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1.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469184

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study investigated whole neurogenic bladder's progression changes, as well as the expression of TGF-ß1 fibrosis pathway-related proteins in bilateral spinal nerve-amputated juvenile rats. METHODS: Sixty-four 8-week-old rats (32 bilateral L6 + S1 spinal nerve amputated and 32 sham operated) were selected. Cystometry was performed. General assessments, Masson, Sirius red, immunohistochemical staining, and western blotting of fibrosis and TGF-ß1 pathway-related proteins were conducted using bladder tissues. RESULTS: Cystometry results showed that the basal intravesical pressures and bladder capacities in nerve-amputated rats were significantly higher than those in sham-operated ones. Compared to the sham-operated groups, the bladder size and wall thickness in the nerve-amputated groups increased initially but then decreased over time. However, bladder weight continuously increased over time. Disintegration, thickening, and hypertrophy of the bladder wall were found over time in the amputated rats. Moreover, there was a significant increase in collagen III, and the ratio of collagen III/I was higher in amputated rats (P < 0.01). Finally, the expression of TGF-ß1, TGF-ßRI, Smad2, and collagen III and I increased in amputated bladder tissues, while Smad6 decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The main clinical features of pediatric neurogenic bladder (PNB) were detrusor paralysis and continuous intravesical pressure. Biological molecular findings are earlier than the pathophysiological findings. Therefore, early preventing bladder fibrosis by targeting TGF-ß1/Smad pathway-related proteins once knowing the PNB diagnosis might be an alternative treatment for PNB. IMPACT: The study found that the main clinical features of PNB were detrusor paralysis, continuous intravesical pressure, and increased TGF-beta/Smad signal proteins over time. The study makes contributions to the literature because it suggests biological molecular findings are earlier than the pathophysiological findings by various staining in PNB. The study investigated whole neurogenic bladder's progression changes, as well as the expression of TGF-ß1 fibrosis pathway-related proteins in the spinal nerve-injured PNB juvenile rat models, which suggests that early prevention of bladder fibrosis by targeting TGF-ß1/Smad pathway-related proteins once knowing the PNB diagnosis might be an alternative treatment for pediatric neurogenic bladder.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14407, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873840

RESUMEN

This research investigated the association between prolonged disposable diaper (DD) wearing in infancy and primary enuresis (PNE). As a case-control study, we collected data from 376 children with enuresis and 379 healthy children who were sex- and age-matched at three tertiary care institutions in mainland China from August 2017 to July 2018. The results of adjusted logistic regression showed the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PNE across the categories of age of daytime DD use cessation were as follows: ≥ 25 months: 1.00, 18-24 months: 0.25 (0.17-0.37), and ≤ 17 months: 0.11 (0.06-0.20), independent of age, mother education, residence, toilet training approach, breastfeeding duration, UTI, constipation, anaphylactic disease and family history. After a similar multivariable adjustment, increased age of daytime DD use (per-month) had a positive correlation with PNE, OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.13-1.20 and non-linear relationship was detected, whose point was 21 months (the effect sizes and the 95%CI on the left and right sides of inflection point were 1.04 (0.99-1.10), P = 0.131 and 1.25 (1.18-1.31), P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis found that the effect of duration of disposable diaper exposure for each additional month, those children had accepted assisted infant toilet training/elimination communication (AITT/EC) practice had a lower risk of PNE (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12), compared with those without AITT/EC practice (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.14-1.27), P for interaction < 0.001. In conclusion, the children diagnosed with primary enuresis after age 5 stopped using disposable diapers at daytime later than the control group. Association between duration of DD exposure and the risk of childhood enuresis is modified by AITT/EC practice. Timely cessation use of disposable diaper and practice AITT/EC may shorten the time to nocturnal continence, and the prospective cohort studies are needed to verify the discoveries.

