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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(4): 770-774, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526209

RESUMEN

In 2020, a sylvatic dengue virus serotype 2 infection outbreak resulted in 59 confirmed dengue cases in Kedougou, Senegal, suggesting those strains might not require adaptation to reemerge into urban transmission cycles. Large-scale genomic surveillance and updated molecular diagnostic tools are needed to effectively prevent dengue virus infections in Senegal.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Humanos , Virus del Dengue/genética , Senegal/epidemiología , Serogrupo , Ambiente , Dengue/epidemiología
2.
Heliyon ; 10(6): e27934, 2024 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545168

RESUMEN

Ilhéus virus (ILHV)(Flaviviridae:Orthoflavivirus) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) endemic to Central and South America and the Caribbean. First isolated in 1944, most of our knowledge derives from surveillance and seroprevalence studies. These efforts have detected ILHV in a broad range of mosquito and vertebrate species, including humans, but laboratory investigations of pathogenesis and vector competence have been lacking. Here, we develop an immune intact murine model with several ages and routes of administration. Our model closely recapitulates human neuroinvasive disease with ILHV strain- and mouse age-specific virulence, as well as a uniformly lethal Ifnar-/- A129 immunocompromised model. Replication kinetics in several vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines demonstrate that ILHV is capable of replicating to high titers in a wide variety of potential host and vector species. Lastly, vector competence studies provide strong evidence for efficient infection of and potential transmission by Aedes species mosquitoes, despite ILHV's phylogenetically clustering with Culex vectored flaviviruses, suggesting ILHV is poised for emergence in the neotropics.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012013, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484018

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread across Brazil with varying incidence rates depending on the affected areas. Due to cocirculation of arboviruses and overlapping disease symptoms, CHIKV infection may be underdiagnosed. To understand the lack of CHIKV epidemics in São José do Rio Preto (SJdRP), São Paulo (SP), Brazil, we evaluated viral circulation by investigating anti-CHIKV IgG seroconversion in a prospective study of asymptomatic individuals and detecting anti-CHIKV IgM in individuals suspected of dengue infection, as well as CHIKV presence in Aedes mosquitoes. The opportunity to assess two different groups (symptomatic and asymptomatic) exposed at the same geographic region aimed to broaden the possibility of identifying the viral circulation, which had been previously considered absent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on a prospective population study model and demographic characteristics (sex and age), we analyzed the anti-CHIKV IgG seroconversion rate in 341 subjects by ELISA over four years. The seroprevalence increased from 0.35% in the first year to 2.3% after 3 years of follow-up. Additionally, we investigated 497 samples from a blood panel collected from dengue-suspected individuals during the 2019 dengue outbreak in SJdRP. In total, 4.4% were positive for anti-CHIKV IgM, and 8.6% were positive for IgG. To exclude alphavirus cross-reactivity, we evaluated the presence of anti-Mayaro virus (MAYV) IgG by ELISA, and the positivity rate was 0.3% in the population study and 0.8% in the blood panel samples. In CHIKV and MAYV plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs), the positivity rate for CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies in these ELISA-positive samples was 46.7%, while no MAYV-neutralizing antibodies were detected. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed CHIKV genotype ECSA in São José do Rio Preto, SP. Finally, mosquitoes collected to complement human surveillance revealed CHIKV positivity of 2.76% of A. aegypti and 9.09% of A. albopictus (although it was far less abundant than A. aegypti) by RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest cryptic CHIKV circulation in SJdRP detected by continual active surveillance. These low levels, but increasing, of viral circulation highlight the possibility of CHIKV outbreaks, as there is a large naïve population. Improved knowledge of the epidemiological situation might aid in outbreaks prevention.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Fiebre Chikungunya , Virus Chikungunya , Dengue , Animales , Humanos , Virus Chikungunya/genética , Estudios Prospectivos , Brasil/epidemiología , Filogenia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/genética , Inmunoglobulina G , Inmunoglobulina M
4.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38463973

