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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(1): 37-40, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559440

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe clinical effect of acupuncture combined with conventional visual stimulation on cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children aged 3-10 years and influence on the pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP). METHODS: A total of 60 cases of children aged 3-10 years with CVI were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. The children in the control group received conventional visual stimulation therapy, 1 month as a course of treatment. On the basis of the control group, the children in the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Jingming (BL 1), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Sibai (ST 2), etc. 3 times a week, and the treatment was given 4 weeks continuously as a course. Both groups received 3 courses of treatment. The visual acuity and P-VEP improvement were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. RESULTS: After treatment, the incubation period (P100-L) of the two groups was shorter than before treatment, and the amplitude (P100-A) was higher than before treatment (P<0.05); and the degree of above changes in the observation group was lager than the control group (P<0.05). The percentage of best corrected visual acuity of 0.6-0.8 in the observation group after treatment and follow-up 1 year after treatment was higher than before treatment (P<0.05), and was higher than the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture combined with conventional visual stimulation can improve the incubation period (P100-L) and amplitude (P100-A) of P-VEP in children with CVI, and improve the best corrected visual acuity in children, the clinical effect is better than the conventional visual stimulation alone.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Encefalopatías , Puntos de Acupuntura , Niño , Preescolar , Potenciales Evocados Visuales , Humanos , Trastornos de la Visión/terapia
2.
J Biotechnol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607173

RESUMEN

Soil salinity is a serious abiotic stress worldwide. Pecan plants (Carya illinoensis K. Koch) have been suggested for cultivation in soils with high levels of salinity owing to their huge demand. To understand the potential molecular mechanisms in pecan in response to salt stress, RNA-sequencing technology was used to compare the transcriptomes of pecan plants treated with 0, 0.3%, or 0.6% NaCl solutions. The results indicated that 170,086 unigenes were obtained from pecan leaf cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 53, 535, and 7,358 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between untreated and salt-treated leaves at 8, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Because of the large number of DEGs across different contrasts, a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was selected to identify gene pathways associated with salt treatment. A total of 1,858 DEGs were enriched in 66 gene sets, including 22 up-regulated and 47 down-regulated gene sets in the salt treatment groups, compared with those in the control groups. The up-regulated gene sets were mainly involved in the response to salicylic acid; the regulation of the jasmonic acid-mediated signalling pathway during the short-term treatment (8 h); and the cellular response to hypoxia, cellular respiration, and RNA modification during the long-term treatment (24-48 h). The down-regulated gene sets were predominately associated with photosynthesis, water transport, and the metabolic biosynthetic process under salt stress. Genes related to the Really Interesting New Gene superfamily protein and F-box domain protein in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated in different periods of the regulating process. Overall, these results not only enrich genomic resources but also provide insights into the molecular mechanism in pecan under salt stress.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 617, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436786

RESUMEN

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an important tool in the assessment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study sought to investigate the prognostic value of multiparametric CMR, including left and right heart volumetric assessment, native T1-mapping and LGE in HFpEF. In this retrospective study, we identified patients with HFpEF who have undergone CMR. CMR protocol included: cines, native T1-mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The mean follow-up period was 3.2 ± 2.4 years. We identified 86 patients with HFpEF who had CMR. Of the 86 patients (85% hypertensive; 61% males; 14% cardiac amyloidosis), 27 (31%) patients died during the follow up period. From all the CMR metrics, LV mass (area under curve [AUC] 0.66, SE 0.07, 95% CI 0.54-0.76, p = 0.02), LGE fibrosis (AUC 0.59, SE 0.15, 95% CI 0.41-0.75, p = 0.03) and native T1-values (AUC 0.76, SE 0.09, 95% CI 0.58-0.88, p < 0.01) were the strongest predictors of all-cause mortality. The optimum thresholds for these were: LV mass > 133.24 g (hazard ratio [HR] 1.58, 95% CI 1.1-2.2, p < 0.01); LGE-fibrosis > 34.86% (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.1-2.8, p = 0.01) and native T1 > 1056.42 ms (HR 2.36, 95% CI 0.9-6.4, p = 0.07). In multivariate cox regression, CMR score model comprising these three variables independently predicted mortality in HFpEF when compared to NTproBNP (HR 4 vs HR 1.65). In non-amyloid HFpEF cases, only native T1 > 1056.42 ms demonstrated higher mortality (AUC 0.833, p < 0.01). In patients with HFpEF, multiparametric CMR aids prognostication. Our results show that left ventricular fibrosis and hypertrophy quantified by CMR are associated with all-cause mortality in patients with HFpEF.

