Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 253
Filtrar
1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 85-91, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551502

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate community and health-care workers' perspectives on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and on early pandemic responses during the first 2 weeks of national lockdown in Zimbabwe. Methods: Rapid qualitative research was carried out between March and April 2020 via phone interviews with one representative from each of four community-based organizations and 16 health-care workers involved in a trial of community-based services for young people. In addition, information on COVID-19 was collected from social media platforms, news outlets and government announcements. Data were analysed thematically. Findings: Four themes emerged: (i) individuals were overloaded with information but lacked trusted sources, which resulted in widespread fear and unanswered questions; (ii) communities had limited ability to comply with prevention measures, such as social distancing, because access to long-term food supplies and water at home was limited and because income had to be earned daily; (iii) health-care workers perceived themselves to be vulnerable and undervalued because of a shortage of personal protective equipment and inadequate pay; and (iv) other health conditions were sidelined because resources were redirected, with potentially wide-reaching implications. Conclusion: It is important that prevention measures against COVID-19 are appropriate for the local context. In Zimbabwe, communities require support with basic needs and access to reliable information to enable them to follow prevention measures. In addition, health-care workers urgently need personal protective equipment and adequate salaries. Essential health-care services and medications for conditions other than COVID-19 must also continue to be provided to help reduce excess mortality and morbidity.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Personal de Salud , Acceso a la Información , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Investigación Cualitativa , Salarios y Beneficios , Zimbabwe
2.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(12): e20940, 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence against children in schools is a global public health problem. There is growing evidence that school-based interventions can be effective in reducing violence against children in schools. However, there is little evidence on the long-term impact of such interventions. The Good School Toolkit, developed by Raising Voices, a Uganda-based nonprofit organization, is a whole-school violence prevention intervention that aims to change the operational culture of primary schools. In 2014, the Good School Toolkit was evaluated through a cluster randomized controlled trial (Good Schools Study) and found to reduce teacher-to-student and student-to-student violence. OBJECTIVE: This protocol describes quantitative analyses to explore long-term outcomes of the Good School Toolkit intervention among adolescents in Uganda, including the extent to which it is associated with peer-violence victimization (primary outcome) and peer-violence perpetration, intimate-partner violence, acceptance of teacher-violence, equitable gender attitudes, agency, self-regulation, peer connectedness, social assets, psychological assets, and retention in school (secondary outcomes). METHODS: This is a nonrandomized quasi-experimental 4-year follow-up study of adolescents who attended the 42 Good Schools Study primary schools in 2014; 21 schools initiated the Good School Toolkit intervention during the trial from 2012, and 19 schools initiated the intervention after the trial (during the later delivery phase) from 2015; 2 schools did not implement the intervention. Students in the final school grade (Primary 7) during 2014 of the 19 primary schools in the later delivery phase are expected to have left school prior to toolkit delivery in 2015. Wave 1 data were collected in 2014 from 3431 grade Primary 5 to Primary 7 school students aged 11-14 years; these students were followed up in 2018-2019 when aged 16-19 years and invited to participate in the Wave 2 survey. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews by trained Ugandan field researchers. Toolkit exposure groups are defined as exposed during the Good Schools Study trial (from 2012), as exposed during later delivery (from 2015), or not exposed including those expected to have completed Primary 7 prior to later delivery or from the 2 schools that did not implement the toolkit. Associations between outcomes at Wave 2 and toolkit exposure groups will be analyzed using mixed-effect multivariable logistic and linear regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. This analysis is exploratory and aims to generate hypotheses on if, and under what circumstances, the toolkit influences later adolescent outcomes. RESULTS: Data collection was completed in August 2019. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first long-term follow-up study of adolescents exposed to a school-based violence-prevention intervention in sub-Saharan Africa. If the intervention reduces violence and improves other outcomes in later adolescence, then this study supports primary school interventions as key to achieving long-term population impacts. The pattern of effects will inform where reinforced or additional interventions are needed. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20940.

3.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 6(1): 182, 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292659

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Menstrual health and hygiene (MHH) is a human rights issue; yet, it remains a challenge for many, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). MHH includes the socio-political, psychosocial, and environmental factors that impact women's menstrual experiences. High proportions of girls and women in LMICs have inadequate MHH due to limited access to menstrual knowledge, products, and stigma reinforcing harmful myths and taboos. The aim of this pilot was to inform the design of an MHH sub-study and the implementation and scale-up of an MHH intervention incorporated into a community-based cluster-randomized trial of integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for youth in Zimbabwe. The objectives were to investigate (1) uptake of a novel MHH intervention, (2) menstrual product preference, and (3) the factors that informed uptake and product choice among young women. METHODS: Female participants aged 16-24 years old attending the community-based SRH services between April and July 2019 were offered the MHH intervention, which included either a menstrual cup or reusable pads, analgesia, and MHH education. Descriptive statistics were used to quantitatively assess uptake and product choice. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with participants and the intervention team were used to investigate the factors that influenced uptake and product choice. RESULTS: Of the 1732 eligible participants, 1414 (81.6%) took up the MHH intervention at first visit. Uptake differed by age group with 84.6% of younger women (16-19 years old) compared to 79.0% of older women (20-24 years old) taking up the intervention. There was higher uptake of reusable pads (88.0%) than menstrual cups (12.0%). Qualitative data highlighted that internal factors, such as intervention delivery, influenced uptake. Participants noted the importance of access to free menstrual products, analgesics, and MHH education in a youth-friendly environment. External factors such as sociocultural factors informed product choice. Barriers to cup uptake included fears that the cup would compromise young women's virginity. CONCLUSIONS: Pilot findings were used to improve the MHH intervention design and implementation as follows: (1) cup ambassadors to improve cup promotion, sensitization, and uptake; (2) use of smaller softer cups; and (3) education for community members including caregivers and partners. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT03719521 Registration Date: 25 October 2018.