RESUMEN

During major, recent yellow fever (YF) epidemics in Brazil, human cases were attributed only to spillover infections from sylvatic transmission with no evidence of human amplification. Furthermore, the historic absence of YF in Asia, despite abundant peridomestic Aedes aegypti and naive human populations, represents a longstanding enigma. We tested the hypothesis that immunity from dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) flaviviruses limits YF virus (YFV) viremia and transmission by Ae. aegypti . Prior DENV and ZIKV immunity consistently suppressed YFV viremia in experimentally infected macaques, leading to reductions in Ae. aegypti infection when mosquitoes were fed on infected animals. These results indicate that, in DENV- and ZIKV-endemic regions such as South America and Asia, flavivirus immunity suppresses YFV human amplification potential, reducing the risk of urban outbreaks. One-Sentence Summary: Immunity from dengue and Zika viruses suppresses yellow fever viremia, preventing infection of mosquitoes and reducing the risk of epidemics.

5.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486116

RESUMEN

Vector-borne diseases are transmitted by haematophagous arthropods (for example, mosquitoes, ticks and sandflies) to humans and wild and domestic animals, with the largest burden on global public health disproportionately affecting people in tropical and subtropical areas. Because vectors are ectothermic, climate and weather alterations (for example, temperature, rainfall and humidity) can affect their reproduction, survival, geographic distribution and, consequently, ability to transmit pathogens. However, the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases can be multifaceted and complex, sometimes with ambiguous consequences. In this Review, we discuss the potential effects of climate change, weather and other anthropogenic factors, including land use, human mobility and behaviour, as possible contributors to the redistribution of vectors and spread of vector-borne diseases worldwide.

6.
Cell Rep ; 43(3): 113965, 2024 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492217

RESUMEN

G3BP1/2 are paralogous proteins that promote stress granule formation in response to cellular stresses, including viral infection. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inhibits stress granule assembly and interacts with G3BP1/2 via an ITFG motif, including residue F17, in the N protein. Prior studies examining the impact of the G3PB1-N interaction on SARS-CoV-2 replication have produced inconsistent findings, and the role of this interaction in pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we use structural and biochemical analyses to define the residues required for G3BP1-N interaction and structure-guided mutagenesis to selectively disrupt this interaction. We find that N-F17A mutation causes highly specific loss of interaction with G3BP1/2. SARS-CoV-2 N-F17A fails to inhibit stress granule assembly in cells, has decreased viral replication, and causes decreased pathology in vivo. Further mechanistic studies indicate that the N-F17-mediated G3BP1-N interaction promotes infection by limiting sequestration of viral genomic RNA (gRNA) into stress granules.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , ADN Helicasas/metabolismo , ARN Helicasas/metabolismo , Proteínas con Motivos de Reconocimiento de ARN/metabolismo , Proteínas de Unión a Poli-ADP-Ribosa/metabolismo , Virulencia , ARN Guía de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside , Replicación Viral , ARN Viral/genética
7.
medRxiv ; 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352566

RESUMEN

Madariaga virus (MADV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) are emerging arboviruses affecting rural and remote areas of Latin America. However, there are limited clinical and epidemiological reports available, and outbreaks are occurring at an increasing frequency. We addressed this gap by analyzing all the available clinical and epidemiological data of MADV and VEEV infections recorded since 1961 in Panama. A total of 168 of human alphavirus encephalitis cases were detected in Panama from 1961 to 2023. Here we describe the clinical signs and symptoms and epidemiological characteristics of these cases, and also explored signs and symptoms as potential predictors of encephalitic alphavirus infection when compared to those of other arbovirus infections occurring in the region. Our results highlight the challenges clinical diagnosis of alphavirus disease in endemic regions with overlapping circulation of multiple arboviruses.

