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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(12): e2312252121, 2024 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466845

RESUMEN

The social system of animals involves a complex interplay between physiology, natural history, and the environment. Long relied upon discrete categorizations of "social" and "solitary" inhibit our capacity to understand species and their interactions with the world around them. Here, we use a globally distributed camera trapping dataset to test the drivers of aggregating into groups in a species complex (martens and relatives, family Mustelidae, Order Carnivora) assumed to be obligately solitary. We use a simple quantification, the probability of being detected in a group, that was applied across our globally derived camera trap dataset. Using a series of binomial generalized mixed-effects models applied to a dataset of 16,483 independent detections across 17 countries on four continents we test explicit hypotheses about potential drivers of group formation. We observe a wide range of probabilities of being detected in groups within the solitary model system, with the probability of aggregating in groups varying by more than an order of magnitude. We demonstrate that a species' context-dependent proclivity toward aggregating in groups is underpinned by a range of resource-related factors, primarily the distribution of resources, with increasing patchiness of resources facilitating group formation, as well as interactions between environmental conditions (resource constancy/winter severity) and physiology (energy storage capabilities). The wide variation in propensities to aggregate with conspecifics observed here highlights how continued failure to recognize complexities in the social behaviors of apparently solitary species limits our understanding not only of the individual species but also the causes and consequences of group formation.


Asunto(s)
Carnívoros , Conducta Social , Animales , Carnívoros/fisiología
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 416, 2024 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172177

RESUMEN

The cao vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) is one of the rarest primates on Earth and now only survives in a single forest patch of less than 5000 ha on the Vietnam-China border. Accurate monitoring of the last remaining population is critical to inform ongoing conservation interventions and track conservation success over time. However, traditional methods for monitoring gibbons, involving triangulation of groups from their songs, are inherently subjective and likely subject to considerable measurement errors. To overcome this, we aimed to use 'vocal fingerprinting' to distinguish the different singing males in the population. During the 2021 population survey, we complemented the traditional observations made by survey teams with a concurrent passive acoustic monitoring array. Counts of gibbon group sizes were also assisted with a UAV-mounted thermal camera. After identifying eight family groups in the acoustic data and incorporating long-term data, we estimate that the population was comprised of 74 individuals in 11 family groups, which is 38% smaller than previously thought. We have no evidence that the population has declined-indeed it appears to be growing, with new groups having formed in recent years-and the difference is instead due to double-counting of groups in previous surveys employing the triangulation method. Indeed, using spatially explicit capture-recapture modelling, we uncovered substantial measurement error in the bearings and distances from field teams. We also applied semi- and fully-automatic approaches to clustering the male calls into groups, finding no evidence that we had missed any males with the manual approach. Given the very small size of the population, conservation actions are now even more urgent, in particular habitat restoration to allow the population to expand. Our new population estimate now serves as a more robust basis for informing management actions and tracking conservation success over time.


Asunto(s)
Hylobates , Hylobatidae , Animales , Masculino , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Ecosistema
5.
Nature ; 620(7975): 807-812, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612395

RESUMEN

The United Nations recently agreed to major expansions of global protected areas (PAs) to slow biodiversity declines1. However, although reserves often reduce habitat loss, their efficacy at preserving animal diversity and their influence on biodiversity in surrounding unprotected areas remain unclear2-5. Unregulated hunting can empty PAs of large animals6, illegal tree felling can degrade habitat quality7, and parks can simply displace disturbances such as logging and hunting to unprotected areas of the landscape8 (a phenomenon called leakage). Alternatively, well-functioning PAs could enhance animal diversity within reserves as well as in nearby unprotected sites9 (an effect called spillover). Here we test whether PAs across mega-diverse Southeast Asia contribute to vertebrate conservation inside and outside their boundaries. Reserves increased all facets of bird diversity. Large reserves were also associated with substantially enhanced mammal diversity in the adjacent unprotected landscape. Rather than PAs generating leakage that deteriorated ecological conditions elsewhere, our results are consistent with PAs inducing spillover that benefits biodiversity in surrounding areas. These findings support the United Nations goal of achieving 30% PA coverage by 2030 by demonstrating that PAs are associated with higher vertebrate diversity both inside their boundaries and in the broader landscape.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Objetivos , Clima Tropical , Naciones Unidas , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Mamíferos , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/tendencias
6.
Nature ; 612(7941): 707-713, 2022 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517596