4.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1(1): 99, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292817

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Index-linked HIV testing, targeted at sexual contacts or children of individuals with HIV, may improve yield and efficiency. The B-GAP study evaluated index-linked testing approaches in health facility and community-based settings. This paper reports on a qualitative study to understand factors that affect uptake of index-linked HIV testing for children and adolescents. METHODS: We conducted four focus group discussions (FGDs) with caregivers who had their children tested through B-GAP and one FGD with providers who offered index-linked HIV testing to indexes. We aimed to understand enabling and inhibiting factors in the decision-making process. Translated and transcribed transcripts were read for familiarisation. Following initial coding, analytical memos were written to identify emerging key themes across the data. RESULTS: Our findings showed there was inadequate emphasis on paediatric HIV in routine care which had a negative impact on subsequent uptake of testing for children. Once the decision to test had been made, access to facilities was sometimes challenging and alleviated by community-based testing. A key finding was that HIV testing is not a discrete event but a process that was influenced by relationships with other family members and children themselves. These relationships raised complex issues that could prevent or delay the testing process. CONCLUSION: There is a need to improve messaging on the importance of HIV testing for children and adolescents and to provide support to caregivers and their families in order to improve testing uptake. Addressing access barriers through the provision of community-based testing and implementing a family-centred approach can optimise index-linked testing.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028484, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331916

RESUMEN

Importance: HIV-associated chronic lung disease (HCLD) in children is associated with small airways disease, is common despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), and is associated with substantial morbidity. Azithromycin has antibiotic and immunomodulatory activity and may be effective in treating HCLD through reducing respiratory tract infections and inflammation. Objective: To determine whether prophylactic azithromycin is effective in preventing worsening of lung function and in reducing acute respiratory exacerbations (AREs) in children with HCLD taking ART. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (BREATHE) was conducted between 2016 and 2019, including 12 months of follow-up, at outpatient HIV clinics in 2 public sector hospitals in Malawi and Zimbabwe. Participants were randomized 1:1 to intervention or placebo, and participants and study personnel were blinded to treatment allocation. Participants included children aged 6 to 19 years with perinatally acquired HIV and HCLD (defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] z score < -1) who were taking ART for 6 months or longer. Data analysis was performed from September 2019 to April 2020. Intervention: Once-weekly oral azithromycin with weight-based dosing, for 48 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: All outcomes were prespecified. The primary outcome was the mean difference in FEV1 z score using intention-to-treat analysis for participants seen at end line. Secondary outcomes included AREs, all-cause hospitalizations, mortality, and weight-for-age z score. Results: A total of 347 individuals (median [interquartile range] age, 15.3 [12.7-17.7] years; 177 boys [51.0%]) were randomized, 174 to the azithromycin group and 173 to the placebo group; 162 participants in the azithromycin group and 146 placebo group participants had a primary outcome available and were analyzed. The mean difference in FEV1 z score was 0.06 (95% CI, -0.10 to 0.21; P = .48) higher in the azithromycin group than in the placebo group, a nonsignificant difference. The rate of AREs was 12.1 events per 100 person-years in the azithromycin group and 24.7 events per 100 person-years in the placebo groups (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.93; P = .03). The hospitalization rate was 1.3 events per 100 person-years in the azithromycin group and 7.1 events per 100 person-years in the placebo groups, but the difference was not significant (hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.07; P = .06). Three deaths occurred, all in the placebo group. The mean weight-for-age z score was 0.03 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.14; P = .56) higher in the azithromycin group than in the placebo group, although the difference was not significant. There were no drug-related severe adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial specifically addressing childhood HCLD, once-weekly azithromycin did not improve lung function or growth but was associated with reduced AREs; the number of hospitalizations was also lower in the azithromycin group but the difference was not significant. Future research should identify patient groups who would benefit most from this intervention and optimum treatment length, to maximize benefits while reducing the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02426112.