3.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(10): 1406-1414, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624697

RESUMEN

Adoptive cellular immunotherapy employing chimeric antigen receptors-modified T (CAR-T) cells has demonstrated promising antitumor effects in hematologic cancers. However, CAR-T therapy confront many challenges in solid tumors like immunosuppressive microenvironment, molecular heterogeneity, etc. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) revealed many genetic characteristic and molecular tumorigenesis. EGFRvIII is a tumor specific antigen widely expressed in a variety of cancers including HCC and an ideal therapeutic target for cancer therapy. The liver cancer cell line SMMC7721 express high level EGFRvIII and widely applied in HCC investigations. Herein, we developed EGFRvIII CAR-T cells by piggyBac transposon system, and detected its specific killing effect against SMMC7721 cells in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that transduction efficiency of CAR reached 53.1%. Expression of CAR protein was verified by immunoblotting as a band of approximate 57KD. The killing effect of CAR-T cells against SMMC7721 was positively correlated with E/T ratio (E:T=5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 40:1), and exceeded 50% at 20:1 ratio. Significant increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion were detected in the co-culture supernatant of CAR-T cells and SMMC7721, comparable to the level of exogenous EGFRvIII-expressing U87 cells. The killing activity and cytokine secretion were both dependent on the expression level of EGFRvIII in target cells. In HCC xenograft models, CAR-T cells could effectively suppress the growth of SMMC7721. In conclusion, EGFRvIII CAR-T cells demonstrated specific antitumor effect against SMMC7721 in vitro and in vivo, providing basis for immunotherapy of HCC in future clinical use.

4.
J Pediatr Urol ; 16(3): 352.e1-352.e8, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241587

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, attitudes and practices towards toilet training have changed several decades ago and children are completing toilet training at a later age compared to previous generations. Concurrently, there has been an increase in the incidence of pediatric bladder bowel dysfunction (BBD), including lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). Whether the fact of delayed toilet training may negatively impact the ability of children to obtain bladder and bowel control and cause LUT dysfunction remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between age at initiation of toilet training or approach to toilet training and the risks of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the CENTRAL, EMBASE and MEDLINE via Ovid SP, and CINAHL via EBSCO databases was conducted to identify RCTs, cohort or case-control studies investigating the association between age at initiation of toilet training, approach used for toilet training, and pediatric LUT dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies with 24,121 participants (aged 5-17) were included for pooled analysis. Overall, the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of LUT dysfunction in children who initiated toilet training at a younger age when compared to those who initiated toilet training at an older age, was 0.71 (0.63-0.81), P < 0.001), irrespective of the approach used for toilet training (Table). Subgroup analysis for day-time incontinence (persistent daytime wetting) was 0.77 (0.62-0.95), P = 0.014; although the outcomes for enuresis fluctuated, favorable results were still observed in the earlier training group (OR:0.63, 95%CI:0.43-0.94, P = 0.023). Subgroup analysis for age at initiating toilet training vs LUT dysfunction also showed favorable results in children who were trained earlier, i.e., before 24 months (OR:0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.94, P = 0.009). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that the results were robust. DISCUSSION: Although the definition about the age of initial toilet training varied greatly in studies, findings from the current study suggested that the optimal time for initiating toilet training may be prior to the age of 24 months; if toilet training was initiated after 24 months or later, it may result in increased prevalence of LUT dysfunction. Since no RCTs studies were included in the current meta-analysis, well-designed longitudinal studies with larger sample size and from different cultural background are needed to confirm these results. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis presents preliminary findings that show the incidence of LUTD may be decreased by initiating toilet training in children at a younger age.