4.
Clin Immunol ; 223: 108650, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316373

RESUMEN

The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) signal is related to the continuous amplification of inflammatory pathway. However, it is not clear whether and how HBV can regulated the expression of TREM-1 on monocyte participated in the progression of liver disease. Here, we showed that the expression of TREM-1 on monocyte subsets were increased significantly in HBV related liver cirrhosis group compared with chronic infected group and healthy control group. HBsAg and HBeAg could up-regulated TREM-1 on monocyte by NF-KB pathway, and at least last for 72 h. Increased TREM-1 on monocyte might associated with high level of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-a, IL-1ß and IL-6) and the activation of LX-2 cells. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the high expression of TREM-1 was related to the poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The level of TREM-1 might help to predict the progression of HBV infected liver disease and treat target to prevent fibrosis progression.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113251, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810615

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Application of cyclosporine A (CsA) as a rescue treatment in acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC) is limited by its narrow therapeutic window and great interpatient variability. As a substrate of cytochrome P450 3A enzyme (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the oral pharmacokinetics of CsA is susceptible to disease status and concomitant medications. Combined treatment with ginseng, a famous medicinal herb frequently prescribed for ameliorating abnormal immune response in many diseases including UC, showed immunologic safety in CsA-based immunosuppression. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since the therapeutic levels of CsA can be achieved within 24 h, this study first assessed the impact of acute colitis and ginseng intervention on the single oral dose pharmacokinetics of CsA and explored the underlying mechanisms in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis rats and Caco-2 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats received drinking water (normal group), 5% DSS (UC group), or 5% DSS plus daily oral ginseng extract (GS+UC group). On day 7, GS+UC group only received an oral dose of CsA (5 mg/kg), while animals of normal or UC group received an oral, intravenous (1.25 mg/kg), or intraperitoneal dose of CsA (1.25 mg/kg), respectively. Blood, liver/intestine tissues and fecal samples were collected for determining CsA and main hydroxylated metabolite HO-CsA or measuring hepatic/intestinal CYP3A activity. Caco-2 cells were incubated with gut microbial culture supernatant (CS) of different groups or ginseng (decoction or polysaccharides), and then CYP3A, P-gp and tight junction (TJ) proteins were determined. RESULTS: Oral CsA exhibited enhanced absorption, systemic exposure and tissue accumulation, and lower fecal excretion, while intravenous or intraperitoneal CsA showed lower systemic exposure and enhanced distribution, in colitis rats. Diminished intestinal and hepatic P-gp expression well explained the changes with DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, blood exposures of HO-CsA in both normal and colitis after oral dosing were significantly higher than intravenous/intraperitoneal dosing, supporting the dominant role of intestinal first-pass metabolism. Interestingly, colitis reduced CYP3A expression in intestine and liver but only potentiated intestinal CYP3A activity, causing higher oral systemic exposure of HO-CsA. Oral ginseng mitigated colitis-induced down-regulation of CYP3A and P-gp expression, facilitated HO-CsA production, biliary excretion and colonic sequestration of CsA, while not affected CsA oral systemic exposure. In Caco-2 cells, gut microbial CS from both colitis and GS+UC group diminished P-gp function, while ginseng polysaccharides directly affected ZO-1 distribution and suppressed TJ proteins expression, explaining unaltered oral CsA systemic exposure. CONCLUSIONS: DSS-induced colitis significantly altered oral CsA disposition through regulating intestinal and hepatic P-gp and CYP3A. One-week ginseng treatment enhanced colonic accumulation while not altered the systemic exposure of CsA after single oral dosing, indicating pharmacokinetic compatibility between the two medications.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; : 105358, 2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285228