Asunto(s)
Azitromicina , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Azitromicina/administración & dosificación , Azitromicina/efectos adversos , Método Doble Ciego , Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/etiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/inmunología , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Lancet HIV ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197393

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Index-linked HIV testing, whereby children of individuals with HIV are targeted for testing, increases HIV yield but relies on uptake. Community-based testing might address barriers to testing access. In the Bridging the Gap in HIV testing and care for children in Zimbabwe (B-GAP) study, we investigated the uptake and yield of index-linked testing in children and the uptake of community-based vs facility-based HIV testing in Zimbabwe. METHODS: B-GAP was an interventional study done in the city of Bulawayo and the province of Matabeleland South between Jan 29 and Dec 12, 2018. All HIV-positive attendees (index patients) at six urban and three rural primary health-care clinics were offered facility-based or community-based HIV testing for children (age 2-18 years) living in their households who had never been tested or had tested as HIV-negative more than 6 months ago. Community-based options involved testing in the home by either a trained lay worker with a blood-based rapid diagnostic test (used in facility-based testing), or by the child's caregiver with an oral HIV test. Among consenting individuals, the primary outcome was testing uptake in terms of the proportion of eligible children tested. Secondary outcomes were uptake of the different HIV testing methods, HIV yield (proportion of eligible children who tested positive), and HIV prevalence (proportion of HIV-positive children among those tested). Logistic regression adjusting for within-index clustering was used to investigate index patient and child characteristics associated with testing uptake, and the uptake of community-based versus facility-based testing. FINDINGS: Overall, 2870 index patients were linked with 6062 eligible children (3115 [51·4%] girls [sex unknown in seven], median age 8 years [IQR 5-13]). Testing was accepted by index patients for 5326 (87·9%) children, and 3638 were tested with a known test outcome, giving an overall testing uptake among 6062 eligible children of 60·0%. 39 children tested positive for HIV, giving an HIV prevalence among the 3638 children of 1·1% and an HIV yield among 6062 eligible children of 0·6%. Uptake was positively associated with female sex in the index patient (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1·56 [95% CI 1·38-1·77], p<0·0001) and child (aOR 1·10 [1·03-1·19], p=0·0080), and negatively associated with any financial cost of travel to a clinic (aOR 0·86 [0·83-0·88], p<0·0001), increased child age (6-9 years: aOR 0·99 (0·89-1·09); 10-15 years: aOR 0·91 [0·83-1·00]; and 16-18 years: aOR 0·75 [0·66-0·85]; p=0·0001 vs 2-5 years), and unknown HIV status of the mother (aOR 0·81 [0·68-0·98], p=0·027 vs HIV-positive status). Additionally, children had increased odds of being tested if community-based testing was chosen over facility-based testing at screening (1320 [73·9%] children tested of 1787 vs 2318 [65·5%] of 3539; aOR 1·49 [1·22-1·81], p=0·0001). INTERPRETATION: The HIV yield of index-linked testing was low compared with blanket testing approaches in similar settings. Index-linked HIV testing can improve testing uptake among children, although strategies that improve testing uptake in older children are needed. Community based testing by lay workers is a feasible strategy that can be used to improve uptake of HTS among children and adolescents. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19293, 2020 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168901

RESUMEN

This study investigated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence utility as a predictor of HIV epidemic potential among female sex workers (FSWs) globally. We updated and analyzed a systematically-assembled database for paired HSV-2 and HIV seroprevalence measures among FSWs. The study identified 231 paired HSV-2/HIV prevalence measures from 40 countries. The pooled mean HIV prevalence using meta-analysis increased from 3.7% (95% CI 0.3-9.9%) among populations of FSWs with HSV-2 prevalence < 25% to 18.7% (95% CI 14.1-23.8%) among those with HSV-2 prevalence 75-100%. HIV prevalence was negligible in FSWs with HSV-2 prevalence ≤ 20% suggesting a threshold effect. Multivariable meta-regressions explained > 65% of HIV prevalence variation, and identified a strong positive HSV-2/HIV association. Compared to populations of FSWs with HSV-2 prevalence < 25%, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of HIV infection increased from 2.8 (95% CI 1.2-6.3) in those with HSV-2 prevalence 25-49%, to 13.4 (95% CI 6.1-29.9) in those with HSV-2 prevalence 75-100%. HSV-2 is a strong predictor of HIV epidemic potential among FSWs. HSV-2 prevalence of 25-49% indicates potential for intermediate-intensity HIV epidemics, with higher levels indicative of large epidemics. HSV-2 surveillance could inform HIV preparedness in countries where HIV prevalence among FSWs is still limited or at zero-level.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963795

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience a high burden of mental health disorder which is a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence. In Zimbabwe, trained, mentored peer supporters living with HIV (Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters - CATS) have been found to improve adherence, viral suppression and psychosocial well-being among ALHIV. The Friendship Bench is the largest integrated mental health programme in Africa. We hypothesise that combining the CATS programme and Friendship Bench will improve mental health and virological suppression among ALHIV compared with the CATS programme alone. Methods: We will conduct a cluster-randomised controlled trial in 60 clinics randomised 1:1 in five provinces. ALHIV attending the control arm clinics will receive standard CATS support and clinic support following the Ministry of Health guidelines. Those attending the intervention arm clinics will receive Friendship Bench problem-solving therapy, delivered by trained CATS. Participants with the signs of psychological distress will be referred to the clinic for further assessment and management. The primary outcome is HIV virological failure (≥1000 copies/ml) or death at 48 weeks. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of adolescents with common mental disorder symptoms (defined as Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ-14) score ≥8), proportion with depression symptoms (defined as Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥11), symptom severity (mean SSQ-14 and PHQ-9 scores) and EQ-5D score for health-related quality of life. Conclusions: This trial evaluates the effectiveness of peer-delivery of mental health care on mental health and HIV viral load among ALHIV. If effective this intervention has the potential to be scaled-up to improve these outcomes.Trial registration: PACTR201810756862405. 08 October 2018.

