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1.
Oecologia ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825007

RESUMEN

Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in life history traits among populations has been well-studied at the post-embryonic stage but rarely at the embryonic stage. To reveal these sources of variation in the developmental success of embryos, we measured the physical characteristics of nest environments and conducted reciprocal egg-swap experiments in two populations of the toad-headed agamid lizard (Phrynocephalus przewalskii), isolated from each other by a mountain range. We determined the effects of population origin and nest environment on embryonic and offspring traits related to developmental success, including incubation period, hatching success, and offspring growth and survival. Females from the northern population constructed deeper nests that were colder and wetter than those from the southern population. Northern embryos had higher hatching success than the southern embryos when incubated at the northern nest environment, but not when they were incubated at the southern nest environment. The southern hatchlings grew faster than the northern hatchlings when incubated at the southern nest environment, but not after incubation at the northern nest environment. These phenomena likely reflect local adaptation of embryonic development to their nest environments among populations in lizards. In addition, the southern hatchlings had higher survivorship than the northern hatchlings regardless of nest environment, suggesting the southern population has evolved a superior phenotype at the hatchling stage to maximize its fitness.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830520

RESUMEN

Inpatient COVID-19 cases present enormous costs to patients and health systems in the United States. Many hospitalized patients may continue testing COVID-19 positive even after resolution of symptoms. Thus, a pressing concern for clinicians is the safety of discharging these asymptomatic patients if they have any remaining infectivity. This case report explores the viral viability in a patient with persistent COVID-19 over the course of a two-month hospitalization. Positive nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected and isolated in the laboratory and analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), and serology was tested for neutralizing antibodies throughout the hospitalization period. The patient experienced waning symptoms by hospital day 40 and had no viable virus growth by hospital day 41, suggesting no risk of infectivity, despite positive RT-PCR results which prolonged his hospital stay. Notably, this case showed infectivity for at least 24 days after disease onset, which is longer than the discontinuation of transmission-based precautions recommendation by the CDC. Thus, our findings suggest that the timeline for discontinuing transmission-based precautions may need to be extended for patients with severe and prolonged COVID-19 disease. Additional large-scale studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions on the appropriate clinical management for these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 184, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845759

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The interactions of proteins are determined by their sequences and affect the regulation of the cell cycle, signal transduction and metabolism, which is of extraordinary significance to modern proteomics research. Despite advances in experimental technology, it is still expensive, laborious, and time-consuming to determine protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and there is a strong demand for effective bioinformatics approaches to identify potential PPIs. Considering the large amount of PPI data, a high-performance processor can be utilized to enhance the capability of the deep learning method and directly predict protein sequences. RESULTS: We propose the Sequence-Statistics-Content protein sequence encoding format (SSC) based on information extraction from the original sequence for further performance improvement of the convolutional neural network. The original protein sequences are encoded in the three-channel format by introducing statistical information (the second channel) and bigram encoding information (the third channel), which can increase the unique sequence features to enhance the performance of the deep learning model. On predicting protein-protein interaction tasks, the results using the 2D convolutional neural network (2D CNN) with the SSC encoding method are better than those of the 1D CNN with one hot encoding. The independent validation of new interactions from the HIPPIE database (version 2.1 published on July 18, 2017) and the validation of directly predicted results by applying a molecular docking tool indicate the effectiveness of the proposed protein encoding improvement in the CNN model. CONCLUSION: The proposed protein sequence encoding method is efficient at improving the capability of the CNN model on protein sequence-related tasks and may also be effective at enhancing the capability of other machine learning or deep learning methods. Prediction accuracy and molecular docking validation showed considerable improvement compared to the existing hot encoding method, indicating that the SSC encoding method may be useful for analyzing protein sequence-related tasks. The source code of the proposed methods is freely available for academic research at https://github.com/wangy496/SSC-format/ .