RESUMEN

Old-growth tropical forests are widely recognized as being immensely important for their biodiversity and high biomass1. Conversely, logged tropical forests are usually characterized as degraded ecosystems2. However, whether logging results in a degradation in ecosystem functions is less clear: shifts in the strength and resilience of key ecosystem processes in large suites of species have rarely been assessed in an ecologically integrated and quantitative framework. Here we adopt an ecosystem energetics lens to gain new insight into the impacts of tropical forest disturbance on a key integrative aspect of ecological function: food pathways and community structure of birds and mammals. We focus on a gradient spanning old-growth and logged forests and oil palm plantations in Borneo. In logged forest there is a 2.5-fold increase in total resource consumption by both birds and mammals compared to that in old-growth forests, probably driven by greater resource accessibility and vegetation palatability. Most principal energetic pathways maintain high species diversity and redundancy, implying maintained resilience. Conversion of logged forest into oil palm plantation results in the collapse of most energetic pathways. Far from being degraded ecosystems, even heavily logged forests can be vibrant and diverse ecosystems with enhanced levels of ecological function.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Metabolismo Energético , Cadena Alimentaria , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Mamíferos , Clima Tropical , Animales , Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Aves/fisiología , Borneo , Mamíferos/fisiología , Aceite de Palma , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ecología
7.
Science ; 366(6470): 1236-1239, 2019 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806811

RESUMEN

Habitat loss is the primary driver of biodiversity decline worldwide, but the effects of fragmentation (the spatial arrangement of remaining habitat) are debated. We tested the hypothesis that forest fragmentation sensitivity-affected by avoidance of habitat edges-should be driven by historical exposure to, and therefore species' evolutionary responses to disturbance. Using a database containing 73 datasets collected worldwide (encompassing 4489 animal species), we found that the proportion of fragmentation-sensitive species was nearly three times as high in regions with low rates of historical disturbance compared with regions with high rates of disturbance (i.e., fires, glaciation, hurricanes, and deforestation). These disturbances coincide with a latitudinal gradient in which sensitivity increases sixfold at low versus high latitudes. We conclude that conservation efforts to limit edges created by fragmentation will be most important in the world's tropical forests.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Extinción Biológica , Bosques , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Incendios
8.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(3): 181748, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032031

RESUMEN

Camera traps have become a ubiquitous tool in ecology and conservation. They are routinely deployed in wildlife survey and monitoring work, and are being advocated as a tool for planetary-scale biodiversity monitoring. The camera trap's widespread adoption is predicated on the assumption of its effectiveness, but the evidence base for this is lacking. Using 104 past studies, we recorded the qualitative overall recommendations made by study authors (for or against camera traps, or ambiguous), together with quantitative data on the effectiveness of camera traps (e.g. number of species detected or detection probabilities) relative to 22 other methods. Most studies recommended the use of camera traps overall and they were 39% more effective based on the quantitative data. They were significantly more effective compared with live traps (88%) and were otherwise comparable in effectiveness to other methods. Camera traps were significantly more effective than other methods at detecting a large number of species (31% more) and for generating detections of species (91% more). This makes camera traps particularly suitable for broad-spectrum biodiversity surveys. Film camera traps were found to be far less effective than digital models, which has led to an increase in camera trap effectiveness over time. There was also evidence from the authors that the use of attractants with camera traps reduced their effectiveness (counter to their intended effect), while the quantitative data indicated that camera traps were more effective in closed than open habitats. Camera traps are a highly effective wildlife survey tool and their performance will only improve with future technological advances. The images they produce also have a range of other benefits, for example as digital voucher specimens and as visual aids for outreach. The evidence-base supports the increasing use of camera traps and underlines their suitability for meeting the challenges of global-scale biodiversity monitoring.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213671, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861045