8.
Prev Med Rep ; 38: 102634, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375169

RESUMEN

Objective: Novel nicotine and tobacco products, including heated tobacco products (HTPs) like IQOS, are growing in global popularity. IQOS was the first HTP authorized for sale by the US Food and Drug Administration, entering the US market in 2019 and being removed in 2021 due to patent-related legal challenges, with the possibility of returning in 2024. Direct marketing is one method tobacco companies use to reach consumers of these products. The purpose of this study was to investigate the content of US IQOS direct mail and email marketing. Methods: Direct marketing items were collected between September 2019 and July 2021 by seven team members in the first US IQOS test market, Atlanta, Georgia. Results: Overall, 101 marketing items were collected, 59 of which were unique. Among the unique items that showed images of persons ("models"), 70 % showed models appearing to be from racial/ethnic minoritized groups, 86.8 % showed at least one female-presenting model, and 37.5 % showed models appearing to be young adults (18-29 years). Items often had an embedded link/URL (91.5 %) and mentioned topics such as online services (54.2 %; for example, online ordering and tutorials), user experience (49.2 %), social media (44.1 %), and purchasing locations (37.3 %). When examined for their main purpose, items focused on subjects such as store experience (37.7 %), product introduction (18.6 %), and product use (15.3 %). Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of better understanding how novel tobacco products are marketed, which can inform policymakers' regulatory efforts and product authorization decisions.

9.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400011

RESUMEN

To evaluate whether oral fluids (OF) and urine can serve as alternative, non-invasive samples to diagnose chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection via RT-qPCR, we employed the same RNA extraction and RT-qPCR protocols on paired serum, OF and urine samples collected from 51 patients with chikungunya during the acute phase of the illness. Chikungunya patients were confirmed through RT-qPCR in acute-phase sera (N = 19), IgM seroconversion between acute- and convalescent-phase sera (N = 12), or IgM detection in acute-phase sera (N = 20). The controls included paired serum, OF and urine samples from patients with non-arbovirus acute febrile illness (N = 28) and RT-PCR-confirmed dengue (N = 16). Nine (47%) of the patients with positive RT-qPCR for CHIKV in sera and two (17%) of those with CHIKV infection confirmed solely via IgM seroconversion had OF positive for CHIKV in RT-qPCR. One (5%) patient with CHIKV infection confirmed via serum RT-qPCR was positive in the RT-qPCR performed on urine. None of the negative control group samples were positive. Although OF may serve as an alternative sample for diagnosing acute chikungunya in specific settings, a negative result cannot rule out an infection. Further research is needed to investigate whether OF and urine collected later in the disease course when serum becomes RT-qPCR-negative may be helpful in CHIKV diagnosis and surveillance, as well as to determine whether urine and OF pose any risk of CHIKV transmission.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Chikungunya , Virus Chikungunya , Dengue , Humanos , Virus Chikungunya/genética , ARN Viral/genética , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Inmunoglobulina M , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Dengue/epidemiología
10.
NPJ Vaccines ; 9(1): 47, 2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413593

RESUMEN

MVA-based monovalent eastern equine encephalitis virus (MVA-BN-EEEV) and multivalent western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (MVA-BN-WEV) vaccines were evaluated in the cynomolgus macaque aerosol model of EEEV infection. Macaques vaccinated with two doses of 5 × 108 infectious units of the MVA-BN-EEEV or MVA-BN-WEV vaccine by the intramuscular route rapidly developed robust levels of neutralizing antibodies to EEEV that persisted at high levels until challenge at day 84 via small particle aerosol delivery with a target inhaled dose of 107 PFU of EEEV FL93-939. Robust protection was observed, with 7/8 animals receiving MVA-BN-EEEV and 100% (8/8) animals receiving MVA-BN-WEV surviving while only 2/8 mock vaccinated controls survived lethal challenge. Complete protection from viremia was afforded by both vaccines, with near complete protection from vRNA loads in tissues and any pathologic evidence of central nervous system damage. Overall, the results indicate both vaccines are effective in eliciting an immune response that is consistent with protection from aerosolized EEEV-induced disease.

11.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 30: 100673, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38283942

RESUMEN

In the Americas, one decade following its emergence in 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) continues to spread and cause epidemics across the region. To date, 3.7 million suspected and laboratory-confirmed chikungunya cases have been reported in 50 countries or territories in the Americas. Here, we outline the current status and epidemiological aspects of chikungunya in the Americas and discuss prospects for future research and public health strategies to combat CHIKV in the region.