9.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798249

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) provides high-resolution images of the ocular surface and has been validated in trachomatous conjunctival scarring. BACKGROUND: This study used IVCM to identify parameters associated with clinical scarring progression. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 800 participants in Northern Tanzania with trachomatous scarring. METHODS: Participants underwent clinical examination, photography and IVCM at baseline and 24-months. Clinical progression of scarring was defined by comparing baseline and 24-month photographs. Masked grading of IVCM images was used to identify scarring at both time points. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with clinical progression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors associated with clinical scarring progression. RESULTS: Clinical and IVCM assessment of 800 participants were performed at baseline, with 617 (77.1%) seen at 24-months. Of these, 438/617 (71.0%) had gradable IVCM images at both time points and 342/438 (78.1%) of these could be graded as showing definite clinical progression or no progression on image comparison. Clinical progression was found to occur in 79/342 (23.1%). After adjusting for age and sex, clinical scarring progression was strongly associated with a high IVCM connective tissue organisation score at both baseline (OR = 1.84 for each increase in scarring category; P = 0.002) and 24-months (OR = 1.60; P = 0.02). Dendritiform cells present at 24-months were strongly associated with clinical scarring progression after adjustment (OR = 2.62; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Quantitative IVCM parameters, including connective tissue organisation score and the presence of dendritiform cells, are associated with disease progression and may be useful markers in trachoma and other conjunctival fibrotic diseases.

10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(11): 1324-1338, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593318

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease case definition is a crucial surveillance tool to detect suspected cases for referral and as a screening tool for clinicians to support admission and laboratory testing decisions at Ebola health facilities. We aimed to assess the performance of the WHO Ebola virus disease case definitions and other screening scores. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published in English between June 13, 1978, and Jan 14, 2020. We included studies that estimated the sensitivity and specificity of WHO Ebola virus disease case definitions, clinical and epidemiological characteristics (symptoms at admission and contact history), and predictive risk scores against the reference standard (laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus disease). Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using bivariate and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (when four or more studies provided data) or random-effects meta-analysis (fewer than four studies provided data). FINDINGS: We identified 2493 publications, of which 14 studies from four countries (Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Angola) were included in the analysis. 12 021 people with suspected disease were included, of whom 4874 were confirmed as positive for Ebola virus infection. Six studies explored the performance of WHO case definitions in non-paediatric populations, and in all of these studies, suspected and probable cases were combined and could not be disaggregated for analysis. The pooled sensitivity of the WHO Ebola virus disease case definitions from these studies was 81·5% (95% CI 74·1-87·2) and pooled specificity was 35·7% (28·5-43·6). History of contact or epidemiological link was a key predictor for the WHO case definitions (seven studies) and for risk scores (six studies). The most sensitive symptom was intense fatigue (79·0% [95% CI 74·4-83·0]), assessed in seven studies, and the least sensitive symptom was pain behind the eyes (1·0% [0·0-7·0]), assessed in three studies. The performance of fever as a symptom varied depending on the cutoff used to define fever. INTERPRETATION: WHO Ebola virus disease case definitions perform suboptimally to identify cases at both community level and during triage at Ebola health facilities. Inclusion of intense fatigue as a key symptom and contact history could improve the performance of case definitions, but implementation of these changes will require effective collaboration with, and trust of, affected communities. FUNDING: Médecins sans Frontières.

11.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(8): 571-582, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585185