4.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847391

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes and long-term stability of individualized titanium mesh combined with free flap for orbital floor reconstruction after maxillectomy and to identify the risk factors for titanium mesh exposure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of 66 patients who underwent maxillectomy and orbital floor defect reconstruction by individualized titanium mesh in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between 2011 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative ophthalmic function and success of aesthetic restoration were assessed. Titanium mesh exposure was recorded and the risk factors were identified. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was for 24.8 months (range, 6-92 months). Ophthalmic function was successfully restored in 63/66 patients. Aesthetic restoration was not considered satisfactory by 10 patients. Titanium mesh exposure occurred in six patients (exposure rate, 9.1%). Preoperative radiotherapy was identified as an independent risk factor for mesh exposure (OR = 28.8, P = 0.006). Previous surgery, postoperative radiotherapy, pathological type of the primary lesion, the type of tissue flap applied, and the use of intraoperative navigation were not significant risk factors. Six patients with titanium mesh exposure underwent second surgery, but mesh exposure recurred in two patients due to insufficient soft tissue coverage. CONCLUSION: Individualized titanium mesh with free flap can effectively restore maxilla-orbital defects. Preoperative radiotherapy is an independent predictor of postoperative titanium mesh exposure. Adequate soft tissue coverage of the mesh may reduce the risk of mesh exposure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4 (case-control study) Laryngoscope, 2021.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811372

RESUMEN

Liver diseases are associated with the leaky gut via the gut-liver-axis. Previous studies have paid much attention to the effect of gut barrier damage. Notably, clinical observations and basic research reveal that the gut barrier damage seldom leads to liver injury independently but aggravates pre-existing liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and drug-induced liver injury. These evidences suggest that there is a hepatic barrier in the gut-liver-axis, protecting the liver against gut-derived pathogenic factors. However, it has never been investigated which type of liver cell plays the role of hepatic barrier. Under physiological conditions, liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) can take up and eliminate virus, bacteriophage, microbial products, and metabolic wastes. LSEC also keeps the homeostasis of liver immune environment via tolerance-inducing and anti-inflammatory functions. In contrast, under pathological conditions, the clearance function of LSEC is impaired, and LSEC turns into a pro-inflammatory pattern. Given its anatomical position and physiological functions, LSEC is proposed as the hepatic barrier in the gut-liver-axis. In this review, we aim to further understand the role of LSEC as the hepatic barrier. Future studies are warranted to seek effective treatments to improve LSEC health, which appears to be a promising approach to prevent gut-derived liver injury.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808233

RESUMEN

A large amount of cow hair solid waste is produced in leather production, and a reasonable treatment should be developed to reduce the pollution. In this study, cow hair waste was utilized as the carbon precursor, and N2 was determined to be the most appropriate atmosphere for biochar preparation. We performed a comparison of the properties of biochars that were prepared with different methods, including direct pyrolysis, KOH activation, and the MgO template method. The characterization results show that the highest specific surface area reaches 1753.075 m2/g. Subsequently, the keratin that was extracted from cow hair and purified was used to prepare a biochar with the MgO template method, obtaining an orderly sponge structure. The biochar from cow hair waste was further used to absorb direct blue dye wastewater, and its adsorption capacity reached 1477 mg/g after 10 h with a high efficiency of regeneration. This study successfully utilized keratin-containing hair waste and provides a new source for synthesizing carbon materials for dye wastewater treatment.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822977

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To reconstruct the evolutionary history and genomic epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus ST9 in China. METHODS: Using WGS analysis, we described the phylogeny of 131 S. aureus ST9 isolates collected between 2002 and 2016 from 11 provinces in China, including six clinical samples from Taiwan. We also investigated the complex structure and distribution of the lsa(E)-carrying multiresistance gene cluster, and genotyped prophages in the genomes of the ST9 isolates. RESULTS: ST9 was subdivided into one major (n = 122) and one minor (n = 9) clade. Bayesian phylogeny predicted the divergence of ST9 isolates in pig farming in China as early as 1987, which then evolved rapidly in the following three decades. ST9 isolates shared similar multiresistance properties, which were likely acquired before the ST9 emergence in China. The accessory genome is highly conserved, and ST9 harboured similar sets of phages, but lacked certain virulence genes. CONCLUSIONS: Host exchange and regional transmission of ST9 have occurred between pigs and humans. Pig rearing and trading might have favoured gene exchanges between ST9 isolates. Resistance genes, obtained from the environment and other isolates, were stably integrated into the chromosomal DNA. The abundance of resistance genes among ST9 is likely attributed to the extensive use of antimicrobial agents in livestock. Phages are present in the genomes of ST9 and may play a role in the rapid evolution of this ST. Although human ST9 infections are rare, ST9 isolates may constitute a potential risk to public health as a repository of antimicrobial resistance genes.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823070

