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1.
Urol Pract ; 11(2): 339-346, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305777

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: With no recommended screening approach, urinary bladder cancer patients rely on referral to urologists to ensure timely diagnosis of bladder cancer. This requires coordination between primary and specialty care. We provide estimates of the relative association between primary care physician and urologist density on stage of urinary bladder cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We used 2010 to 2016 Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data to identify all adult patients diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our primary outcome was locoregional stage of diagnosis, since treatment modality changes and prognosis worsens beyond this stage. Based on patient's residential location at the time of diagnosis we defined both density of urologists and number of primary care providers (defined as providers per population) within the patient's county. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression to estimate the association between provider density and likelihood of locoregional stage of diagnosis. We also controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance type, and year. RESULTS: Our sample included 11,771 urinary bladder cancer patients with 10,607 diagnosed at locoregional stage and 1164 at distant stage. Multivariate regression results show primary care density was associated with significantly higher odds of locoregional stage of diagnosis (odds ratio of 1.05 [95% CI: 1.02-1.08]) while urologist density was associated with significantly lower odds of locoregional stage (odds ratio of 0.65 [95% CI: 0.48-0.89]). CONCLUSIONS: We found primary care density but not urologist density was associated with earlier stage of diagnosis, highlighting the importance of access to primary care and need for timely referral to urologic care.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Sistema Urinario , Urología , Adulto , Humanos , Urólogos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico , Atención Primaria de Salud
2.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 31(3): 178-187, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231156

RESUMEN

Bladder cancer may be classified into "molecular subtypes" based on gene expression. These are associated with treatment response and patient outcomes. The gene expression signatures that define these subtypes are diverse, including signatures of epithelial differentiation, stromal involvement, cell cycle activity, and immune cell infiltration. Multiple different systems are described. While earlier studies considered molecular subtypes to be intrinsic properties of cancer, recent data have shown molecular subtypes change as tumors progress and evolve, and often differ between histologically distinct regions of a tumor. The data also indicate that some signatures that define molecular subtypes may be treated as independent continuous variables, rather than categorical subtypes, and these individual signatures may be more clinically informative. This review describes molecular subtypes of urothelial carcinoma, including histologic subtypes and tumors with divergent differentiation, and explores potential future uses in patient management.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/genética , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas
3.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 48(1): e32-e42, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37199442

RESUMEN

Molecular subtyping has been a major focus of bladder cancer research over the past decade. Despite many promising associations with clinical outcomes and treatment response, its clinical impact has yet to be defined. As part of the 2022 International Society of Urological Pathology Conference on Bladder Cancer, we reviewed the current state of the science for bladder cancer molecular subtyping. Our review included several different subtyping systems. We derived the following 7 principles, which summarize progress and challenges of molecular subtyping: (1) bladder cancer has 3 major molecular subtypes: luminal, basal-squamous, and neuroendocrine; (2) signatures of the tumor microenvironment differ greatly among bladder cancers, particularly among luminal tumors; (3) luminal bladder cancers are biologically diverse, and much of this diversity results from differences in features unrelated to the tumor microenvironment, such as FGFR3 signaling and RB1 inactivation; (4) molecular subtype of bladder cancer associates with tumor stage and histomorphology; (5) many subtyping systems include idiosyncrasies, such as subtypes recognized by no other system; (6) there are broad fuzzy borders between molecular subtypes, and cases that fall on these fuzzy borders are often classified differently by different subtyping systems; and (7) when there are histomorphologically distinct regions within a single tumor, the molecular subtypes of these regions are often discordant. We reviewed several use cases for molecular subtyping, highlighting their promise as clinical biomarkers. Finally, we conclude that data are currently insufficient to support the routine use of molecular subtyping to guide bladder cancer management, an opinion shared with the majority of conference attendees. We also conclude that molecular subtype should not be considered an "intrinsic" property of a tumor but should instead be considered the result of a specific laboratory test, performed using a specific testing platform and classification algorithm, validated for a specific clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Pronóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
SAGE Open Med ; 11: 20503121231200103, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37767536