RESUMEN

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are kind of recurrent inflammatory issues that occur in the gastrointestinal tract, and currently clinical treatment is still unideal due to the complex pathogenesis of IBD. Basically, gut barrier dysfunction is triggered by gut microbiota dysbiosis that is closely associated with the development of IBD, we thus investigated the therapeutic capacity of berberine (BBR) to improve the dysregulated gut microbiota, against IBD in rats, using a combinational strategy of targeted metabolomics and 16 s rDNA amplicon sequencing technology. Expectedly, our data revealed that BBR administration could greatly improve the pathological phenotype, gut barrier disruption, and the colon inflammation in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In addition, 16S rDNA-based microbiota analysis demonstrated that BBR could alleviate gut dysbiosis in rats. Furthermore, our targeted metabolomics analysis illustrated that the levels of microbial tryptophan catabolites in the gastrointestinal tract were significantly changed during the development of the colitis in rats, and BBR treatment can significantly restore such changes of the tryptophan catabolites accordingly. At last, our in vitro mechanism exploration was implemented with a Caco-2 cell monolayer model, which verified that the modulation of the dysregulated gut microbiota to change microbial metabolites coordinated the improvement effect of BBR on gut barrier disruption in the colitis, and we also confirmed that the activation of AhR induced by microbial metabolites is indispensable to the improvement of gut barrier disruption by BBR. Collectively, BBR has the capacity to treat DSS-induced colitis in rats through the regulation of gut microbiota associated tryptophan metabolite to activate AhR, which can greatly improve the disrupted gut barrier function. Importantly, our finding elucidated a novel mechanism of BBR to improve gut barrier function, which holds the expected capacity to promote the BBR derived drug discovery and development against the colitis in clinic setting.

7.
Comput Biol Med ; 129: 104153, 2020 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260102

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a positioning method with hand-guiding and contact position feedback of robot based on a human-robot collaborative dental implant system (HRCDIS) for robotic guided dental implant surgery. METHODS: An HRCDIS was developed based on a light-weight cooperative robot arm, UR5. A three-dimensional (3D) virtual partially edentulous mandibular bone was reconstructed using the cone bone computed tomography images. After designing the preoperative virtual implant planning using the computer software, a fixation guide worn on teeth for linking and fixing positioning marker was fabricated by 3D printing. The fixation guide with the positioning marker and a resin model mimicking the oral tissues were assembled on a head phantom. The planned implant positions were derived by the coordinate information of the positioning marker. The drilling process using the HRCDIS was conducted after mimicking the experimental set-up and planning the drilling trajectory. Deviations between actual and planned implant positions were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: The head phantom experiments results showed that the error value of the central deviation at hex (refers to the center of the platform level of the implant) was 0.79 ± 0.17 mm, central deviation at the apex was 1.26 ± 0.27 mm, horizontal deviation at the hex was 0.61 ± 0.19 mm, horizontal deviation at the apex was 0.91 ± 0.55 mm, vertical deviation at the hex was 0.38 ± 0.17 mm, vertical deviation at the apex was 0.37 ± 0.20 mm, and angular deviation was 3.77 ± 1.57°. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study preliminarily validate the feasibility of the accurate navigation method of the HRCDIS.