RESUMEN

Hierarchical porous MOFs (HP-MOFs) present advantageous synergism of micro- and mesopore but challenging in synthetic control at molecular scale. Herein, we present the first example of reversible and controllable mesopore generation and renovation in a microporous MOF of HKUST-1 via synthetic manipulation at molecular scale. An ammonia-gas etching strategy is proposed to create mesopores in carboxylate-based microporous MOFs and thus produce HP-MOFs. Gas-phase etching ensures uniform mesopore formation inside the MOF crystals via plane-oriented cutting the carboxylate- metal  bonds off without affecting the crystal size and morphology. The mesopore size is controlled by the etching temperature, while the mesopore volume could be tuned by adjusting etchant pressure. The generated mesopores could be renovated using MOF precursors solutions so that to achieve controllable mesopore generation/closure, and encapsulation of the adsorbed molecules. This work demonstrates a powerful protocol for precisely tailoring and tuning the properties of MOF materials at molecular scale.

9.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823611

RESUMEN

Pythium terrestris, Pythium spinosum, and "Candidatus Pythium huanghuaiense" are closely related species and important pathogens of soybean that cause root rot. However, the sequences of commonly-used molecular markers, such as rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome oxidase 1 gene, are similar among these species, making it difficult to design species-specific primers for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The genome sequences of these species are also currently unavailable. Based on a comparative genomic analysis and de novo RNA-seq transcript assemblies, we identified and cloned the sequences of the M90 gene, a conserved but highly polymorphic single-copy gene encoding a Puf family RNA-binding protein among oomycetes. After primer design and screening, three LAMP assays were developed that specifically amplified the targeted DNA sequences in P. terrestris and P. spinosum at 62°C for 70 min and in "Ca. Pythium huanghuaiense" at 62°C for 60 min. After adding SYBR Green I, a positive yellow-green color (under natural light) or intense green fluorescence (under ultraviolet light) was observed by the naked eye only in the presence of the target species. The minimum concentration of target DNA detected in all three LAMP assays was 100 pg·µL-1. The assays also successfully detected the target Pythium spp. with high accuracy and sensitivity from inoculated soybean seedlings and soils collected from soybean fields. This study provides a method for identification and cloning of candidate detection targets without a reference genome sequence, and identified M90 as a novel specific target for molecular detection of three Pythium species causing soybean root rot.

10.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814226

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study was to compare the effects of different local analgesia protocols on osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Medical records of 148 osteoarthritis patients who underwent unilateral TKA between October 2016 and October 2017 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. All these patients were divided into three groups according to the pain management protocol (morphine, morphine + cocktail [100 mg ropivacaine, 10 mg morphine, and 30 mL 0.9% sodium chloride solution containing 2 mL betamethasone (4 mg)], or cocktail). The postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score, muscle strength, and complications were compared between the groups. RESULTS: At 6 and 12 hours post-operation, the VAS score in group C was significantly higher than that in group A or group B. In addition, the muscle (quadriceps femoris) strength score of group C (3.7 ± 2.8) was significantly higher than that in groups A and B at 6 and 12 hours post-operation. The VAS score and muscle strength score showed no significant differences among the three groups at 24 and 36 hours post-operation. The time of postoperative first void of group C was significantly shorter than that of groups A and B. Groups A or B had a significantly higher incidence of nausea and emesis compared with group C. The incidence of pruritus was higher in groups A or B than that in group C. CONCLUSION: Epidural anesthesia combined with local analgesic cocktail injection is a preferable effective multimodal analgesia for TKA.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818080