12.
J Med Entomol ; 61(1): 222-232, 2024 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37703355

RESUMEN

Senegal has experienced periodic epidemics of dengue in urban areas with increased incidence in recent years. However, few data are available on the local ecology of the epidemic vectors. In October 2021, a dengue outbreak was reported in northern Senegal to the Institute Pasteur de Dakar. Entomologic investigations then were undertaken to identify the areas at risk of transmission and to identify the vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors at selected households, while containers with water were inspected for mosquito larvae. All the Aedes aegypti (L.) collected were tested for dengue virus NS1 protein using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and positive samples were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. The qRT-PCR positive samples were subjected to whole genome sequencing using Nanopore technology. The majority of the larvae-positive containers (83.1%) were used for water storage. The Breteau and Container indices exceeded the WHO-recommended thresholds for the risk of dengue virus transmission except at 2 localities. Ae. aegypti, the only reputed dengue vector, was collected resting indoors as well as outdoors and biting during the day and night. The NS1 protein was detected in 22 mosquito pools, including one pool of females emerging from field-collected larvae. All NS1-positive results were confirmed by RT-PCR. Virus serotyping showed that the outbreak was caused by DENV-1. This study demonstrates the need for continuous control of adult and aquatic stages of Ae. aegypti to prevent future dengue epidemics in Senegal. RDTs appear to be a promising tool for dengue diagnostics and surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Femenino , Animales , Dengue/epidemiología , Virus del Dengue/genética , Mosquitos Vectores , Senegal/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Larva , Agua
13.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 1250, 2023 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38082099

RESUMEN

The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 into more easily transmissible and infectious variants has provided unprecedented insight into mutations enabling immune escape. Understanding how these mutations affect the dynamics of antibody-antigen interactions is crucial to the development of broadly protective antibodies and vaccines. Here we report the characterization of a potent neutralizing antibody (N3-1) identified from a COVID-19 patient during the first disease wave. Cryogenic electron microscopy revealed a quaternary binding mode that enables direct interactions with all three receptor-binding domains of the spike protein trimer, resulting in extraordinary avidity and potent neutralization of all major variants of concern until the emergence of Omicron. Structure-based rational design of N3-1 mutants improved binding to all Omicron variants but only partially restored neutralization of the conformationally distinct Omicron BA.1. This study provides new insights into immune evasion through changes in spike protein dynamics and highlights considerations for future conformationally biased multivalent vaccine designs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(12): e0011863, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38150470

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks during the modern scientific era were identified in the Americas in 2013, reaching high attack rates in Caribbean countries. However, few cohort studies have been performed to characterize the initial dynamics of CHIKV transmission in the New World. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To describe the dynamics of CHIKV transmission shortly after its introduction in Brazil, we performed semi-annual serosurveys in a long-term community-based cohort of 652 participants aged ≥5 years in Salvador, Brazil, between Feb-Apr/2014 and Nov/2016-Feb/2017. CHIKV infections were detected using an IgG ELISA. Cumulative seroprevalence and seroincidence were estimated and spatial aggregation of cases was investigated. The first CHIKV infections were identified between Feb-Apr/2015 and Aug-Nov/2015 (incidence: 10.7%) and continued to be detected at low incidence in subsequent surveys (1.7% from Aug-Nov/2015 to Mar-May/2016 and 1.2% from Mar-May/2016 to Nov/206-Feb/2017). The cumulative seroprevalence in the last survey reached 13.3%. It was higher among those aged 30-44 and 45-59 years (16.1% and 15.6%, respectively), compared to younger (12.4% and 11.7% in <15 and 15-29 years, respectively) or older (10.3% in ≥60 years) age groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. The cumulative seroprevalence was similar between men (14.7%) and women (12.5%). Yet, among those aged 15-29 years, men were more often infected than women (18.1% vs. 7.4%, respectively, P = 0.01), while for those aged 30-44, a non-significant opposite trend was observed (9.3% vs. 19.0%, respectively, P = 0.12). Three spatial clusters of cases were detected in the study site and an increased likelihood of CHIKV infection was detected among participants who resided with someone with CHIKV IgG antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Unlike observations in other settings, the initial spread of CHIKV in this large urban center was limited and focal in certain areas, leaving a high proportion of the population susceptible to further outbreaks. Additional investigations are needed to elucidate the factors driving CHIKV spread dynamics, including understanding differences with respect to dengue and Zika viruses, in order to guide prevention and control strategies for coping with future outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Chikungunya , Virus Chikungunya , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios de Cohortes , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Inmunoglobulina G
15.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37873391