8.
Mar Genomics ; : 100830, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160875

RESUMEN

Micromonospora craniellae LHW63014T is a novel marine Micromonospora, isolated from a Craniella species sponge collected in the South China Sea. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of M. craniellae LHW63014T, which is comprised of a circular chromosome of 6,839,926 bp with the G + C content of 70.9 mol%. The complete genome contained 6572 protein-coding genes, 48 tRNA genes, and 9 rRNA genes. Genomic annotations revealed that 79.09% of the protein-coding genes were assigned to the COG database, among which, the abundant genes were predicted to be involved in transcription, replication, recombination and repair, and amino acid transport and metabolism. Secondary metabolites prediction using antiSMASH revealed that 22 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC) of secondary metabolites were located in the genome of M. craniellae LHW63014T, 19 of which showed low similarity (<50%) to known BGCs and 5 of which showed the closest homology with BGCs encoding metal ion-chelating agents, indicating the immense potential of M. craniellae LHW63014T to produce a wide variety of novel antibiotics, especially for metal ion-chelating agents.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166187

RESUMEN

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a high risk of developing cholecystic disease. The gut microbiome has been shown to be strongly associated with cholecystectomy and T2DM pathogenesis. However, alterations of gut microbiome in T2DM patients undergone cholecystectomy remains unexplored. In this study, the gut microbiomes of 14 long-term T2DM patients who had undergone cholecystectomy (T2DIIC group) and 21 age- and/or sex-matched subjects with new-onset (T2DI group) and long-term (T2DII group) T2DM without cholecystectomy were assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of stool samples. It was found that cholecystectomy could alleviate the decrease in Pielou's evenness and the increase in the relative abundances of the Firmicutes phylum and Lachnospira genus in long-term T2DM patients compared with that observed in the T2DII subjects. Moreover, cholecystectomy also significantly increased the relative abundance of the Fusobacteria phylum, as well as that of the Fusobacterium and Bilophila genera. Interestingly, the T2DIIC and T2DI groups showed higher similarities than was observed in the T2DII group with respect to patterns of gut microbiome composition and predicted gut metagenomes. In summary, cholecystectomy could partially alleviate long-term diabetes-induced dysbiosis of the gut microbiome composition and function, but alterations in T2DM patient health warrant further study.

10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 159, 2020 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213525

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human migration facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Migrants face an increased risk of TB infection. In this study, we aim to explore the spatial inequity of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS + PTB) in China; and the spatial heterogeneity between SS + PTB and internal migration. METHODS: Notified SS + PTB cases in 31 provinces in mainland China were obtained from the national web-based PTB surveillance system database. Internal migrant data were extracted from the report on China's migrant population development. Spatial autocorrelations were explored using the global Moran's statistic and local indicators of spatial association. The spatial variation in temporal trends was performed using Kulldorff's scan statistic. Fixed effect and spatial autoregressive models were used to explore the spatial inequity between SS + PTB and internal migration. RESULTS: A total of 2 380 233 SS + PTB cases were reported in China between 2011 and 2017, of which, 1 716 382 (72.11%) were male and 663 851 (27.89%) were female. Over 70% of internal migrants were from rural households and had lower income and less education. The spatial variation in temporal trend results showed that there was an 9.9% average annual decrease in the notification rate of SS + PTB from 2011 to 2017; and spatial clustering of SS + PTB cases was mainly located in western and southern China. The spatial autocorrelation results revealed spatial clustering of internal migration each year (2011-2017), and the clusters were stable within most provinces. Internal emigration, urban-to-rural migration and GDP per capita were significantly associated with SS + PTB, further, internal emigration could explain more variation in SS + PTB in the eastern region in mainland. However, internal immigration and rural-to-urban migration were not significantly associated with SS + PTB across China. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found the spatial inequity between SS + PTB and internal migration. Internal emigration, urban-to-rural migration and GDP per capita were statistically associated with SS + PTB; the negative association was identified between internal emigration, urban-to-rural migration and SS + PTB. Further, we found those migrants with lower income and less education, and most of them were from rural households. These findings can help stakeholders to implement effective PTB control strategies for areas at high risk of PTB and those with high rates of internal migration.