RESUMEN

Objectives: Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a classification of salivary gland tumors, recently included within the term secretory carcinoma. Previous descriptions of this diagnosis have largely consisted of case reports and case series with few studies investigating its clinical characteristics as compared to non-MASC tumors. Our objective was to use a large patient database to compare the clinical characteristics of mammary analog secretory carcinoma vs. non-mammary analog secretory carcinoma salivary gland tumors. Methods: The National Cancer Database was queried between September and October 2022 for histological diagnosis of mammary analog secretory carcinoma and non-MASC salivary tumors. Patients diagnosed with mammary analog secretory carcinoma and non-mammary analog secretory carcinoma salivary tumors between the period of 2004 through 2019 were included in this analysis. Various demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from the database and compared using Wilcoxon rank sum and chi-square tests. Survival was compared between cohorts using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Overall, compared to non-mammary analog secretory carcinoma diagnoses (n = 47668), mammary analog secretory carcinoma tumors (n = 384) affected younger individuals, displayed favorable pathologic staging and tumor grade, and were less likely to invade surrounding tissues. Patients with mammary analog secretory carcinoma tumors also received treatment more quickly following diagnosis compared to patients with non-mammary analog secretory carcinoma tumors. The risk of death was 4.3 times greater for non-mammary analog secretory carcinoma diagnoses when adjusted for patient variables (hazard ratio = 4.3, 95% confidence interval [2.37-7.71], p < 0.001). Conclusions: Clinically, mammary analog secretory carcinoma salivary tumors have a more indolent course compared to other salivary cancers. Additional studies are needed to determine the natural history of this tumor type.

5.
Am J Pathol ; 193(12): 2133-2143, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37544503

RESUMEN

Although approximately 70% of bladder cancers are noninvasive and have high recurrence rates, early-stage disease is understudied. The lack of models to validate the contribution of molecular drivers of bladder tumorigenesis is a significant issue. Although mutations in PIK3CA are frequent in human bladder cancer, an in vivo model for understanding their contribution to bladder tumorigenesis is unavailable. Therefore, a Upk2-Cre/Pik3caH1047R mouse model expressing one or two R26-Pik3caH1047R alleles in a urothelium-specific manner was generated. Pik3caH1047R functionality was confirmed by quantifying Akt phosphorylation, and mice were characterized by assessing urothelial thickness, nuclear atypia, and expression of luminal and basal markers at 6 and 12 months of age. While at 6 months, Pik3caH1047R mice developed increased urothelial thickness and nuclear atypia, progressive disease was not observed at 12 months. Immunohistochemistry showed urothelium maintained luminal differentiation characterized by high forkhead box A1 (Foxa1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Surprisingly, Pik3caH1047R mice subjected to low-dose carcinogen exposure [N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine] exhibited no significant differences after exposure relative to mice without exposure. Furthermore, single-sample gene set enrichment analysis of invasive human tumors showed those with mutant PIK3CA did not exhibit significantly increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway activity compared with wild-type PIK3CA tumors. Overall, these data suggest that Pik3caH1047R can elicit early tumorigenic changes in the urothelium, but progression to invasion may require additional genetic alterations.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , Carcinogénesis/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasa Clase I/genética , Mutación , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Urotelio/metabolismo
6.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 66: 152179, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37453217

RESUMEN

Metastatic carcinoma to the urinary bladder is a rare and under-recognized condition in surgical pathology. In this study, we identified 8 cases of true bladder metastasis at our institution in the past 20 years, excluding secondary tumors via direct extension or serosal implantation. The most common tumor type is malignant melanoma (3/8), followed by clear cell renal cell carcinoma (2/8), adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract (2/8), and breast invasive lobular carcinoma (1/8). There are 6 cases of endoscopically exophytic metastasis and 2 cases of diffuse metastasis, commensurate with 6 patients with hematuria and 2 patients with urinary obstruction as respective clinical symptoms. Exophytic bladder metastasis usually presents with similar clinical features as urothelial carcinoma, while diffuse metastasis often masquerades as a urinary tract infection. In the latter circumstance, a markedly thickened bladder wall discerned via imaging study is the best indication for the bladder biopsy to circumvent the misdiagnosis. Histologically, the metastatic tumors can also mimic conventional urothelial carcinoma or its histological variants, and thus pose a potential diagnostic challenge to pathologists. The lack of an in situ component in primary bladder cancer may hint at bladder metastasis. Accurate diagnosis of bladder metastasis requires heightened alertness to this rare condition in addition to a multidisciplinary approach.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Carcinoma Lobular , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias Renales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Femenino , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Carcinoma Lobular/patología , Neoplasias Renales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renales/patología
7.
J Appl Lab Med ; 8(2): 382-406, 2023 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36881764