RESUMEN

Carnivores have long been used as model organisms to examine mechanisms that allow coexistence among ecologically similar species. Interactions between carnivores, including competition and predation, comprise important processes regulating local community structure and diversity. We use data from an intensive camera-trapping monitoring program across eight Neotropical forest sites to describe the patterns of spatiotemporal organization of a guild of five sympatric cat species: jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). For the three largest cat species, we developed multi-stage occupancy models accounting for habitat characteristics (landscape complexity and prey availability) and models accounting for species interactions (occupancy estimates of potential competitor cat species). Patterns of habitat-use were best explained by prey availability, rather than habitat structure or species interactions, with no evidence of negative associations of jaguar on puma and ocelot occupancy or puma on ocelot occupancy. We further explore temporal activity patterns and overlap of all five felid species. We observed a moderate temporal overlap between jaguar, puma and ocelot, with differences in their activity peaks, whereas higher temporal partitioning was observed between jaguarundi and both ocelot and margay. Lastly, we conducted temporal overlap analysis and calculated species activity levels across study sites to explore if shifts in daily activity within species can be explained by varying levels of local competition pressure. Activity patterns of ocelots, jaguarundis and margays were similarly bimodal across sites, but pumas exhibited irregular activity patterns, most likely as a response to jaguar activity. Activity levels were similar among sites and observed differences were unrelated to competition or intraguild killing risk. Our study reveals apparent spatial and temporal partitioning for most of the species pairs analyzed, with prey abundance being more important than species interactions in governing the local occurrence and spatial distribution of Neotropical forest felids.


Asunto(s)
Felidae/fisiología , Panthera/fisiología , Conducta Predatoria , Puma/fisiología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Carnívoros , Bosques , Geografía , Especificidad de la Especie , Clima Tropical
10.
J Anim Ecol ; 88(1): 125-137, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178485

RESUMEN

The assembly of species communities at local scales is thought to be driven by environmental filtering, species interactions and spatial processes such as dispersal limitation. Little is known about how the relative balance of these drivers of community assembly changes along environmental gradients, especially man-made environmental gradients associated with land-use change. Using concurrent camera- and live-trapping, we investigated the local-scale assembly of mammal communities along a gradient of land-use intensity (old-growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantations) in Borneo. We hypothesised that increasing land-use intensity would lead to an increasing dominance of environmental control over spatial processes in community assembly. Additionally, we hypothesised that competitive interactions among species might reduce in concert with declines in α-diversity (previously documented) along the land-use gradient. To test our first hypothesis, we partitioned community variance into the fractions explained by environmental and spatial variables. To test our second hypothesis, we used probabilistic models of expected species co-occurrence patterns, in particular focussing on the prevalence of spatial avoidance between species. Spatial avoidance might indicate competition, but might also be due to divergent habitat preferences. We found patterns that are consistent with a shift in the fundamental mechanics governing local community assembly. In support of our first hypothesis, the importance of spatial processes (dispersal limitation and fine-scale patterns of home-ranging) appeared to decrease from low to high intensity land-uses, whilst environmental control increased in importance (in particular due to fine-scale habitat structure). Support for our second hypothesis was weak: whilst we found that the prevalence of spatial avoidance decreased along the land-use gradient, in particular between congeneric species pairs most likely to be in competition, few instances of spatial avoidance were detected in any land-use, and most were likely due to divergent habitat preferences. The widespread changes in land-use occurring in the tropics might be altering not just the biodiversity found in landscapes, but also the fundamental mechanics governing the local assembly of communities. A better understanding of these mechanics, for a range of taxa, could underpin more effective conservation and management of threatened tropical landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Bosque Lluvioso , Animales , Borneo , Bosques , Mamíferos
11.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0194680, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641585