11.
Environ Pollut ; : 115996, 2020 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213952

RESUMEN

Mangroves are inter-tidal ecosystems with important global ecological roles. Today, mangroves around the world are at risk of fragmentation, especially in areas with rapid urbanization. Mangroves experiencing habitat fragmentation may be more intensely affected by human activities and a scenario that might have been ignored by previous studies on trace metal (TM) environmental geochemistry. Here, we investigated the typically fragmented habitats in a subtropical mangrove estuary (the Danshuei Basin in Taiwan Strait) to evaluate how human activities affect the geochemical behaviors of TMs. Ni, Sb, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Cd were the primary contaminants found in the mangrove patches. Metal sequestration from the riverine (Ni, Cr) and in-patch activity (Sb, Zn, Cu, Cd) are primary sources of TM's risk. Using the synthesized pollution risk assessment, we showed that most of the mangrove patches are under moderate pollution risk. A significant relationship between the TMs pollution indicators and the absorption coefficient at 254 nm (a254), implying that the a254 could be a potential convenient parameter in the TMs risk assessment, which might be partly explained by the bio-remediation of sulfate-reduction microorganism. This study demonstrates the ecological risks posed by TM pollution on urban mangrove patches and emphasizes the importance of a more comprehensive survey for estuarine mangrove patch environments to achieve Sustainable Development Goals.

12.
Life Sci ; : 118709, 2020 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152351

RESUMEN

AIMS: Although interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) has known roles in regulating the inflammatory response, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and apoptosis, its role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is unclear. We hypothesized that IRF7 overexpression could inhibit pulmonary vascular remodeling and slow the progression of PH. MAIN METHODS: IRF7 mRNA and protein levels in the lung samples and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH rats were assessed. We evaluated the effects of IRF7 on inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis using an in vivo MCT-induced PH rat model and in vitro methods. KEY FINDINGS: We noted decreased IRF7 mRNA and protein levels in the pulmonary vasculature of MCT-induced PH rats. IRF7 upregulation attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling, decreased the pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and improved the right ventricular (RV) structure and function. Our findings suggest that nuclear factor kappa-Bp65 (NF-κBp65) deactivation could confer pulmonary vasculature protection, reduce proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6) release, and decrease PASMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis via deactivating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) signaling. ATF3 deactivation induced the downregulation of the proliferation-dependent genes proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and survivin, coupled with increased levels of B cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax)/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) ratio, and cleaved caspase-3 in PASMCs. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings showed that IRF7 downregulation could initiate inflammation via NF-κBp65 signaling, causing PASMC proliferation via ATF3 signaling pathway activation. Therefore, IRF7 could be a potential molecular target for PH therapy.

13.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 11031-11044, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154652

RESUMEN

Purpose: Apatinib is an inhibitor of VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) that has attracted a great deal of attention due to its promotion of anticancer activity. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of apatinib against colorectal cancer (CRC) and examined the underlying mechanism. Materials and Methods: Both in vivo and in vitro assays were conducted to study the effect of apatinib on CRC. To elucidate the associated mechanism, RNA-seq (transcriptome) analysis was conducted on apatinib-treated HCT116 cells. Results: Apatinib showed antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects, induced G0/G1 arrest and blocked cell migration and invasion in CRC. An analysis of the mechanism associated with apatinib activity demonstrated that by interacting with VEGFR2, apatinib decreased p-Src, p-Akt, and p-GSK3ß levels, which further increased ß-catenin ubiquitination and reduced the nuclear translocation of ß-catenin. Furthermore, apatinib strongly suppressed CT26 cell growth in mouse xenograft models by inhibiting ß-catenin signaling and angiogenesis. Conclusion: Overall, the results of the present study here indicated that by inhibiting the VEGFR2-ß-catenin-mediated malignant phenotype, apatinib significantly suppresses the growth of CRC, suggesting that the use of apatinib is a promising therapeutic strategy for CRC.