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Persistent genital infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) causes the vast majority of cases of cervical cancer. Early screening, ongoing surveillance, and accurate diagnosis are crucial for the elimination of cervical cancer. New screening guidelines for testing in asymptomatic healthy populations and management guidelines for managing abnormal results have been published by professional organizations. CONTENT: This guidance document addresses key questions related to cervical cancer screening and management including currently available cervical cancer screening tests and the testing strategies for cervical cancer screening. This guidance document introduces the most recently updated screening guidelines regarding age to start screening, age to stop screening, and frequencies of routine screening as well as risk-based management guidelines for screening and surveillance. This guidance document also summarizes the methodologies for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Additionally, we propose a report template for human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer detection to facilitate interpretation of results and clinical decision-making. SUMMARY: Currently available cervical cancer screening tests include hrHPV testing and cervical cytology screening. The screening strategies can be primary HPV screening, co-testing with HPV testing and cervical cytology, and cervical cytology alone. The new American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines recommend variable frequencies of screening and surveillance based on risk. To implement these guidelines, an ideal laboratory report should include the indication for the test (screening, surveillance, or diagnostic workup of symptomatic patients); type of test (primary HPV screening, co-testing, or cytology alone); clinical history of the patient; and prior as well as current testing results.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Virus del Papiloma Humano , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(2)2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36822667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with bladder cancer (BC) who are cisplatin ineligible or have unresectable disease have limited treatment options. Previously, we showed targeting programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with durvalumab (durva) and radiation therapy (RT) combination was safe in BC. We now report results from a phase II study evaluating the toxicity and efficacy of durva and RT in localized BC. METHODS: This is a single-arm, multi-institutional phase II study; N=26. Enrolled patients had pure or mixed urothelial BC (T2-4 N0-2 M0) with unresectable tumors and were unfit for surgery or cisplatin ineligible. Patients received durva concurrently with RT ×7 weeks, followed by adjuvant durva × 1 year. PRIMARY ENDPOINTS: (A) progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 year and (B) disease control rate (DCR) post adjuvant durva. Key secondary endpoints: (A) complete response (CR) post durvaRT (8 weeks), (B) overall survival (OS), (C) PFS and (D) toxicity. Correlative studies included evaluation of baseline tumor and blood (baseline, post durvaRT) for biomarkers. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 27 months. Evaluable patients: 24/26 post durvaRT, 22/26 for DCR post adjuvant durva, all patients for PFS and OS. Post adjuvant durva, DCR was seen in 72.7%, CR of 54.5%. 1-year PFS was 71.5%, median PFS was 21.8 months. 1-year OS was 83.8%, median OS was 30.8 months. CR at 8 weeks post durvaRT was 62.5%. Node positive (N+) patients had similar median PFS and OS. DurvaRT was well tolerated. Grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events: anemia, high lipase/amylase, immune-nephritis, transaminitis, dyspnea (grade 4-COPD/immune), fatigue, rash, diarrhea and scleritis. No difference in outcome was observed with PD-L1 status of baseline tumor. Patients with CR/PR or SD had an increase in naïve CD4 T cells, a decrease in PD-1+CD4 T cells at baseline and an increase in cytokine-producing CD8 T cells, including interferon gamma (IFNγ) producing cells, in the peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: Durva with RT followed by adjuvant durva was safe with promising efficacy in localized BC patients with comorbidities, including N+ patients. Larger randomized studies, like S1806 and EA8185, are needed to evaluate the efficacy of combining immunotherapy and RT in BC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02891161.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Cisplatino , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico
9.
J Pathol ; 259(1): 46-55, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214539