5.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(2): 688-694, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804751

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) and assess its risk factors in 5- to 14-year-old Chinese children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of OAB prevalence was performed by distributing 11 800 anonymous self-administered questionnaires to parents in five provinces of mainland China from July to October 2018. The questionnaires included questions on sociodemographics, history of urinary tract infection (UTI), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), family history of LUTS, bowel symptoms, and details about the elimination communication (EC) start time. OAB was defined as urgency and increased the daytime frequency with or without urinary incontinence. RESULTS: A total of 10 133 questionnaires qualified for statistical analysis. The overall prevalence of OAB was 9.01% and decreased with age, from 12.40% at 5 years to 4.55% at 14 years (χ2 trend = 88.899; P < .001). The proportion of dry OAB increased with age, whereas the proportion of wet OAB decreased. A late-onset of EC was associated with a high OAB prevalence (χ2 trend = 39.802; P < .001). Children with obesity, a history of UTI, nocturnal enuresis (NE), a family history of LUTS, constipation, and fecal incontinence had a higher prevalence of OAB than did normal children (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Obesity, a history of UTI, NE, a family history of LUTS, and bowel symptoms are risk factors associated with OAB. Starting EC before 12 months of age might help reduce the prevalence of OAB in children.


Asunto(s)
Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/epidemiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior/epidemiología , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/complicaciones , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Población , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(2): 565-575, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782979

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate bladder function patterns following cystostomy and determine the best time window for cystometric evaluation of bladder function in conscious rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cystostomy was performed in rats of the first seven groups; thereafter, cystometry was performed in the designed time interval. Noncystostomy rats of group 8 voided freely as control. Basal bladder pressure (Pves.basal ), maximum bladder pressure (Pves.max ), bladder threshold pressure (Pves.thre ), voiding interval (VI), bladder contraction duration (CD), bladder compliance (ΔC), voided volume (VV), postvoiding residual urine (PVR), and bladder capacity (BC) were recorded and compared with cystostomy groups, with VV, PVR, BC compared with the control values. Bladders were collected after the urodynamic study for weighing, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson staining to investigate pathological changes. RESULTS: Pves.basal , Pves.max , and Pves.thre trended downward, while BC, VI, VV, and ΔC trended upward on days 1 to 5 postcystostomy. BC and VV significantly decreased on days 1 to 3 postcystostomy compared with control values; on days 5 to 15 postcystostomy, Pves.basal , Pves.max , Pves.thre , VI, VV, BC, and PVR were stable, and BC, VV, and PVR showed no significant differences from the control values. However, on day 21 postcystostomy, BC increased significantly compared with the controls. Bladder weight increased in the cystostomy groups compared with the controls. Pathological analysis showed severe acute bladder inflammation on days 1 to 3, mild inflammation on days 5 to 15, and increased collagen deposition in bladder tissue on day 21 postcystostomy. CONCLUSION: Cystometric evaluation of bladder function in conscious rats is best performed on days 5 to 15 postcystostomy.


Asunto(s)
Cistostomía , Vejiga Urinaria/fisiología , Animales , Adaptabilidad , Cistitis/fisiopatología , Femenino , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Presión , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Micción , Urodinámica
7.
Pediatr Res ; 86(6): 692-698, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086288

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The treatment of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated pediatric inflammatory diseases is challenging. Here we studied whether cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevator forskolin could attenuate the nigericin-induced NLRP3-inflammasome activation and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) secretion in human macrophages. METHODS: The proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of inflammasome structural proteins and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in forskolin-stimulated nigericin-activated human THP-1 macrophages and primary macrophages. RESULTS: Activation of THP-1 macrophages with nigericin increased the mRNA expression of NLRP3, IL-1ß, and caspase-1 (P < 0.01). Forskolin stimulation had no effect on the mRNA expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, or IL-1ß in nigericin-activated cells (P > 0.05), while their protein levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Forskolin-mediated increase in cytoplasmic cAMP in non-activated cells was attenuated in nigericin-activated macrophages (P < 0.05). Basal IL-1ß secretion increased from 584 to 2696 pg/mL (P < 0.01) in nigericin-activated macrophages; forskolin dose-dependently reduced the nigericin-induced secretion of mature IL-1ß (P < 0.01). Forskolin also inhibited the IL-1ß secretion from activated human primary macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Forskolin inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the secretion of mature IL-1ß, in human macrophages. Forskolin and other cAMP elevator drugs could represent a novel approach for treatment of diseases associated with excessive inflammasome activation, like pediatric inflammatory diseases.