RESUMEN

Conductive polyelectrolytes such as P3CT-Na have been widely used as efficient hole-transporting layers (HTLs) in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to their high hole mobility. However, the acid-base neutralization reaction is indispensable for preparing such polyelectrolytes and the varied content of cations usually leads to poor reproducibility of the device performance in PSCs. In this work, a commercially available polymer poly[3-(4-carboxybutyl)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3CT) was directly applied as an HTL in PSCs for the first time. Encouragingly, it was found that due to the dual functionality of carboxyl groups on side chains, a thin layer of P3CT can not only strongly anchor on ITO electrode and optimize its work function but also show an effective passivation effect toward perovskite active layer. Benefiting from such dual functionality, a uniform perovskite film with better quality was obtained on P3CT. As a result, the P3CT-based PSCs show much lower nonradiative recombination and achieve a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 21.33% with a high fill factor (FF) of 83.6%. Impressively, as the device area is increased to 0.80 cm2, a PCE of 19.65% can still be obtained for the PSCs based on P3CT HTL. Our work provides important strategy for developing HTLs for high-performance PSCs.

12.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818095

RESUMEN

A simple InBr3-catalyzed domino reaction of indoles, phenylacetylenes, and various 3-methyleneoxindolines in toluene is described. This reaction not only provided a convenient synthetic protocol for polysubstituted tetrahydrospiro[carbazole-1,3'-indolines] in good yields but also gave completely different diastereoisomers of the tetrahydrospiro[carbazole-1,3'-indolines] to that of the previously reported TfOH-catalyzed one-pot reaction of indoles, acetophenones, and 3-methyleneoxindolines. Additionally, the InBr3-catalyzed reaction of the initially prepared 1,1'-bis(indolyl)phenylethanes with 3-phenacylideneoxindolines also gave the corresponding tetrahydrospiro[carbazole-1,3'-indolines] in good yields and with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction mechanism involved the sequential in situ generation of reactive dienophilic 3-alkenylindole, the Diels-Alder reaction, and the Lewis acid controlled diastereoisomerization process.

13.
J Nat Prod ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830759

RESUMEN

Two new diprenylated coumaric acid isomers (1a and 1b) and two known congeners, capillartemisin A (2) and B (3), were isolated from Artemisia scoparia as bioactive markers using bioactivity-guided HPLC fractionation. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means, including 1D and 2D NMR methods and LC-MS, with their purity assessed by 1D 1H pure shift qNMR spectroscopic analysis. The bioactivity of compounds was evaluated by enhanced accumulation of lipids, as measured using Oil Red O staining, and by increased expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes relative to untreated negative controls. Compared to the plant's 80% EtOH extract, these purified compounds showed significant but still weaker inhibition of TNFα-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This suggests that additional bioactive substances are responsible for the multiple metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes observed with Artemisia scoparia extract.

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107600, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798807

RESUMEN

Inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI), but the mechanism remains unclear. Current anti-inflammatory therapy has poor efficacy on ALI. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of curcumin against ALI. In in vivo experiments, curcumin significantly alleviated lung inflammation, histopathological injury and MPO activity, serum concentrations of CCL7, IL-6 and TNF-α, and mortality in mice compared to the model group. RAW264.7 cells cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide and adenosine triphosphate showed significantly lower viability, higher pyroptotic percentage and inflammation, but supplement of curcumin increased the cell viability, reduced pyroptosis and inflammation. Additionally, the expressions of NF-κB and pyroptosis related proteins were notably increased, while Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was decreased in both in vivo and in vitro ALI models. The results suggested that curcumin remarkably inhibited the expression of NF-κB and pyroptosis related proteins and increased the expression of SIRT1. However, EX527, a SIRT1 inhibitor, blocked the protective effect of curcumin against ALI. In conclusion, curcumin has protective effect against ALI. It may inhibit inflammatory process by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis through the up-regulation of SIRT1.