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are a leading cause of disability in adolescents worldwide. Problem solving is a well-tested mental health intervention in many populations. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a brief, transdiagnostic problem-solving intervention for common adolescent mental health problems when delivered by non-specialist school counsellors in New Delhi, India. METHODS: This randomised trial was done in six government-run schools (three all-boys schools, two all-girls schools, and one co-educational school) that serve low-income communities. We recruited participants from grades 9 to 12 (ages 12-20 years) by selecting students with persistently elevated mental health symptoms accompanied by distress or functional impairment. Clinical eligibility criteria were assessed by research assistants using the Hindi-language version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), with reference to locally validated borderline cutoff scores of 19 or greater for boys and 20 or greater for girls on the SDQ Total Difficulties scale, an abnormal score of 2 or more on the SDQ Impact scale, and persistence of more than 1 month on the SDQ Chronicity index. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to problem solving delivered through a brief (2-3 week) counsellor-led intervention with supporting printed materials (intervention group), or problem solving delivered via printed booklets alone (control group). Primary outcomes were adolescent-reported mental health symptoms (SDQ Total Difficulties scale) and idiographic psychosocial problems (Youth Top Problems [YTP]) at 6 weeks. Primary analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis at the 6-week endpoint. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03630471. FINDINGS: Participants were enrolled between Aug 20, and Dec 4, 2018. 283 eligible adolescents were referred to the trial, and 251 (89%) of these were enrolled (mean age 15·61 years; 174 [69%] boys). 125 participants were allocated to each group (after accounting for one participant in the intervention group who withdrew consent after randomisation). Primary outcome data were available for 245 (98%) participants. At 6 weeks, the mean YTP scores were 3·52 (SD 2·66) in the intervention group and 4·60 (2·75) in the control group (adjusted mean difference -1·01, 95% CI -1·63 to -0·38; adjusted effect size 0·36, 95% CI 0·11 to 0·61; p=0·0015). The mean SDQ Total Difficulties scores were 17·48 (5·45) in the intervention group and 18·33 (5·45) in the control group (-0·86, -2·14 to 0·41; 0·16, -0·09 to 0·41; p=0·18). We observed no adverse events. INTERPRETATION: A brief lay counsellor-delivered problem-solving intervention combined with printed booklets seemed to have a modest effect on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents with diverse mental health problems compared with problem-solving booklets alone. This counsellor-delivered intervention might be a suitable first-line intervention in a stepped care approach, which is being evaluated in ongoing studies. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Solución de Problemas , Adolescente , Niño , Consejo , Femenino , Humanos , India , Masculino , Pobreza , Instituciones Académicas , Resultado del Tratamiento , Salud Urbana , Adulto Joven
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e15044, 2020 06 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459645

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Population size estimates (PSEs) for hidden populations at increased risk of HIV, including female sex workers (FSWs), are important to inform public health policy and resource allocation. The service multiplier method (SMM) is commonly used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations. We used this method to obtain PSEs for FSWs at 9 sites in Zimbabwe and explored methods for assessing potential biases that could arise in using this approach. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to guide the assessment of biases that arise when estimating the population sizes of hidden populations using the SMM combined with respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys. METHODS: We conducted RDS surveys at 9 sites in late 2013, where the Sisters with a Voice program (the program), which collects program visit data of FSWs, was also present. Using the SMM, we obtained PSEs for FSWs at each site by dividing the number of FSWs who attended the program, based on program records, by the RDS-II weighted proportion of FSWs who reported attending this program in the previous 6 months in the RDS surveys. Both the RDS weighting and SMM make a number of assumptions, potentially leading to biases if the assumptions are not met. To test these assumptions, we used convergence and bottleneck plots to assess seed dependence of RDS-II proportion estimates, chi-square tests to assess if there was an association between the characteristics of FSWs and their knowledge of program existence, and logistic regression to compare the characteristics of FSWs attending the program with those recruited to RDS surveys. RESULTS: The PSEs ranged from 194 (95% CI 62-325) to 805 (95% CI 456-1142) across 9 sites from May to November 2013. The 95% CIs for the majority of sites were wide. In some sites, the RDS-II proportion of women who reported program use in the RDS surveys may have been influenced by the characteristics of selected seeds, and we also observed bottlenecks in some sites. There was no evidence of association between characteristics of FSWs and knowledge of program existence, and in the majority of sites, there was no evidence that the characteristics of the populations differed between RDS and program data. CONCLUSIONS: We used a series of rigorous methods to explore potential biases in our PSEs. We were able to identify the biases and their potential direction, but we could not determine the ultimate direction of these biases in our PSEs. We have evidence that the PSEs in most sites may be biased and a suggestion that the bias is toward underestimation, and this should be considered if the PSEs are to be used. These tests for bias should be included when undertaking population size estimation using the SMM combined with RDS surveys.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346485

RESUMEN

Background: Poor menstrual health and hygiene (MHH) is a globally recognised public health challenge. A pilot study of an MHH intervention was conducted in two secondary schools in Entebbe, Uganda, over 9 months. The intervention included five components delivered by the implementing partner (WoMena Uganda) and the research team: (i) training teachers to implement government guidelines for puberty education, (ii) a drama skit to reduce stigma about menstruation, (iii) training in use of a menstrual kit (including re-usable pads), (iv) guidance on pain relief methods including provision of analgesics and (v) improvements to school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities. The aim of the process evaluation was to examine implementation, context and possible causal pathways. Methods: We collected information on fidelity, dose, reach, acceptability, context and mechanisms of impact using (i) quantitative survey data collected from female and male students in year 2 of secondary school (ages 13-21; 450 at the baseline and 369 at endline); (ii) qualitative data from 40 in-depth interviews with parents, teachers and female students, and four focus group discussions with students, stratified by gender; (iii) data from unannounced visits checking on WASH facilities throughout the study; and (iv) routine data collected as part of the implementation. Quantitative data were used primarily to assess fidelity, dose and reach. Qualitative data were used primarily to assess acceptability, context and possible mechanisms. Results: Both schools received all intervention elements that were delivered by the research team and implementing partner. The drama skit, menstrual kit and pain management intervention components were delivered with fidelity. Intervention components that relied on school ownership (puberty education training and WASH improvements) were not fully delivered. Overall, the intervention was acceptable to participants. Multilevel contextual factors including schools' social and physical environment, and family, cultural and social factors influenced the acceptability of the intervention in the school setting. The intervention components reinforced one another, as suggested in our theoretical framework. Conclusion: The intervention was feasible to deliver and acceptable to the schools and students. We propose a full-scale cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the intervention, adding a school-based MHH leadership group to address issues with school ownership. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04064736. Registered August 22, 2019, retrospectively registered.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244722