Asunto(s)
Colforsina/farmacología , Inflamasomas/efectos de los fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/metabolismo , Caspasa 1/genética , Línea Celular , Colforsina/administración & dosificación , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Humanos , Inflamasomas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/genética , Nigericina/farmacología , ARN Mensajero/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética
8.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 38(5): 1423-1429, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998267

RESUMEN

AIMS: A pilot survey shows that primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) prevalence has increased significantly during the past decade in Mainland China. Whether it is related to the delay of elimination communication (EC) is unclear. This study retrospectively investigated the influence of delayed EC on the PNE prevalence in children and adolescents in mainland China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of PNE prevalence was performed by distributing 19 500 anonymous self-administered questionnaires to parents in five provinces of mainland China from July 2017 to October 2017. The questionnaires included sociodemographic data, family caregivers' information, and details about the disposable diapers (DD) usage, EC commencement date, psychological disorders, lower urinary tract symptoms, and family history of PNE in children and adolescents. The 2017 PNE prevalence was compared with that of 2006 in Mainland China. RESULTS: The total response rate was 97.04% (18 631 of 19 500) and 92.39% (18 016 of 19 500) qualified for statistical analysis. The PNE prevalence in 2017 has increased significantly compared to that of 2006 (7.30% vs 4.07%, P < 0.001). The PNE prevalence in children with EC starting before 6 months of age was significantly lower than those who start after 12 months of age. The longer DD were used and the later the beginning of EC, the higher the PNE prevalence was found. CONCLUSIONS: The PNE prevalence in Mainland China has increased significantly during the past 10 years. A longer use of DD and later onset of EC may be risk factors for PNE.


Asunto(s)
Enuresis Nocturna/epidemiología , Control de Esfínteres , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 38(2): 499-508, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644584

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The terminology for nocturia and nocturnal lower urinary tract function is reviewed and updated in a clinically and practically-based consensus report. METHODS: This report has been created by a Working Group under the auspices and guidelines of the International Continence Society (ICS) Standardisation Steering Committee (SSC). All relevant definitions were updated on the basis of research over the last 16 years since the publication of the first nocturia standardization document in 2002. An extensive process of 16 rounds of internal and external reviews was involved to examine each definition exhaustively, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). RESULTS: A clinically-based terminology report for nocturia and nocturnal lower urinary tract function, encompassing five key definitions divided into signs and symptoms has been developed. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by healthcare professionals and allied healthcare practitioners involved in the care of individuals with nocturnal lower urinary tract function. CONCLUSION: A consensus-based terminology report for nocturia and nocturnal lower urinary tract function has been produced to aid clinical practice and research.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología , Nocturia/diagnóstico , Terminología como Asunto , Vejiga Urinaria/fisiopatología , Urología , Consenso , Humanos , Nocturia/fisiopatología , Sociedades Médicas , Fenómenos Fisiológicos del Sistema Urinario
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 506(3): 585-589, 2018 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366672

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is an important water channel protein that is expressed in the renal collecting duct and plays a key role in urine concentration and body water homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that the urinary excretion of AQP2 correlates strongly with its expression in the kidney in adult humans and rats. However, there have been no studies on the urinary excretion of AQP2 in human fetuses during development. Fetal urine is the main source of the amniotic fluid; we speculate that the level of AQP2 in the amniotic fluid could reflect the expression level of the AQP2 protein in the fetal kidney. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between AQP2 in the amniotic fluid and that in the fetal kidney. METHODS: In the present study, the concentration of the AQP2 protein in human amniotic fluid was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its expression level in human fetal kidneys were examined by wastern blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Both the expression level of AQP2 in the fetal kidney (F = 195.9, P < 0.001) and the concentration of AQP2 in the amniotic fluid increased with gestational age (F = 1098, P < 0.001). Moreover, the concentration of AQP2 in the amniotic fluid was positively correlated with its expression level in the fetal kidney (r = 0.872, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our research indicates that AQP2 levels in the amniotic fluid may be used as a marker for AQP2 expression in the fetal kidney.