14.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(8): 2304-2309, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136877

RESUMEN

Three-dimensional (3D) technology including 3D reconstruction and 3D printing technology, has been widely used in clinical treatment, especially in surgical planning, and image navigation technology, which can make surgical procedures more accurate, now is also increasingly favored by surgeons. But the combination of those 2 technologies was rarely reported. Thus, this study will preliminarily investigate the feasibility and the effect of the combination of 2 technologies in endonasal skull base surgery. Eight patients were involved in this study (from October 2016 to July 2017 at The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University), 5 cases of nasal skull base tumors and 3 cases of foreign body perforation. All operations were done under the assistance of 3D technology and image guidance system. Surgical discussion with patient, preoperative planning and clinical teaching were investigated between 2D images and 3D models by voting. For all cases, 3D reconstruction model and 3D printed model were deemed to be more helpful than CT/MRI images in surgical discussion with the patient; surgical simulation on 3D model in preoperative planning was largely deemed to be helpful and very helpful; and in clinical teaching, 3D models combined with image guidance system were deemed to be more helpful in understanding the disease than using 2D images. Besides, all patients recovered well after surgery, no recurrence and complications were found in the follow-up. The combination of 3D technology and electromagnetic image guidance system could improve surgical efficiency and the quality of clinical teaching.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(21)2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142882

RESUMEN

This paper reports an investigation into the autogenous shrinkage, mechanical, and durability performances of alkali-activated slag concrete (AASC) with emulsified cooking oil (ECO). Properties of AASC including flowability, setting time, compressive strength, autogenous shrinkage, and carbonation depth are tested to clarify the effects of the ECO. Commercially available expansion agent (EA) and shrinkage reducing agent (SRA) are also applied on AASC to compare with ECO. Experimental results show that the utilization of ECO could significantly decrease the autogenous shrinkage of alkali-activated slag concrete owing to the reduction of surface tension and the denser internal structure. It also shows that cooking oil after emulsification could have better performances than that of plain cooking oil when applied on AASC. Setting time and carbonation resistance ability are also improved with the utilization of ECO. The application of ECO is considered a cheap and easy way to overcome the limitation of AASC.

16.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165812

RESUMEN

The rumen is the hallmark organ of ruminants and hosts a diverse ecosystem of microorganisms that facilitates efficient digestion of plant fibers. We analyzed 897 transcriptomes from three Cetartiodactyla lineages: ruminants, camels and cetaceans, as well as data from ruminant comparative genomics and functional assays to explore the genetic basis of rumen functional innovations. We identified genes with relatively high expression in the rumen, of which many appeared to be recruited from other tissues. These genes show functional enrichment in ketone body metabolism, regulation of microbial community, and epithelium absorption, which are the most prominent biological processes involved in rumen innovations. Several modes of genetic change underlying rumen functional innovations were uncovered, including coding mutations, genes newly evolved, and changes of regulatory elements. We validated that the key ketogenesis rate-limiting gene (HMGCS2) with five ruminant-specific mutations was under positive selection and exhibits higher synthesis activity than those of other mammals. Two newly evolved genes (LYZ1 and DEFB1) are resistant to Gram-positive bacteria and thereby may regulate microbial community equilibrium. Furthermore, we confirmed that the changes of regulatory elements accounted for the majority of rumen gene recruitment. These results greatly improve our understanding of rumen evolution and organ evo-devo in general.