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for alcohol misuse and illicit drug use among young Ugandans in fishing communities, a recognised "key population" for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among young people (15-24 years) in fishing communities in Koome, Uganda, in December 2017-July 2018. Using Audio-Assisted Self-Interviewing, we collected data on socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol use, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and timeline follow-back calendar (TLFB). Blood samples were analysed for HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), and Phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth 16:0/18:1). Urine samples were analysed for illicit drugs. RESULTS: Among 1281 participants (52.7% male, mean age 20 years), 659 (51.4%) reported ever drinking alcohol, 248 (19.4%) had 12-month-AUDIT ≥ 8, and 261 (20.5%) had whole-blood PEth 16:0/18:1 concentration ≥ 20 ng/mL, indicating significant consumption. In multivariable analyses, PEth 16:0/18:1 ≥ 20ng/mL, AUDIT ≥ 8 and binge drinking (≥6 standard drinks per drinking occasion in the previous month from TLFB) were all strongly associated with older age, low education, smoking, and HSV2. Illicit drug use prevalence was 5.2% and was associated with older age, low education, being single, and smoking. CONCLUSION: Levels of alcohol misuse were high among young people in fishing communities and associated with HSV2, a proxy for risky sexual behaviour. Alcohol and illicit drug harm reduction services and HIV prevention programs in Uganda should prioritise young fisherfolk.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Drogas Ilícitas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 198-205, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172592

RESUMEN

This paper aimed to assess the impact of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) among caregivers living with HIV on the cognitive functioning of their child. Data were collected at baseline and 12 months follow-up from mother-child dyads recruited as part of an ongoing trial in Zimbabwe. Symptoms of CMD were assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to assess child cognitive scores at follow-up (using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning) in relation to caregiver CMD prevalence over 12 months. At baseline, caregivers reporting CMD (n = 230; 40.1%) were less likely to have completed higher education (46.9% vs. 56.9%; p = 0.02), more likely to be unmarried (27.8% vs. 16.0%; p < 0.01), and experience food insecurity (50.0% vs. 29.4%; p < 0.01) compared to the group without CMD (n = 344). There were 4 CMD patterns over time: (i) Emerging CMD (n = 101; 19.7% of caregivers) defined as those who were below the cut-off at baseline, and above it at 12 months; (ii) Improving CMD (n = 76; 14.8%) defined as those who reported CMD at baseline, and were below the cut-off by follow-up; (iii) No CMD (n = 206; 40.1%) defined as those who did not report CMD symptoms at either time point; and (iv) Chronic CMD (n = 131; 25.5%) defined as those who reported CMD above the cut-off at both time points. Children of caregivers with chronic CMD (n = 131, 25.5%) had lower receptive language scores (aMD:-2.81, 95%CI -5.1 to -0.6; p = 0.05) compared to the reference group with no CMD (n = 206, 40.1%). Exposure to caregiver CMD over a prolonged period may affect child receptive vocabulary skills.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Cognición/fisiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Madres/psicología , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH , Niño , Trastornos del Conocimiento/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/fisiopatología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
16.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 660-668, 2020 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090783

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Thinking Healthy Programme (THP) is recommended to treat perinatal depression in resource-limited settings, but scale-up is hampered by a paucity of community health workers. THP was adapted for peer-delivery (THPP) and evaluated in two randomized controlled trials in India and Pakistan. Our aim was to estimate the effectiveness of THPP on maternal outcomes across these two settings, and evaluate effect-modification by country and other pre-defined covariates. METHODS: Participants were pregnant women aged≥18 years with depression (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score≥10), randomized to THPP plus enhanced usual care (EUC) or EUC-only. Primary outcomes were symptom severity and remission (PHQ-9 score<5) 6 months post-childbirth. Secondary outcomes included further measures of depression, disability and social support at 3 and 6 months post-childbirth. RESULTS: Among 850 women (280 India; 570 Pakistan), 704 (83%) attended 6-month follow-up. Participants in the intervention arm had lower symptom severity (PHQ-9 score adjusted mean difference -0.78 (95% confidence interval -1.47,-0.09)) and higher odds of remission (adjusted odds ratio 1.35 (1.02,1.78)) versus EUC-only. There was a greater intervention effect on remission among women with short chronicity of depression, and those primiparous. There were beneficial intervention effects across multiple secondary outcomes. LIMITATIONS: The trials were not powered to assess effect-modifications. 10-20% of participants were missing outcome data. CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis demonstrates the effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility of THPP, which can be scaled-up within a stepped-care approach by engaging with the existing health care systems and the communities to address the treatment gap for perinatal depression in resource-limited settings.