Asunto(s)
Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , Acuaporina 2/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Riñón/embriología , Riñón/metabolismo , Adulto , Humanos , Riñón/anatomía & histología , Túbulos Renales Colectores/citología , Túbulos Renales Colectores/metabolismo
11.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 132(18): 2071-2085, 2018 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959186

RESUMEN

Congenital urinary tract obstruction is one of the most frequent malformations in fetuses or neonates, which usually causes profound impairment of renal function including reductions in both glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular handling of water and solutes. Although obstruction can be released by surgical operation, the child will suffer from diuresis for sometime. It has been reported that erythropoietin (EPO) could prevent the down-regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and urinary-concentrating defects induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, whether EPO could promote the recovery of renal function and AQP2 expression after releasing of ureteral obstruction has not been reported yet. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of EPO on renal function and AQP2 expression after release of bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO-R) in rats. The results showed that EPO could promote interleukin (IL) 10 (IL-10) expression; inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions; reduce the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) and plasma creatinine (CREA) and urea; and promote the recovery of water and salt handling and AQP2 expression in BUO-R rats, especially in the high dose of EPO-treated group rats. In conclusion, EPO could promote the recovery of renal function and AQP2 expression in BUO-R rats, which may partially associate with its anti-inflammation effect.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Eritropoyetina/farmacología , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Obstrucción Ureteral/fisiopatología , Animales , Acuaporina 2/genética , Acuaporina 2/metabolismo , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Riñón/metabolismo , Riñón/fisiopatología , Masculino , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Daño por Reperfusión/metabolismo , Daño por Reperfusión/fisiopatología , Obstrucción Ureteral/genética , Obstrucción Ureteral/metabolismo
12.
Urolithiasis ; 46(2): 211-218, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365782

RESUMEN

The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of silodosin in medical expulsive therapy (MET) for ureteral stones. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of silodosin in MET for ureteral calculi. We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, Central (the Cochrane Library, Issue 1,2013), Google Scholar from the inception to March 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing silodosin with tamsulosin or control on ureteral stone passage. Eight RCTs with a total of 1145 ureteral stone patients (300 patients in the control group, 287 patients in the tamsulosin group, 558 patients in the silodosin group) were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with control, silodosin significantly improved expulsion rate of distal ureteral stones (RR: 1.42; 95% CI, 1.21-1.67; P < 0.0001), while there was no significant difference between silodosin and the control in expulsion rate of proximal (RR: 0.99; 95% CI, 0.69-1.43; P < 0.97) or mid (RR: 1.13; 95% CI, 0.60-2.16; P < 0.0001) ureteral stones. There was no significant difference between silodosin and tamsulosin in terms of expulsion time (WMD: -2.47; 95% CI, -5.32 to 0.39; P = 0.09), analgesic use (WMD: -0.39; 95% CI, -0.91 to 0.13; P = 0.14) and retrograde ejaculation rate (RR: 1.85; 95% CI, 0.95-3.59; P = 0.07) in MET for distal ureteral stones. However, silodosin provided a significantly higher expulsion rate (RR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.37; P < 0.0001) than tamsulosin for distal ureteral stones. Silodosin significantly improved expulsion rate of distal ureteral stones and was clinically superior to tamsulosin. Silodosin was ineffective in MET for proximal and mid ureteral stones. More RCT studies are needed to compare the efficacy of silodosin versus tamsulosin in MET for distal ureteral stones.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/uso terapéutico , Indoles/uso terapéutico , Cálculos Ureterales/tratamiento farmacológico , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sulfonamidas/uso terapéutico , Tamsulosina , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 37(4): 1272-1280, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160569