RESUMEN

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF1) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer. Genetic knockout of Mif1 in the validated N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) model of bladder cancer (BCa) resulted in stage arrest at non-muscle-invasive disease in prior studies. Small-molecule inhibition of MIF1 reduced cancer-associated outcomes, but it did not fully recapitulate genetic models. D-dopachrome tautomerase (gene symbol DDT), commonly referred to as MIF2, is a functional homolog of MIF1, and both MIF1 and MIF2 can bind the cell surface receptor CD74 on multiple cell types to initiate a signaling cascade. It has been proposed that this interaction mediates part of the protumorigenic effects of MIF1 and MIF2 and may explain the discordance in prior studies. We hypothesized that MIF2 functions redundantly with MIF1 in BCa development and progression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analysis indicated MIF and DDT expression were increased in BCa patients compared to control. 4-Iodopyridine (4-IPP), a combined MIF1/MIF2 inhibitor, was more efficacious than ISO-1, a MIF1-only inhibitor, in preventing cellular proliferation in BCa cell lines. To evaluate these findings in vivo, wild-type (WT) and Mif1-/- animals were exposed to 0.05% BBN in drinking water for 16 weeks to initiate tumorigenesis and then evaluated over the subsequent 4 weeks for tumor formation and progression in the presence or absence of 4-IPP. 4-IPP reduced bladder weights in WT animals and bladder weights/tumor stage in Mif1-/- animals. To determine whether MIF1/MIF2 functioned through CD74 in BCa, WT or Cd74-/- animals were used in the same BBN model. Although these animals were partially protected against BBN-induced BCa, 4-IPP did not enhance this effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that MIF2 mechanistically functions in a similar protumorigenic manner to MIF1, and this is at least partially through CD74. Dual inhibition of MIF homologs is more efficacious at reducing tumor burden in this model of BCa. © 2022 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Asunto(s)
Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Animales , Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos/genética , Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos/metabolismo , DDT , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Proliferación Celular , Transducción de Señal
10.
Urology ; 172: 203-209, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563969

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine if there are histologic differences relative to tobacco exposure in buccal mucosa. Substitution urethroplasty outcomes may be worse in tobacco users and we investigate if the buccal graft is inherently damaged due to chronic tobacco exposure. METHODS: Subjects undergoing substitution urethroplasty with buccal graft harvest were prospectively consented in this IRB approved study. Subjects with poor dentition were excluded. A detailed tobacco use history was obtained. Cotinine testing was performed day of surgery to confirm or exclude active tobacco use. Trimmed portions of harvested graft were sent for tissue processing. Standard hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed. A single blinded pathologist performed analysis of the slides. Using a scale of none, mild, moderate, or severe slides were analyzed for cytologic atypia, architectural complexity, inflammation, and keratinization. Evidence of vascular damage was noted and the type of inflammation if present was classified. RESULTS: Twenty-five buccal grafts were analyzed. No evidence of vascular damage or cytologic atypia were noted in any grafts. While mild architectural complexity and mild inflammation, typically lymphocytic, were noted in several of the buccal mucosa sections, this did not appear to correlate with tobacco exposure. The majority of grafts demonstrating increased keratinization correlated with significant tobacco exposure, but this was not consistently noted in all those with tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: Buccal mucosa in patients with tobacco exposure did not show significant histologic alterations. Outcomes of substitution urethroplasty may be more impacted by persistent systemic exposure causing local ischemia as opposed to the graft tissue itself.