17.
PLoS Med ; 17(2): e1003021, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045409

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Strengthening Evidence base on scHool-based intErventions for pRomoting adolescent health (SEHER) is a multicomponent, whole-school health promotion intervention delivered by a lay counsellor or a teacher in government-run secondary schools in Bihar, India. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the intervention after two years of follow-up and to evaluate the consistency of the findings observed over time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomised trial in which 75 schools were randomised (1:1:1) to receive the SEHER intervention delivered by a lay counsellor (SEHER Mitra [SM]) or a teacher (Teacher as SEHER Mitra [TSM]), respectively, alongside a standardised, classroom-based life skills Adolescence Education Program (AEP), compared to AEP alone (control group). The trial design was a repeat cross-sectional study. Students enrolled in grade 9 (aged 13-15 years) in the 2015-2016 academic year were exposed to the intervention for two years and the outcome assessment was conducted at three time points─at baseline in June 2015; 8-months follow-up in March 2016, when the students were still in grade 9; and endpoint at 17-months follow-up in December 2016 (when the students were in grade 10), the results of which are presented in this paper. The primary outcome, school climate, was measured with the Beyond Blue School Climate Questionnaire (BBSCQ). Intervention effects were estimated using mixed-effects linear or logistic regression, including a random effect to adjust for within-school clustering, minimisation variables, baseline cluster-level score of the outcome, and sociodemographic characteristics. In total, 15,232 students participated in the 17-month survey. Compared with the control group, the participants in the SM intervention group reported improvements in school climate (adjusted mean difference [aMD] = 7.33; 95% CI: 6.60-8.06; p < 0.001) and most secondary outcomes (depression: aMD = -4.64; 95% CI: -5.83-3.45; p < 0.001; attitude towards gender equity: aMD = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.65-1.40; p < 0.001; frequency of bullying: aMD = -2.77; 95% CI: -3.40 to -2.14; p < 0.001; violence victimisation: odds ratio [OR] = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04-0.14; p < 0.001; and violence perpetration: OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09-0.29; p < 0.001). There was no evidence of an intervention effect in the TSM group compared with control group. The effects of the lay counsellor-delivered intervention were larger for most outcomes at 17-months follow-up compared with those at 8 months: school climate (effect size [ES; 95% CI] = 2.23 [1.97-2.50] versus 1.88 [1.44-2.32], p < 0.001); depression (ES [95% CI] = -1.19 [-1.56 to -0.82] versus -0.27 [-0.44 to -0.11], p < 0.001); attitude towards gender equity (ES [95% CI] = 0.53 [0.27-0.79] versus 0.23 [0.10-0.36], p < 0.001); bullying (ES [95% CI] = -2.22 [-2.84 to -1.60] versus -0.47 [-0.61 to -0.33], p < 0.001); violence victimisation (OR [95% CI] = 0.08 [0.04-0.14] versus 0.62 [0.46-0.84], p < 0.001); and violence perpetration (OR [95% CI] = 0.16 [0.09-0.29] versus 0.68 [0.48-0.96], p < 0.001), suggesting incremental benefits with an extended intervention. A limitation of the study is that 27% of baseline participants did not complete the 17-month outcome assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The trial showed that the second-year outcomes were similar to the first-year outcomes, with no effect of the teacher-led intervention and larger benefits on school climate and adolescent health accruing from extending lay counsellor-delivered intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02907125.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente , Actitud , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Medio Social , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Sexismo
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e264-e275, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924539