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate the feasibility of restoring bladder function and prevention of renal deterioration by neurorrhaphy in rats with neurogenic bladder (NB). METHODS: Forty-two rats were assigned to the end-to-side nerve coaptation group (ECG, n = 16), no nerve coaptation group (NCG, n = 16), and control group (CG, n = 10). In the ECG, the left ventral root (VR) and dorsal root (DR) of L6 and S1 were transected, and the distal stump of L6VR was sutured to the lateral face of L4VR. In the NCG, the left VR and DR of L6 and S1 were transected, but coaptation was not performed. In the CG, no operation was performed. Nerve regeneration, bladder function, and renal function were evaluated by FluoroGold (FG) retrograde tract tracing, cystometry, electrical stimulation, MRI, histology and biochemical assays. RESULTS: In the ECG, FG-labeled neurons were observed in the left ventral horn of L4 spinal cord. There was a significant increase in intravesical pressure upon stimulation of the left L4VR proximal to the coaptation. Maximum cystometric capacity, post-void residual urine, bladder compliance and weight, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and fibrotic area of bladder and kidney were lower in the ECG than in the NCG, but higher than the CG. Hydronephrosis was noticed in ECG and NCG rats. Maximum detrusor voiding pressure was higher in the ECG and CG than in the NCG. CONCLUSIONS: End-to-side neurorrhaphy is a useful method for restoring bladder function and preventing renal injury in rats with NB.


Asunto(s)
Riñón/fisiopatología , Regeneración Nerviosa , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Raíces Nerviosas Espinales/fisiopatología , Vejiga Urinaria Neurogénica/cirugía , Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/fisiopatología , Vejiga Urinaria Neurogénica/fisiopatología , Micción/fisiología
14.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 24(12): 1100-1105, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212490

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the high-frequency ultrasonographic characteristics and clinical features of primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the high-frequency ultrasonographic manifestations and clinical characteristics of 11 cases of PTL in children, all confirmed by postoperative pathology. RESULTS: Most of the PTL patients were school-age children, with painless testicular enlargement as the initial symptom. Preoperative grey-scale ultrasonography showed involvement of the unilateral testis in 8, bilateral testes in 3, and both the testis and epididymis in 2 of in the 11 children with PTL. Nine of the cases were displayed as diffuse lesion and the other 2 as nodular lesion, all with extremely low echogenicity. Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) revealed abundant blood flow signals but no liquefaction or calcification echo in the lesions. Follow-up ultrasonography after immunochemotherapy showed complete disappearance of the lesion in 3 cases, reduction in another 3, no significant change in 1, and enlargement in the other 4. CONCLUSIONS: PTL in children has some specific ultrasonographic characteristics. A deeper insight into the ultrasonographic characteristics and clinical features of PTL may help improve ultrasonographic diagnosis of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Linfoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Ultrasonografía , Adulto , Niño , Epidídimo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Linfoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagen , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagen
15.
Oncotarget ; 8(1): 1058-1073, 2017 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27911865

RESUMEN

Aerobic glycolysis is one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between blocking mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) with MPC blocker UK5099 and the metabolic alteration as well as aggressive features of esophageal squamous carcinoma. It was found that blocking pyruvate transportation into mitochondria attenuated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and triggered aerobic glycolysis, a feature of Warburg effect. In addition, the HIF-1α expression and ROS production were also activated upon UK5099 application. It was further revealed that the UK5099-treated cells became significantly more resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the UK5099-treated tumor cells also exhibited stronger invasive capacity compared to the parental cells. In contrast to esophageal squamous epithelium cells, decreased MPC protein expression was observed in a series of 157 human squamous cell carcinomas, and low/negative MPC1 expression predicted an unfavorable clinical outcome. All these results together revealed the potential connection of altered MPC expression/activity with the Warburg metabolic reprogramming and tumor aggressiveness in cell lines and clinical samples. Collectively, our findings highlighted a therapeutic strategy targeting Warburg reprogramming of human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Adenosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Línea Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Esófago , Glucosa/metabolismo , Glucólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Oxidación-Reducción , Pronóstico , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
16.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 25(4): 697-705, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27702712