15.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(4): 402-409, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840414

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). METHODS: A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, an HIBD group, and an AS-IV treatment group, with 8 rats in each group. After 24 hours of modeling, brain tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin staining, yo-PRO-1 staining, and EthD-2 immunofluorescent staining in order to observe the cerebral protection effect of AS-IV in vivo. HT22 cells were used to prepare a model of oxygen-glycogen deprivation (OGD), and a concentration gradient (50-400 µmol/L) was established for AS-IV. CCK-8 assay was used to measure the viability of HT22 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to observe the effect of different concentrations of AS-IV on the mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1, and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). RESULTS: Yo-Pro-1 and EthD-2 staining showed that compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had an increase in pyroptotic cells with a small number of necrotic cells, and the AS-IV group had reductions in both pyroptotic and necrotic cells. Compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had significantly higher protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1ß, caspase-1, and GSDMD (P < 0.05). Compared with the HIBD group, the AS-IV group had significant reductions in the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD (P < 0.05). HT22 cell experiment showed that compared with the OGD group, the AS-IV group had inhibited mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, GSDMD, caspase-1, and IL-1ß, with the best therapeutic effect at the concentration of 200 µmol/L (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AS-IV may alleviate HIBD in neonatal rats by inhibiting the expression of NLRP3, GSDMD, caspase-1, and IL-1ß.


Asunto(s)
Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Inflamasomas , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Encéfalo , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas NLR , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas , Triterpenos
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 111, 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849451

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen. We have previously reported the structure of LuxS protein and found that the luxS gene is closely related to biofilm, virulence gene expression and drug resistance of SS2. However, the mechanism of luxS mediated SS2 stress response is unclear. Therefore, this experiment performed stress response to luxS mutant (ΔluxS) and complement strain (CΔluxS), overexpression strain (luxS+) and wild-type SS2 strain HA9801, and analyzed the differential phenotypes in combination with transcriptome data. RESULTS: The results indicate that the luxS gene deletion causes a wide range of phenotypic changes, including chain length. RNA sequencing identified 278 lx-regulated genes, of which 179 were up-regulated and 99 were down-regulated. Differential genes focus on bacterial growth, stress response, metabolic mechanisms and drug tolerance. Multiple mitotic genes were down-regulated; while the ABC transporter system genes, cobalamin /Fe3+-iron carrier ABC transporter ATPase and oxidative stress regulators were up-regulated. The inactivation of the luxS gene caused a significant reduction in the growth and survival in the acid (pH = 3.0, 4.0, 5.0) and iron (100 mM iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl) stress environments. However, the mutant strain ΔluxS showed increased antioxidant activity to H2O2 (58.8 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: The luxS gene in SS2 appears to play roles in iron metabolism and protective responses to acidic and oxidative environmental conditions.

17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 159, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789587

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) is a common manifestation of preclinical cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence in a cohort of young Chinese individuals. METHODS: (1) A total of 1515 participants aged 36-45 years old from our previously established cohort who were followed up in 2017 were included. Cross-sectional analysis was used to examine risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence. (2) A total of 235 participants were recruited from the same cohort in 2013 and were followed up in 2017. Longitudinal analysis was used to determine the predictors of LVH occurrence over the 4-year period. We used multivariable logistic regression models to calculate OR and 95% CIs and to analyze risk factors for ECG-LVH. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis, the prevalence of LVH diagnosed by the Cornell voltage-duration product in the overall population and the hypertensive population was 4.6% and 8.8%, respectively. The logistic regression results shown that female sex [2.611 (1.591-4.583)], hypertension [2.638 (1.449-4.803)], systolic blood pressure (SBP) [1.021 (1.007-1.035)], serum uric acid (SUA) [1.004 (1.001-1.006)] and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) [67.670 (13.352-342.976)] were significantly associated with the risk of LVH (all P < 0.05). In the longitudinal analysis, fasting glucose [1.377 (1.087-1.754)], SBP [1.046 (1.013-1.080)] and female sex [1.242 (1.069-1.853)] were independent predictors for the occurrence of LVH in the fourth year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that female sex, hypertension, SBP, SUA and CIMT were significantly associated with the risk of LVH in young people. In addition, fasting glucose, SBP and female sex are independent predictors of the occurrence of LVH in a young Chinese general population.