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges to their wellbeing and antiretroviral therapy adherence and have poor treatment outcomes. We aimed to evaluate a peer-led differentiated service delivery intervention on HIV clinical and psychosocial outcomes among adolescents with HIV in Zimbabwe. METHODS: 16 public primary care facilities (clusters) in two rural districts in Zimbabwe (Bindura and Shamva) were randomly assigned (1:1) to provide enhanced HIV care support (the Zvandiri intervention group) or standard HIV care (the control group) to adolescents (aged 13-19 years) with HIV. Eligible clinics had at least 20 adolescents in pre-ART or ART registers and were geographically separated by at least 10 km to minimise contamination. Adolescents were eligible for inclusion if they were living with HIV, registered for HIV care at one of the trial clinics, and either starting or already on ART. Exclusion criteria were being too physically unwell to attend clinic (bedridden), psychotic, or unable to give informed assent or consent. Adolescents with HIV at all clinics received adherence support through adult counsellors. At intervention clinics, adolescents with HIV were assigned a community adolescent treatment supporter, attended a monthly support group, and received text messages, calls, home visits, and clinic-based counselling. Implementation intensity was differentiated according to each adolescent's HIV vulnerability, which was reassessed every 3 months. Caregivers were invited to a support group. The primary outcome was the proportion of adolescents who had died or had a viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL after 96 weeks. In-depth qualitative data were collected and analysed thematically. The trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201609001767322. FINDINGS: Between Aug 15, 2016, and March 31, 2017, 500 adolescents with HIV were enrolled, of whom four were excluded after group assignment owing to testing HIV negative. Of the remaining 496 adolescents, 212 were recruited at Zvandiri intervention sites and 284 at control sites. At enrolment, the median age was 15 years (IQR 14-17), 52% of adolescents were female, 81% were orphans, and 47% had a viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL. 479 (97%) had primary outcome data at endline, including 28 who died. At 96 weeks, 52 (25%) of 209 adolescents in the Zvandiri intervention group and 97 (36%) of 270 adolescents in the control group had an HIV viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL or had died (adjusted prevalence ratio 0·58, 95% CI 0·36-0·94; p=0·03). Qualitative data suggested that the multiple intervention components acted synergistically to improve the relational context in which adolescents with HIV live, supporting their improved adherence. No adverse events were judged to be related to study procedures. Severe adverse events were 28 deaths (17 in the Zvandiri intervention group, 11 in the control group) and 57 admissions to hospital (20 in the Zvandiri intervention group, 37 in the control group). INTERPRETATION: Peer-supported community-based differentiated service delivery can substantially improve HIV virological suppression in adolescents with HIV and should be scaled up to reduce their high rates of morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: Positive Action for Adolescents Program, ViiV Healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Carga Viral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 43, 2020 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence exposure in adolescence is associated with a range of poor health and social outcomes, including both the perpetration and experience of violence in later intimate relationships. However, there is little longitudinal evidence on how both individual and contextual characteristics encourage or interrupt these associations. We designed the Contexts of Violence in Adolescence Cohort study (CoVAC) to provide evidence on these pathways for Ugandan adolescents, with the aim of providing information to improve the design of violence prevention interventions for adolescents and young adults. METHODS: CoVAC is a mixed-methods prospective cohort study with three parallel strands. Between 2014 and 2022, the study comprises three waves of quantitative survey data collection; qualitative data from five time points; and a series of workshops to facilitate direct use of emerging findings by intervention developers at Uganda-based NGO Raising Voices in their ongoing work to prevent violence. 3431 adolescents participated in a survey in 2014 when the majority were aged 11-14 years, and agreed to be re-contacted for a Wave 2 survey in 2018 (aged about 15-18 years); and again in 2021 (aged 18-21 years). 36 young people from Wave 1 survey sample will be invited to participate in longitudinal qualitative data collection. Adolescents aged 18 years and over will provide informed consent; for those under age 18 years, adolescents will be invited to assent, except in cases where caregivers, following notification, have opted not to consent to their adolescent's participation. Quantitative and qualitative data will be analysed iteratively, and triangulation will be used to confirm, clarify and deepen our interpretation of findings. We will hold regular structured meetings so that emerging findings can be integrated into intervention development. DISCUSSION: This will be the first longitudinal study on the aetiology of violence over adolescence in sub-Saharan Africa which will enable examination of pathways using mixed methods at multiple time points. Quantitative mediation analysis, and annual qualitative fieldwork will provide detailed insights into how adolescents' violence-related experiences, perspectives and practices relate to their social contexts and how these change over time. Results will feed directly into intervention development to reduce violence and harmful sequelae. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is a long-term follow up of participants in the Good Schools Study (NCT01678846, clinicaltrials.gov). This protocol is for cohort follow-up only; we have a separate protocol paper describing an evaluation of the long-term effects of the Good School Toolkit (In preparation).


Asunto(s)
Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Investigación Cualitativa , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uganda , Violencia/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
20.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(5): 590-599, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989731

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of HIV-associated chronic lung disease (CLD) in older children and adolescents living with HIV and to examine the clinical factors associated with CLD. This is a post hoc analysis of baseline data from the BREATHE clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02426112). METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 6-19 years were screened for CLD (defined as a FEV1 z-score <-1 with no reversibility post-bronchodilation with salbutamol) at two HIV clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Blantyre, Malawi. Eligible participants with CLD (cases) were enrolled, together with a control group without CLD [frequency-matched by age group and duration on antiretroviral therapy (ART)] in a 4:1 allocation ratio. A clinical history and examination were undertaken. The association between CLD and a priori-defined demographic and clinical covariates was investigated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 1585 participants screened, 419 (32%) had a FEV1 z-score <-1, of whom 347 were enrolled as cases [median age 15.3 years (IQR 12.7-17.7); 48.9% female] and 74 with FEV1 z-score >0 as controls [median age 15.6 years (IQR 12.1-18.2); 62.2% female]. Among cases, current respiratory symptoms including cough and shortness of breath were reported infrequently (9.3% and 1.8%, respectively). However, 152 (43.8%) of cases had a respiratory rate above the 90th centile for their age. Wasting and taking second-line ART were independently associated with CLD. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CLD indicates the need to address additional treatment support for youth living with HIV, alongside ART provision, to ensure a healthier adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Servicios de Salud del Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/complicaciones , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sobrevivientes , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...