17.
J Nutr Biochem ; 88: 108533, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250443

RESUMEN

Resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIR) has been observed in mice fed a high-fat diet and may provide a potential approach for anti-obesity drug discovery. However, the metabolic status, gut microbiota composition, and its associations with DIR are still unclear. Here, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based urinary metabolomic and 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based fecal microbiome analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between metabolic profile, gut microbiota composition, and body weight of C57BL/6J mice on chow or a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. PICRUSt analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences predicted the functional metagenomes of gut bacteria. The results demonstrated that feeding a high-fat diet increased body weight and fasting blood glucose of high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice and altered the host-microbial co-metabolism and gut microbiota composition. In DIR mice, high-fat diet did not increase body weight while fasting blood glucose was increased significantly compared to chow fed mice. In DIR mice, the urinary metabolic pattern was shifted to a distinct direction compared to DIO mice, which was mainly contributed by xanthine. Moreover, high-fat diet caused gut microbiota dysbiosis in both DIO and DIR mice, but in DIR mice, the abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae, Roseburia, and Escherichia was not affected compared to mice fed a chow diet, which played an important role in the pathway coverage of FormylTHF biosynthesis I. Meanwhile, xanthine and pathway coverage of FormylTHF biosynthesis I showed significant positive correlations with mouse body weight. These findings suggest that gut microbiota-mediated xanthine metabolism correlates with resistance to high-fat DIO.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096695

RESUMEN

As stated in the Special Issue call, "sensors are eyes or/and ears of an intelligent system, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) and robots [...].

19.
Plant J ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098697

RESUMEN

Starch synthesis is an essential feature of crop filling, but knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of starch synthesis genes (SSGs) is currently limited to transcription factors (TFs). Here, we obtained transcriptome, small RNAome, and DNA methylome data from maize (Zea mays) endosperms during multiple developmental stages and established a regulatory network atlas of starch synthesis. Transcriptome analysis showed a sharp transition at 9-10 days after pollination, when genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism are upregulated and starch accumulates rapidly. Expression pattern analysis established a comprehensive network between SSGs and TFs. During maize endosperm development, the miRNAs with preferential repression of the expression of TFs, particularly the TFs regulating SSG expression, were extensively downregulated. Specifically, ZmMYB138 and ZmMYB115 affected the transcriptional activities of Du1/Wx and Ae1/Bt2 genes at their respective promoter regions. Remarkably, the two TFs were negatively regulated by the copious expression of Zma-miR159k-3p at the post-transcriptional level. This suggests that miRNAs are important regulators of starch synthesis. Moreover, with the exclusion of the TFs, the expression of both SSGs and miRNAs was globally regulated by DNA methylation. Altogether, the present results (i) establish the regulatory functions of miRNAs and DNA methylation in starch synthesis and (ii) indicate that DNA methylation functions as a master switch.

20.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 244, 2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076895

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pediatric inguinal hernia (PIH) is a common disease in children. Laparoscopic hernia repair (LHR) has developed rapidly in recent years, but there are still different opinions compared with traditional open hernia repair (OHR). The purpose of this study was to compare the advantages and disadvantages of LHR and OHR in the treatment of pediatric inguinal hernia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all children (< 14 years) who underwent repair of inguinal hernia in the pediatric surgery center of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from January 2015 to December 2015. We collected the medical records of all the children and analyzed the clinical characteristics, operation-related information and follow-up. RESULTS: In the OHR group, 202 cases underwent unilateral inguinal hernia repair, and 43 cases underwent bilateral inguinal hernia repair. In the LHR group, 168 cases underwent unilateral inguinal hernia repair, and 136 cases underwent bilateral inguinal hernia repair. There was a significant difference in the operation time between the two groups, but there were no significant differences in postoperative hospitalization time and incidence of ipsilateral recurrent hernia between the two groups. The incidence rates of metachronous contralateral hernia (MCH) and surgical site infection in LHR group were significantly lower than those in the OHR group. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that compared with OHR, LHR has the advantages of concealed incision, minimal invasiveness, reduced operation time, detection of contralateral patent processus vaginalis, and reduced incidence of MCH. In conclusion, LHR is safe and effective in the treatment of pediatric indirect inguinal hernia.


Asunto(s)
Hernia Inguinal/cirugía , Laparoscopía/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Herniorrafia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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