RESUMEN

The scale of the ongoing biodiversity crisis requires both effective conservation prioritisation and urgent action. As extinction is non-random across the tree of life, it is important to prioritise threatened species which represent large amounts of evolutionary history. The EDGE metric prioritises species based on their Evolutionary Distinctiveness (ED), which measures the relative contribution of a species to the total evolutionary history of their taxonomic group, and Global Endangerment (GE), or extinction risk. EDGE prioritisations rely on adequate phylogenetic and extinction risk data to generate meaningful priorities for conservation. However, comprehensive phylogenetic trees of large taxonomic groups are extremely rare and, even when available, become quickly out-of-date due to the rapid rate of species descriptions and taxonomic revisions. Thus, it is important that conservationists can use the available data to incorporate evolutionary history into conservation prioritisation. We compared published and new methods to estimate missing ED scores for species absent from a phylogenetic tree whilst simultaneously correcting the ED scores of their close taxonomic relatives. We found that following artificial removal of species from a phylogenetic tree, the new method provided the closest estimates of their "true" ED score, differing from the true ED score by an average of less than 1%, compared to the 31% and 38% difference of the previous methods. The previous methods also substantially under- and over-estimated scores as more species were artificially removed from a phylogenetic tree. We therefore used the new method to estimate ED scores for all tetrapods. From these scores we updated EDGE prioritisation rankings for all tetrapod species with IUCN Red List assessments, including the first EDGE prioritisation for reptiles. Further, we identified criteria to identify robust priority species in an effort to further inform conservation action whilst limiting uncertainty and anticipating future phylogenetic advances.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Evolución Biológica , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Extinción Biológica , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Modelos Estadísticos , Filogenia , Riesgo , Especificidad de la Especie , Incertidumbre
12.
Ecol Appl ; 26(5): 1409-1420, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755763

RESUMEN

Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of grain-dependent diversity responses and the role that ß-diversity (variation in community composition across space) plays in this. Decisions about the most effective spatial arrangement of conservation set-aside, for example high conservation value areas, have also neglected ß-diversity, despite its role in determining the complementarity of sites. We examined local-scale mammalian species richness and ß-diversity across old-growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm plantations in Borneo, using intensive camera- and live-trapping. For the first time, we were able to investigate diversity responses, as well as ß-diversity, at multiple spatial grains, and across the whole terrestrial mammal community (large and small mammals); ß-diversity was quantified by comparing observed ß-diversity with that obtained under a null model, in order to control for sampling effects, and we refer to this as the ß-diversity signal. Community responses to land use were grain dependent, with large mammals showing reduced richness in logged forest compared to old-growth forest at the grain of individual sampling points, but no change at the overall land-use level. Responses varied with species group, however, with small mammals increasing in richness at all grains in logged forest compared to old-growth forest. Both species groups were significantly depauperate in oil palm. Large mammal communities in old-growth forest became more heterogeneous at coarser spatial grains and small mammal communities became more homogeneous, while this pattern was reversed in logged forest. Both groups, however, showed a significant ß-diversity signal at the finest grain in logged forest, likely due to logging-induced environmental heterogeneity. The ß-diversity signal in oil palm was weak, but heterogeneity at the coarsest spatial grain was still evident, likely due to variation in landscape forest cover. Our findings suggest that the most effective spatial arrangement of set-aside will involve trade-offs between conserving large and small mammals. Greater consideration in the conservation and management of tropical landscapes needs to be given to ß-diversity at a range of spatial grains.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Actividades Humanas , Mamíferos , Animales , Humanos
13.
Curr Biol ; 26(16): 2161-6, 2016 08 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27476593

RESUMEN

Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Extinción Biológica , Bosques , Clima Tropical , África Central , Asia Sudoriental , Carbono/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Modelos Teóricos , América del Sur , Árboles/fisiología
14.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6836, 2015 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25865801

RESUMEN

Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal/estadística & datos numéricos , Invertebrados/fisiología , Dispersión de las Plantas/fisiología , Bosque Lluvioso , Árboles/fisiología , Anfibios/fisiología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Aves/fisiología , Cadena Alimentaria , Humanos , Malasia , Mamíferos/fisiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Especificidad de la Especie , Clima Tropical
15.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e77598, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24223717

