIGN: In this study, 100 healthy Chinese subjects in the eastern region of China (22-89 years old) were recruited with full consent, then divided into young adult, middle-aged and elderly groups. Subjects' maximum biting force (MBF), maximum tongue pressure (MTP), maximum oral volume (MOV), and saliva flow rate were recorded. Unstimulated (US) and stimulated (SS) saliva were collected. Subjects were then objectively clustered into 3 different levels of oral processing capability. A total of 10 young subjects from two different clusters were selected for chewing efficiency (CE) determination. CONCLUSIONS: With increased age, there is a decline in subject's dental status, MBF and MTP. Gender affects greatly on MOV; males have larger MOV. No significant effects on SS and US flow rate were found with age and gender. The finding of a similar CE and differences in overall capability in relevant physiological variables (MBF and MOV in young adults) suggest that the degree of CE is not determined by a total capability of various oral physiological variables. In contrast, the findings suggest that CE will be non-impaired as long as each of the relevant physiological variables (i.e. dental status, MBF) operates at a supra-threshold level.


Asunto(s)
Masticación , Lengua , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fuerza de la Mordida , China , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Presión , Saliva , Lengua/fisiología , Adulto Joven
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1608: 460417, 2019 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416627

RESUMEN

The characterization of metabolome for poorly absorptive natural medicines is challenging. Previous identification strategy often relies on nontargeted scanning biological samples from animals administered with natural medicines in a data-dependent acquisition (DDA) mode by LC-MS/MS. Substances that displayed significant increases following drug administration are thus assigned as potential metabolites. The accurate m/z of precursors and the corresponding MS/MS fragment ions are used to match with herbal ingredients and to infer possible metabolic reactions. Nevertheless, the low concentration of these metabolites within complex biological matrices has often hampered the detection. Herein we developed a strategy termed intestinal mucosal metabolome-guided detection (IMMD) to tackle this challenge using ginkgo biloba (GBE) as an example. The rationale is that poorly absorptive natural products are usually concentrated and extensively metabolized by enterocytes before they enter the blood stream and distribute to other organs. Therefore, we firstly identified the metabolites from intestinal mucosa of GBE-treated rats, and then used the identified intestinal mucosal GBE metabolome as targeted repository for MRM analysis. The presences of these metabolites were subsequently examined in rat plasma, liver and brain. The resultant GBE metabolome showed significantly improved coverage with 39, 45 and 6 metabolites identified in plasma, liver and brain compared to 22, 16 and 0 metabolites from the corresponding regions via the DDA-based strategy. In addition, we integrated the previously reported nontargeted diagnostic ion network analysis to facilitate the characterization of GBE components, and a chemicalome-metabolome matching approach (CMMA) to assist the identity assignment of GBE metabolome with IMMD. Combinatorially, we establish a multi-faceted platform to streamline the workflow of metabolome characterization for herbal medicines of low bioavailability. The metabolome information is expected to shed light on the elucidation of metabolic pathways for natural products, and the underlying mechanisms of their biological efficacies.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Metabolómica/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Animales , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinales/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
17.
Arch Oral Biol ; 107: 104524, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445381

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Food particles are intra-orally locked up between antagonistic posterior teeth, during each chewing cycle. Food locking up (FL) may enhance selection of particles for subsequent breakage, hence chewing efficiency (CE). The two aims were to determine FL, and to examine the relationship between FL and CE. DESIGN: A spherical gum bolus (volume: 1.3 cm3) that undergoes plastic deformation rather than breakage, was used to determine FL in 20 young adults. Chewing such a bolus with initially a width-length ratio of 1, decreases this ratio, the more locking up elongates the bolus to a greater extent by pressing from the tongue, teeth, and a cheek. Before and after chewing randomly for 2-6 cycles (3 trials each), the bolus was scanned and its width-length ratio was determined using imaging. The number of chewing cycles needed to attain a width-length ratio of 0.5, N(0.5 W-L ratio) was a measure of FL. CE corresponded with the number of cycles needed to halve the initial particle size, N(1/2-Xo), when chewing samples of 2 half cubes (9.6 × 9.6 × 4.8 mm; sample volume: 0.88 cm3) of a solid artificial model food. CONCLUSIONS: N(0.5 W-L ratio) and N(1/2-Xo) were on average 3.21 cycles (SD 1.14) and 4.04 cycles (SD 1.87) respectively. Whereas a relationship between CE and FL was lacking for subjects whose CE was worse than the median, a pronounced quadratic U-shaped relationship (R2 = 0.75; p < 0.01) occurred for subjects whose CE was better. This relationship might reflect an interaction between two tongue functions: transport and subsequently FL of particles.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos , Masticación , Diente , Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Lengua , Adulto Joven
18.
Food Res Int ; 116: 499-507, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716974