18.
Int J Pharm ; : 120552, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798685

RESUMEN

Combined administration of drugs can improve efficacy and reduce toxicity; therefore, this combination approach has become a routine method in cancer therapy. The main combination regimens are sequential, mixed (also termed "cocktail"), and co-loaded; however, other combinations, such as administration of synergistic drugs and the use of formulations with different mechanisms of action, may exert better therapeutic effects. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play functional roles throughout tumor progression and exhibit characteristic phenotypic plasticity. Sialic acid (SA)-modified epirubicin liposomes (S-E-L) and SA-modified zoledronate liposomes (S-Z-L) administered separately kill TAMs, reverse their phenotype, and achieve antitumor effects. In this study, we examined the effects of a two-treatment combination for drug delivery, using sequential, mixed, and co-loaded drug delivery. We found that therapeutic effects differed between administration methods: mixed administration of S-E-L and S-Z-L, co-loaded administration of SA-modified liposomes (S-ZE-C), and sequential administration of S-E-L injected 24 h after S-Z-L did not inhibit tumor growth; however, sequential administration of S-Z-L injected 24 h after S-E-L resulted in no tumor growth, no toxicity to noncancerous tissue, and no death of mice, and exhibited 25% tumor shedding. Thus, our results thus encourage the further development of combined therapies for nanomedicines based on the mechanisms investigated here.

19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 6621296, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790691

RESUMEN

The interleukins (ILs) are a pluripotent cytokine family that have been reported to regulate ischemic stroke and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 superfamily and plays important roles in tissue injury and repair. However, the effects of IL-22 on ischemic stroke and cerebral I/R injury remain unclear. In the current study, we provided direct evidence that IL-22 treatment decreased infarct size, neurological deficits, and brain water content in mice subjected to cerebral I/R injury. IL-22 treatment remarkably reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP-) 1, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, both in serum and the ischemic cerebral cortex. In addition, IL-22 treatment also decreased oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in mice after cerebral I/R injury. Moreover, IL-22 treatment significantly increased Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 phosphorylation levels in mice and PC12 cells, and STAT3 knockdown abolished the IL-22-mediated neuroprotective function. These findings suggest that IL-22 might be exploited as a potential therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke and cerebral I/R injury.

20.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793210

RESUMEN

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease process that may contribute to temporary or permanent disability. Tracking spatial changes of lipids and metabolites in the brain helps unveil the underlying mechanisms of the disease procession and therapeutic response. Here, the liquid microjunction surface sampling technique was used for mass spectrometry imaging of both lipids and metabolites in rat models of controlled cortical impact with and without XueFu ZhuYu decoction treatment, and the work was focused on the diffuse changes outside the injured area at chronic phase (14 days after injury). Quantitative information was provided for phosphotidylcholines and cerebrosides by adding internal standards in the sampling solvent. With principal component analysis for the imaging data, the midbrain was found to be the region with the largest diffuse changes following TBI outside the injured area. In detail, several phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols were found to be significantly up-regulated particularly in midbrain and thalamus after TBI and XFZY treatment. It is associated with the reported "self-repair" mechanisms at the chronic phase of TBI activated by neuroinflammation. Several glycosphingolipids were found to be increased in most of brain regions after TBI, which was inferred to be associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress triggered by TBI. Moreover, different classes of small matabolites were significantly changed after TBI, including fatty acids, amino acids, and purines. All these compounds were involved in 10 metabolic pathway networks, and 6 target proteins of XFZY were found related to the impacted pathways. These results shed light on the molecular mechanisms of TBI pathologic processes and therapeutic response.

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