Asunto(s)
Estrechez Uretral , Masculino , Humanos , Estrechez Uretral/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos , Uretra/cirugía , Recolección de Tejidos y Órganos , Mucosa Bucal/trasplante , Uso de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6575, 2022 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323682

RESUMEN

Cancers arising from the bladder urothelium often exhibit lineage plasticity with regions of urothelial carcinoma adjacent to or admixed with regions of divergent histomorphology, most commonly squamous differentiation. To define the biologic basis for and clinical significance of this morphologic heterogeneity, here we perform integrated genomic analyses of mixed histology bladder cancers with separable regions of urothelial and squamous differentiation. We find that squamous differentiation is a marker of intratumoral genomic and immunologic heterogeneity in patients with bladder cancer and a biomarker of intrinsic immunotherapy resistance. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that in all cases the urothelial and squamous regions are derived from a common shared precursor. Despite the presence of marked genomic heterogeneity between co-existent urothelial and squamous differentiated regions, no recurrent genomic alteration exclusive to the urothelial or squamous morphologies is identified. Rather, lineage plasticity in bladder cancers with squamous differentiation is associated with loss of expression of FOXA1, GATA3, and PPARG, transcription factors critical for maintenance of urothelial cell identity. Of clinical significance, lineage plasticity and PD-L1 expression is coordinately dysregulated via FOXA1, with patients exhibiting morphologic heterogeneity pre-treatment significantly less likely to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/metabolismo , Factor Nuclear 3-alfa del Hepatocito/genética , Filogenia , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Linaje de la Célula
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16538, 2022 10 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192513

RESUMEN

Human cancers display a restricted set of expression profiles, despite diverse mutational drivers. This has led to the hypothesis that select sets of transcription factors act on similar target genes as an integrated network, buffering a tumor's transcriptional state. Noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma (NIPUC) with higher cell cycle activity has higher risk of recurrence and progression. In this paper, we describe a transcriptional network of cell cycle dysregulation in NIPUC, which was delineated using the ARACNe algorithm applied to expression data from a new cohort (n = 81, RNA sequencing), and two previously published cohorts. The transcriptional network comprised 121 transcription factors, including the pluripotency factors SOX2 and SALL4, the sex hormone binding receptors ESR1 and PGR, and multiple homeobox factors. Of these 121 transcription factors, 65 and 56 were more active in tumors with greater and less cell cycle activity, respectively. When clustered by activity of these transcription factors, tumors divided into High Cell Cycle versus Low Cell Cycle groups. Tumors in the High Cell Cycle group demonstrated greater mutational burden and copy number instability. A putative mutational driver of cell cycle dysregulation, such as homozygous loss of CDKN2A, was found in only 50% of High Cell Cycle NIPUC, suggesting a prominent role of transcription factor activity in driving cell cycle dysregulation. Activity of the 121 transcription factors strongly associated with expression of EZH2 and other members of the PRC2 complex, suggesting regulation by this complex influences expression of the transcription factors in this network. Activity of transcription factors in this network also associated with signatures of pluripotency and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), suggesting they play a role in driving evolution to invasive carcinoma. Consistent with this, these transcription factors differed in activity between NIPUC and invasive urothelial carcinoma.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma in Situ , Carcinoma Papilar , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Carcinoma Papilar/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/genética , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Ciclo Celular/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología
14.
Eur Urol Focus ; 8(2): 483-490, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) have poor prognosis, so further development of novel combinations for these patients is needed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of eribulin mesylate (eribulin) with avelumab in mUC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was an open-label, phase 1b study in which patients with mUC who were cisplatin-ineligible and treatment-naïve or platinum-resistant were treated with eribulin and avelumab. A 3 + 3 design was used. The study was prematurely terminated because the free study drug became unavailable, but we performed extended follow-up for patients enrolled in the study. INTERVENTION: Patients received eribulin 1.1 mg/m2 plus avelumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 in every 28-d cycle in cohort 0, or eribulin 1.4 mg/m2 plus avelumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 in every 28-d cycle in cohort +1. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of eribulin with avelumab and assess the objective response rate. A key secondary endpoint was to assess efficacy by evaluating the disease control rate. Exploratory endpoints included PD-1 expression on T cells in peripheral blood and in tumor cells, and tumor DNA sequencing. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of six patients were enrolled in the MTD group (n = 3 in cohort 0 and n = 3 in cohort +1). No dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed in cohort 0, whereas two DLT events were observed in cohort +1. Two patients in cohort 0 had a partial response that was durable, with one patient having a durable response for 7.8 mo. Disease control was observed in 4/6 patients (66.7%). Owing to the early termination, MTD could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: While early termination of this trial precludes any definitive conclusions, the combination of eribulin and avelumab shows promise in mUC. We observed that treatment was better tolerated and efficacious at lower doses of eribulin. Further research is warranted for this combination in mUC. PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated different doses of eribulin (a chemotherapy drug) in combination with a fixed dose of avelumab (an antibody used to treat several different cancers) in a small group of patients with metastatic cancer of the urinary tract. The lower dose of eribulin was easier to tolerate and the combination had an anti-cancer effect. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03502681.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Furanos , Humanos , Cetonas , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico
15.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831307