RESUMEN

The melamine contaminated milk powder contamination scandal occurred in China in 2008. Its main consequences so far have been urinary stone formation in children with associated renal damage and increased child mortality. Eight years have passed, but food safety issues still remain of concern in the daily lives of millions of Chinese. Vigilance is required to ensure no recurrence of such food safety problems. Ongoing studies focus on the early detection of food industry malpractice, mechanisms whereby these toxic substances induce disease and how its advent may be prevented and better managed. Melamine undergoes renal excretion, but is metabolized slowly and excreted largely unchanged in the urine. Urinary melamine measurement may provide a rapid and inexpensive way to identify exposure to melamine adulterated food items. Although most patients with melaminerelated urinary stones (MUS) have been responsive to conservative treatment, longer time follow-up is needed to assess chronic effects. Aside from MUS, melamine is a recognized carcinogen and can induce urinary tract tumours. Very little is known about the effects of excessive exposure to melamine contaminated milk powder in infants on growth, adolescent and adult health, although short-term effects have become apparent during the scandal.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Alimentos en Conserva/análisis , Leche/química , Triazinas/análisis , Triazinas/toxicidad , Animales , Carcinógenos , China , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Enfermedades Renales/inducido químicamente , Triazinas/orina , Cálculos Urinarios/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias Urológicas/inducido químicamente
17.
J Biol Chem ; 291(42): 22231-22243, 2016 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576691

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor (AR) is a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer including metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). All current hormone therapies for CRPC target the C-terminal ligand-binding domain of AR and ultimately all fail with resumed AR transcriptional activity. Within the AR N-terminal domain (NTD) is activation function-1 (AF-1) that is essential for AR transcriptional activity. Inhibitors of AR AF-1 would potentially block most AR mechanisms of resistance including constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the ligand-binding domain. Here we provide evidence that sintokamide A (SINT1) binds AR AF-1 region to specifically inhibit transactivation of AR NTD. Consistent with SINT1 targeting AR AF-1, it attenuated transcriptional activities of both full-length AR and constitutively active AR splice variants, which correlated with inhibition of growth of enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells expressing AR splice variants. In vivo, SINT1 caused regression of CRPC xenografts and reduced expression of prostate-specific antigen, a gene transcriptionally regulated by AR. Inhibition of AR activity by SINT1 was additive to EPI-002, a known AR AF-1 inhibitor that is in clinical trials (NCT02606123). This implies that SINT1 binds to a site on AF-1 that is unique from EPI. Consistent with this suggestion, these two compounds showed differences in blocking AR interaction with STAT3. This work provides evidence that the intrinsically disordered NTD of AR is druggable and that SINT1 analogs may provide a novel scaffold for drug development for the treatment of prostate cancer or other diseases of the AR axis.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Pirrolidinonas/farmacología , Receptores Androgénicos/biosíntesis , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Dominios Proteicos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacocinética , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/metabolismo
18.
Oncotarget ; 7(38): 61656-61669, 2016 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27556703