RESUMEN

In the face of climate change, mosquitoes will experience evolving climates including longer periods of drought. An important physiological response to dry environments is the protection against water loss or dehydration, here defined as desiccation tolerance. Various environmental factors including temperature are known to alter interactions between the mosquito, Aedes aegypti , and the arboviruses it transmits, but little is known about how low humidity impacts arboviral infection. Here, we report that a gene upregulated in response to desiccation is important for controlling midgut infection. We have identified two genetically diverse lines of Ae. aegypti with marked differences in desiccation tolerance. To understand if the genetic basis underlying desiccation tolerance is the same between the contrasting lines, we compared gene expression profiles between desiccant treated and non-desiccant treated individuals in both the desiccation tolerant and susceptible lines by RNAseq. Gene expression analysis demonstrates that different genes are differentially expressed in response to desiccation stress between desiccation tolerant and susceptible lines. The most highly expressed transcript under desiccation stress in the desiccation susceptible line encodes a peritrophin protein, Ae Per50. Peritrophins play a crucial role in peritrophic matrix formation after a bloodmeal. Gene silencing of Ae Per50 by RNAi demonstrates that expression of Ae Per50 is required for survival of the desiccation susceptible line under desiccation stress, but not for the desiccation tolerant line. Moreover, the knockdown of Ae Per50 results in higher infection rates and viral replication rates of ZIKV and higher infection rates of CHIKV. Finally, following a bloodmeal, the desiccation susceptible line develops a thicker peritrophic matrix than the desiccation tolerant line. Together these results provide a functional link between the protection against desiccation and midgut infection which has important implications in predicting how climate change will impact mosquito-borne viruses.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(10)2023 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37896967

RESUMEN

Anosmia, a total or partial loss of the ability to smell, is one of the most frequently documented sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Persistent anosmia is associated with a decrease in quality of life. Here, we assess the impact of virus lineage and vaccination status on anosmia development in the golden Syrian hamster model. To characterize anosmia driven by current variants, we assessed olfactory function in hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 lineages A, BA.2, BA.5, BQ.1, and BQ.1.1 using a buried food detection test. We found that significant anosmia occurs upon infection with all variants with a significant correlation between disease severity and degree of anosmia. Moreover, we found that vaccination with either the Pfizer (BNT16b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) mRNA vaccines does not protect against anosmia, despite protection against severe disease.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 228(Suppl 6): S414-S426, 2023 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37849399

RESUMEN

The Togaviridae family, genus, Alphavirus, includes several mosquito-borne human pathogens with the potential to spread to near pandemic proportions. Most of these are zoonotic, with spillover infections of humans and domestic animals, but a few such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have the ability to use humans as amplification hosts for transmission in urban settings and explosive outbreaks. Most alphaviruses cause nonspecific acute febrile illness, with pathogenesis sometimes leading to either encephalitis or arthralgic manifestations with severe and chronic morbidity and occasional mortality. The development of countermeasures, especially against CHIKV and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus that are major threats, has included vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics that are likely to also be successful for rapid responses with other members of the family. However, further work with these prototypes and other alphavirus pathogens should target better understanding of human tropism and pathogenesis, more comprehensive identification of cellular receptors and entry, and better understanding of structural mechanisms of neutralization.