RESUMEN

Cellular and molecular heterogeneity within tumors has long been associated with the progression of cancer to an aggressive phenotype and a poor prognosis. However, how such intratumoral heterogeneity contributes to the invasiveness of cancer is largely unknown. Here, using a tumor bioengineering approach, we investigate the interaction between molecular subtypes within bladder microtumors and the corresponding effects on their invasiveness. Our results reveal heterogeneous microtumors formed by multiple molecular subtypes possess enhanced invasiveness compared to individual cells, even when both cells are not invasive individually. To examine the molecular mechanism of intratumoral heterogeneity mediated invasiveness, live single cell biosensing, RNA interference, and CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing approaches were applied to investigate and control the composition of the microtumors. An agent-based computational model was also developed to evaluate the influence of NOTCH1 variation on DLL4 expression within a microtumor. The data indicate that intratumoral variation in NOTCH1 expression can lead to upregulation of DLL4 expression within the microtumor and enhancement of microtumor invasiveness. Overall, our results reveal a novel mechanism of heterogeneity mediated invasiveness through intratumoral variation of gene expression.


Asunto(s)
Heterogeneidad Genética , Variación Genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/genética , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Factor Nuclear 3-alfa del Hepatocito/metabolismo , Humanos , Invasividad Neoplásica , Interferencia de ARN , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal
16.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(8): e04546, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401152

RESUMEN

Human papillomavirus oral papilloma is often sexually transmitted, but non-sexual modes of transmission should be considered, including autoinoculation from skin lesions. A patient-centered multimodality approach should be utilized in the pediatric population.

17.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 105, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858483

RESUMEN

Muscle-invasive bladder cancers are characterized by their distinct expression of luminal and basal genes, which could be used to predict key clinical features such as disease progression and overall survival. Transcriptionally, FOXA1, GATA3, and PPARG are shown to be essential for luminal subtype-specific gene regulation and subtype switching, while TP63, STAT3, and TFAP2 family members are critical for regulation of basal subtype-specific genes. Despite these advances, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms and 3D chromatin architecture responsible for subtype-specific regulation in bladder cancer remain unknown. RESULT: We determine the genome-wide transcriptome, enhancer landscape, and transcription factor binding profiles of FOXA1 and GATA3 in luminal and basal subtypes of bladder cancer. Furthermore, we report the first-ever mapping of genome-wide chromatin interactions by Hi-C in both bladder cancer cell lines and primary patient tumors. We show that subtype-specific transcription is accompanied by specific open chromatin and epigenomic marks, at least partially driven by distinct transcription factor binding at distal enhancers of luminal and basal bladder cancers. Finally, we identify a novel clinically relevant transcription factor, Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2 (NPAS2), in luminal bladder cancers that regulates other subtype-specific genes and influences cancer cell proliferation and migration. CONCLUSION: In summary, our work identifies unique epigenomic signatures and 3D genome structures in luminal and basal urinary bladder cancers and suggests a novel link between the circadian transcription factor NPAS2 and a clinical bladder cancer subtype.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor , Epigenómica , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Genómica , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Sitios de Unión , Ensamble y Desensamble de Cromatina , Biología Computacional/métodos , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Elementos de Facilitación Genéticos , Epigenómica/métodos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Unión Proteica , Factores de Transcripción , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2301, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863885