RESUMEN

Oral temperature, tongue specifically, is a key factor affecting oral sensation and perception of food flavour and texture. It is therefore very important to know how the tongue temperature is affected by food consumption. Unfortunately, traditional methods such as clinical thermometers and thermocouples for oral temperature measurement are not most applicable during food oral consumption due to its invasive nature and interference with food. In this study, infrared thermal (IRT) imager was investigated for its feasibility for the measurement of tongue surface temperature. The IRT technique was firstly calibrated using a digital thermometer (DT). The technique was then used to measure tongue surface temperature after tongue was stimulated by (1) water rinsing at different temperatures (0-45 °C); and (2) treated with capsaicin solutions (5, 10, and 20 ppm). For both cases, tongue surface temperature showed significant changes as a result of the physical and chemical stimulation. Results confirm that IRT is feasible for tongue temperature measurement and could be a useful supporting tool in future for the study of food oral processing and sensory perception.


Asunto(s)
Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura , Lengua , Adulto , Calibración , Capsaicina , Diagnóstico Bucal/instrumentación , Diagnóstico Bucal/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Masculino , Gusto/fisiología , Termómetros , Lengua/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto Joven
19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 1978094, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804706

RESUMEN

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a novel family of innate immune cells that act as key coordinators of intestinal mucosal surface immune defense and are essential for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and barrier integrity by responding to locally produced effector cytokines or direct recognition of exogenous or endogenous danger patterns. ILCs are also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many studies have demonstrated the occurrence of crosstalk between ILCs and intestinal microbiota, and ILCs have recently been shown to be connected to the enteric nervous system (ENS). Thus, ILCs may act as a key link between the nervous system and microbiota in intestinal networks. In this review, we briefly summarize the role of the ILCs in the intestinal tract (particularly in the context of IBD) and discuss the relationship between ILCs and the microbiota/ENS.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Innata/inmunología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Microbiota/inmunología , Animales , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata/fisiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/inmunología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/fisiopatología , Intestinos/inmunología , Intestinos/fisiopatología , Linfocitos/fisiología , Microbiota/fisiología
20.
Exp Gerontol ; 119: 74-81, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695717

RESUMEN

Aging causes a gradual decrease in maximal grip strength and leads many elderly people to have to rely on visual feedback to compensate for poorer muscle strength in performing daily activities and preventing accidents. Previous studies have investigated age and visual feedback-related changes in grip strength. However, little is known about methods of determining the quality and stability of hand grip strength control in the elderly, which is important for understanding their ability to generate grip force when handling objects with and without visual feedback in daily living. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of aging and visual feedback on the stability of hand grip control in both hands in elderly adults. Forty-four healthy elderly persons (age 80.5 ±â€¯4.53 years) and 36 young adults (age 32.69 ±â€¯16.48 years) were recruited to execute grip force stability tasks using both hands at a 2 kg target force level. To perform the grip force stability task, the participants were asked to hold the dynamometer tightly in an attempt to achieve the target force level under visual and non-visual feedback conditions. Strength performances (grip force and coefficient of variation values) and stability of strength control (deviation error, variation error and force stability index values) for hand grip force stability tasks were calculated and analyzed. Compared with the visual feedback condition, the stability of grip force control in the hands of the young and elderly groups were significantly reduced in the non-visual feedback condition by 23.5%-57.1% (p < .05). The elderly group also showed significantly worse hand grip strength performances and stability of hand strength control than the young adult group (p < .05). Aging and non-visual feedback reduced the hand grip force output and stability of grip strength control of the hands. This may reveal the difficulty with manipulating hand-held objects in the absence of visual feedback while performing activities of daily living among the elderly.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Retroalimentación Sensorial/fisiología , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Lateralidad Funcional/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Adulto Joven
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