RESUMEN

The proliferation of camera-trapping studies has led to a spate of extensions in the known distributions of many wild cat species, not least in Borneo. However, we still do not have a clear picture of the spatial patterns of felid abundance in Southeast Asia, particularly with respect to the large areas of highly-disturbed habitat. An important obstacle to increasing the usefulness of camera trap data is the widespread practice of setting cameras at non-random locations. Non-random deployment interacts with non-random space-use by animals, causing biases in our inferences about relative abundance from detection frequencies alone. This may be a particular problem if surveys do not adequately sample the full range of habitat features present in a study region. Using camera-trapping records and incidental sightings from the Kalabakan Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we aimed to assess the relative abundance of felid species in highly-disturbed forest, as well as investigate felid space-use and the potential for biases resulting from non-random sampling. Although the area has been intensively logged over three decades, it was found to still retain the full complement of Bornean felids, including the bay cat Pardofelis badia, a poorly known Bornean endemic. Camera-trapping using strictly random locations detected four of the five Bornean felid species and revealed inter- and intra-specific differences in space-use. We compare our results with an extensive dataset of >1,200 felid records from previous camera-trapping studies and show that the relative abundance of the bay cat, in particular, may have previously been underestimated due to the use of non-random survey locations. Further surveys for this species using random locations will be crucial in determining its conservation status. We advocate the more wide-spread use of random survey locations in future camera-trapping surveys in order to increase the robustness and generality of inferences that can be made.


Asunto(s)
Panthera , Animales , Borneo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Recolección de Datos , Ecosistema , Agricultura Forestal , Malasia , Fotograbar , Densidad de Población
16.
Science ; 339(6117): 271, 2013 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23329034

RESUMEN

Halley et al. purport to show a power-law relationship between fragment size and relaxation rates. We use a much more extensive data set to show that area dependence of relaxation rates exists only for very small fragment sizes (<60 hectares), which has limited relevance for our analyses conducted using 250,000-hectare grid squares. We also show that the example of Halley et al. is based on an unrealistic fragmentation model with an infinite number of fragments that have average size of zero hectares. A more realistic formulation of the model shows that relaxation is much less dependent on fragmentation than Halley et al. present.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Extinción Biológica , Árboles , Vertebrados , Animales
17.
Science ; 337(6091): 228-32, 2012 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22798612

RESUMEN

Predicting when future species extinctions will occur is necessary for directing conservation investments but has proved difficult. We developed a new method for predicting extinctions over time, accounting for the timing and magnitude of habitat loss. We applied this to the Brazilian Amazon, predicting that local extinctions of forest-dependent vertebrate species have thus far been minimal (1% of species by 2008), with more than 80% of extinctions expected to be incurred from historical habitat loss still to come. Realistic deforestation scenarios suggest that local regions will lose an average of nine vertebrate species and have a further 16 committed to extinction by 2050. There is a window of opportunity to dilute the legacy of historical deforestation by concentrating conservation efforts in areas with greatest debt.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Extinción Biológica , Árboles , Vertebrados , Anfibios , Animales , Aves , Brasil , Mamíferos , Método de Montecarlo , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 25(12): 699-704, 2010 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20961650

RESUMEN

The biological impacts of habitat fragmentation are routinely assessed using standard statistical modelling techniques that are used across many ecological disciplines. However, to assess the biological relevance of fragmentation impacts, we must consider an extra, spatial dimension to the standard statistical model: the biological importance of a significant and well supported model with large effect sizes crucially depends on the configuration of habitat within the study area. We argue that mapping the outputs from statistical models across a study area generates biologically meaningful estimates of fragmentation impacts. Integrating traditional statistical approaches with geographic information systems will facilitate rigorous comparisons of fragmentation impacts between taxa, studies and ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estadística como Asunto/métodos , Animales , Aves , Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Insectos , Ratones , Modelos Biológicos , Dinámica Poblacional , Especificidad de la Especie
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