RESUMEN

Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are valuable tools for precise genome engineering of laboratory animals. Here we utilized this technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a fumarate hydratase (FH) gene knockout rat model, in which there was an 11 base-pair deletion in the first exon of the FH gene in 111 rats. 18 live-born targeted mutation offsprings were produced from 80 injected zygotes with 22.5% efficiency, indicating high TALEN knockout success in rat zygots. Only heterozygous deletion was observed in the offsprings. Sixteen pairs of heterozygous FH knockout (FH+/-) rats were arranged for mating experiments for six months without any homozygous KO rat identified. Sequencing from the pregnant rats embryo samples showed no homozygous FH KO, indicating that homozygous FH KO is embryonically lethal. Comparatively, the litter size was decreased in both male and female FH+/- KO rats. There was no behaviour difference between the FH+/- KO and the control rats except that the FH+/- KO male rats showed significantly higher body weight in the 16-week observation period. Clinical haematology and biochemical examinations showed hematopoietic and kidney dysfunction in the FH+/- KO rats. Small foci of anaplastic lesions of tubular epithelial cells around glomeruli were identified in the FH+/- kidney, and these anaplastic cells were comparatively positive for Ki67, p53 and Sox9, and such findings are most probably related to the kidney dysfunction reflected by the biochemical examinations of the rats. In conclusion, we have successfully established an FH+/- KO rat model, which will be useful for further functional FH studies.


Asunto(s)
Fumarato Hidratasa/genética , Genes Letales , Nucleasas de los Efectores Tipo Activadores de la Transcripción , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Conducta Animal , Peso Corporal , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Exones , Femenino , Eliminación de Gen , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Ingeniería Genética , Heterocigoto , Homocigoto , Masculino , Mutación , Obesidad/genética , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
19.
Int Neurourol J ; 20(2): 151-8, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27377948

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and its relationship with the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) in middle-aged and elderly people in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out at 7 communities in Zhengzhou City, China from December 15, 2013 to June 10, 2014, where residents aged over 40 years were randomly selected to participate. All of the participants underwent lumbosacral radiographic analysis and relevant laboratory tests. A questionnaire including basic information, past medical history and present illness, and the OAB symptom score was filled out by all participants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis with a P-value of <0.05 denoting statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 1,061 subjects were qualified for the final statistical analysis (58.8±11.7 years; male, 471 [44.4%]; female, 590 [55.6%]). The overall prevalence of SBO was 15.1% (160 of 1,061): 18.3% (86 of 471) in men and 12.5% (74 of 590) in women. Among these subjects, 13.7% (145 of 1,061) had OAB: 13.2% (62 of 471) in men and 14.1% (83 of 590) in women. The results of logistic regression showed that age, SBO, history of cerebral infarction (HCI), and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while sex, history of childhood enuresis (HCE), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were not (P>0.05). In men, age, SBO, and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, HCI, and benign prostate hyperplasia were not (P>0.05). In women, age, SBO, and HCI were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, vaginal delivery, and constipation were not (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SBO is high and it is related to OAB in middle-aged and elderly people in China.

20.
Oncotarget ; 7(33): 53837-53852, 2016 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27462778

RESUMEN

Alternative pathways of metabolism endowed cancer cells with metabolic stress. Inhibiting the related compensatory pathways might achieve synergistic anticancer results. This study demonstrated that pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α gene knockout (PDHA1 KO) resulted in alterations in tumor cell metabolism by rendering the cells with increased expression of glutaminase1 (GLS1) and glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GLUD1), leading to an increase in glutamine-dependent cell survival. Deprivation of glutamine induced cell growth inhibition, increased reactive oxygen species and decreased ATP production. Pharmacological blockade of the glutaminolysis pathway resulted in massive tumor cells apoptosis and dysfunction of ROS scavenge in the LNCaP PDHA1 KO cells. Further examination of the key glutaminolysis enzymes in human prostate cancer samples also revealed that higher levels of GLS1 and GLUD1 expression were significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor clinical outcome. These insights supply evidence that glutaminolysis plays a compensatory role for cell survival upon alternative energy metabolism and targeting the glutamine anaplerosis of energy metabolism via GLS1 and GLUD1 in cancer cells may offer a potential novel therapeutic strategy.


Asunto(s)
Glutamato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Glutaminasa/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Anciano , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Piruvato Deshidrogenasa (Lipoamida)/metabolismo
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