RESUMEN

The molecular landscape in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is characterized by large biological heterogeneity with variable clinical outcomes. Here, we perform an integrative multi-omics analysis of patients diagnosed with NMIBC (n = 834). Transcriptomic analysis identifies four classes (1, 2a, 2b and 3) reflecting tumor biology and disease aggressiveness. Both transcriptome-based subtyping and the level of chromosomal instability provide independent prognostic value beyond established prognostic clinicopathological parameters. High chromosomal instability, p53-pathway disruption and APOBEC-related mutations are significantly associated with transcriptomic class 2a and poor outcome. RNA-derived immune cell infiltration is associated with chromosomally unstable tumors and enriched in class 2b. Spatial proteomics analysis confirms the higher infiltration of class 2b tumors and demonstrates an association between higher immune cell infiltration and lower recurrence rates. Finally, the independent prognostic value of the transcriptomic classes is documented in 1228 validation samples using a single sample classification tool. The classifier provides a framework for biomarker discovery and for optimizing treatment and surveillance in next-generation clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/genética , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Anciano , Vacuna BCG/administración & dosificación , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/inmunología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/terapia , Inestabilidad Cromosómica , Cistectomía/métodos , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Genómica , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Mutación , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/genética , Pronóstico , Supervivencia sin Progresión , RNA-Seq , Vejiga Urinaria/inmunología , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/inmunología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/terapia
19.
Pathologe ; 42(3): 310-318, 2021 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398501

RESUMEN

Comprehensive understanding of molecular principles in cancer and the diversification of oncological therapy promise individual therapeutic concepts, which have not yet found their way into urogenital cancer therapy. In March 2019 the International Society of Urogenital Pathology (ISUP) therefore held a consensus conference on recommendations for molecular diagnostics of genitourinary tumors, which were published in five separate manuscripts and are summarized in this article.In preparation for the conference, a comprehensive survey of current practices for molecular testing of urogenital tumors was carried out by members of the ISUP. At the conference, the results and the corresponding background information were presented by five working groups and recommendations for action for diagnostics were developed. An agreement between 66% of the conference participants was defined as consensus.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Neoplasias Urogenitales , Humanos , Masculino , Patología Molecular , Neoplasias Urogenitales/genética , Neoplasias Urogenitales/terapia
20.
Anal Chem ; 92(13): 8768-8775, 2020 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579350

RESUMEN

Bladder cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, and muscle invasive bladder cancer is associated with particularly high rates of morbidity and mortality. The morphologic and molecular diversity of bladder cancer poses significant challenges in elucidating the invasion mechanisms responsible for disease progression. Furthermore, conventional invasion assays do not provide a physiological context for studying bladder cancer invasion within 3D microenvironments and have limited ability to capture the contribution of cellular phenotypic heterogeneity to disease progression. Here, we describe the development of a 3D microtumor invasion model suitable for the analysis of cellular phenotypic heterogeneity in cell lines and primary tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. This model incorporates a self-assembly approach for recapitulating features of bladder cancer invasion in 3D microenvironments and probing the invasive cell subpopulations. The gene expression profiles of invading microtumors were analyzed by incorporating a gold nanorod-locked nucleic acid biosensor. The incorporation of the single cell biosensor and transient gene knockdown into the system revealed the formation of invasive leader cells with upregulated Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) expression as well as the role of NOTCH1-DLL4 signaling in collective bladder cancer invasion. The involvement of DLL4 expressing cells in bladder cancer invasion was also observed in patient samples obtained from transurethral resection. Collectively, our study demonstrates a 3D microtumor invasion model for investigating intracellular heterogeneity of bladder cancer invasion and analyzing patient derived samples toward personalized medicine applications.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/genética , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patología , Oro/química , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Modelos Biológicos , Nanotubos/química , Invasividad Neoplásica , Oligonucleótidos/química , Interferencia de ARN , ARN Interferente Pequeño/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Microambiente Tumoral , Regulación hacia Arriba , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/metabolismo
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