Asunto(s)
Virus Chikungunya , Culicidae , Animales , Caballos , Humanos , Investigación
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 15(718): eadj2166, 2023 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851824

RESUMEN

Emerging zoonotic mosquito-borne viruses pose increasing health threats because of growing mosquito population, geographic expansions, and control challenges. We emphasize the need for global preparedness to effectively mitigate the health, societal, and economic impacts of spillover by these viruses through proactive measures of prediction, surveillance, prevention, and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Arbovirus , Arbovirus , Culicidae , Animales , Infecciones por Arbovirus/prevención & control
19.
J Med Entomol ; 60(6): 1149-1164, 2023 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37862065

RESUMEN

Everglades virus (EVEV) is subtype II of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) complex (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), endemic to Florida, USA. EVEV belongs to a clade that includes both enzootic and epizootic/epidemic VEEV subtypes. Like other enzootic VEEV subtypes, muroid rodents are important vertebrate hosts for EVEV and certain mosquitoes are important vectors. The hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus and cotton mouse Peromyscus gossypinus are important EVEV hosts, based on natural infection (virus isolation and high seropositivity), host competence (experimental infections), and frequency of contact with the vector. The mosquito Culex (Melanoconion) cecedei is the only confirmed vector of EVEV based upon high natural infection rates, efficient vector competence, and frequent feeding upon muroid rodents. Human disease attributed to EVEV is considered rare. However, cases of meningitis and encephalitis are recorded from multiple sites, separated by 250 km or more. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that EVEV is evolving, possibly due to changes in the mammal community. Mutations in the EVEV genome are of concern, given that epidemic strains of VEEV (subtypes IAB and IC) are derived from enzootic subtype ID, the closest genetic relative of EVEV. Should epizootic mutations arise in EVEV, the abundance of Aedes taeniorhynchus and other epizootic VEEV vectors in southern Florida provides a conducive environment for widespread transmission. Other factors that will likely influence the distribution and frequency of EVEV transmission include the establishment of Culex panocossa in Florida, Everglades restoration, mammal community decline due to the Burmese python, land use alteration by humans, and climate change.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Alphavirus , Culex , Virus de la Encefalitis Equina Venezolana , Animales , Humanos , Virus de la Encefalitis Equina Venezolana/genética , Florida/epidemiología , Mamíferos , Mosquitos Vectores , Peromyscus , Filogenia , Roedores , Sigmodontinae
20.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37693579

RESUMEN

While rodents are primary reservoirs of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), their role in Madariaga virus (MADV) transmission remains uncertain, particularly given their overlapping geographic distribution. This study explores the interplay of alphavirus prevalence, rodent diversity, and land use within Darien and Western Panama provinces. A total of three locations were selected for rodent sampling in Darien province: Los Pavitos, El Real de Santa Maria and Santa Librada. Two sites were selected in Western Panama province: El Cacao and Cirí Grande. We used plaque reduction neutralization tests to assess MADV and VEEV seroprevalences in 599 rodents of 16 species across five study sites. MADV seroprevalence was observed at higher rates in Los Pavitos (Darien province), 9.0%, 95% CI: 3.6-17.6, while VEEV seroprevalence was elevated in El Cacao (Western Panama province), 27.3%, 95% CI: 16.1-40.9, and El Real de Santa María (Darien province), 20.4%, 95% CI: 12.6-29.7. Species like Oryzomys coesi, 23.1%, 95% CI: 5.0-53.8, and Transandinomys bolivaris, 20.0%, 95% CI: 0.5-71.6 displayed higher MADV seroprevalences than other species, whereas Transandinomys bolivaris, 80.0%, 95% CI: 28.3-99.4, and Proechimys semispinosus, 27.3%, 95% CI: 17.0-39.6, exhibited higher VEEV seroprevalences. Our findings provide support to the notion that rodents are vertebrate reservoirs of MADV and reveal spatial variations in alphavirus seropositivity among rodent species, with different provinces exhibiting distinct rates for MADV and VEEV. Moreover, specific rodent species are linked to unique seroprevalence patterns for these viruses, suggesting that rodent diversity and environmental conditions might play a significant role in shaping alphavirus distribution.

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