Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822390

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the evolving roles of pharmacy technicians in the United States, the profession has attempted to define a national standard. Community pharmacy employers to-date have preferred on-the-job training to formal, accredited training programs or credentialing, however, limited evidence exists on the perceived needs of pharmacy technicians in the United States compared to those of community pharmacy employers. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to explore: 1) community pharmacy employer perceptions of associated benefits and perceived value of pharmacy technician certification and 2) needs of employers related to pharmacy technician attitudes and knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs). METHODS: Using a semi-structured interview guide, researchers interviewed 7 community pharmacy employers within top management teams in a variety of community pharmacy settings. The data were analyzed for themes using the human capital vs. signal theory. RESULTS: Employers and managers generally saw both attitude and KSAs as vital to success. However, given a choice between experience and attitude, attitude was preferred. There was general agreement that certified technicians offered more value to their organization, however gaps in certified technician KSAs were noted (i.e., lack of day-to-day practical skills, vaccination screening, motivating patients to change behaviors, patient communication and workflow management). CONCLUSIONS: New emerging directions for certification now exist due to the rapidly shifting pharmacy landscape, which is revolves around new and expanded clinical patient care services. This shifting landscape has exposed gaps, reinforced strengths, and uncovered potential new opportunities and needs related to technician certification.

2.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 99, 2019 11 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775801

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: (1) To develop an adaptation framework for MTM delivery for pharmacists (the MTM Adaptability Framework), (2) to examine the impact of an educational intervention informed by the MTM Adaptability Framework on MTM completion rates over a 2-year period, and (3) to explore pharmacists' perceptions regarding knowledge and beliefs about MTM and MTM implementation self-efficacy pre- and post-intervention. METHODS: This study is a prospective, mixed-methods research study including a quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest quantitative study with a sequential explanatory qualitative study arm featuring semi-structured key informant interviews. US supermarket pharmacy chain setting included 93 community pharmacy sites located in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Alabama. MTM completion rates are reported as percentage of completed comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) and targeted medication reviews (TMRs) and pharmacist perceptions. RESULTS: An 11.4% absolute increase in MTM completion rates was seen after the educational intervention targeting adaptation of MTM in the community pharmacy setting. This was found to be significant (46.92% vs. 58.3%; p < 0.001). Responses to the semi-structured interviews were mapped against CFIR and included themes: "knowledge and beliefs about MTM (pre-intervention)," "self-efficacy for MTM implementation (pre-intervention)," "knowledge and beliefs about MTM (post-intervention)," and "self-efficacy for MTM implementation (post-intervention)." Data convergence was found across these methodologies and suggested that targeting adaptability of MTM delivery increases MTM completion rates (quantitative data) and positively changes perceptions of MTM feasibility and self-efficacy (interviews). CONCLUSION: The use of an educational intervention about adaptation of MTM to influence adaptation of MTM to a chain community pharmacy setting part of an implementation strategy improved MTM completion rates significantly. Future research should investigate combined implementation strategies and their impact on MTM implementation success.

4.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2019 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103338

RESUMEN

The United States healthcare system faces immense challenges related to cost, quality, and access. As the pharmacy profession addresses these challenges by shifting toward a practice model centered around direct patient care clinical services, a competent and capable technician workforce is needed to support the roles of pharmacists. Until recently, little focus has been paid to pharmacy technicians or their role as they relate to practice model change. With ongoing pharmacist practice transformation, an approach that ensures uniform technician education, training, registration, and certification is vital to support a practice model designed to transform medication management across the continuum of care. The purpose of this commentary is three-fold: to review the history of pharmacy technician training and practice, discuss current and future technician practice models, and examine workforce development implications.

5.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 59(3): 369-374.e2, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745189

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare viewpoints of nationally certified and noncertified technicians and explore the perceived value of technician certification in the job performance domains of medication safety, skills and abilities, experience, engagement and satisfaction, and productivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy technicians, from 6 states representing 4 regions of the United States, was conducted. Technician mailing lists were purchased from Boards of Pharmacy, and randomly selected technicians were sent survey invitations. Surveys were completed via Qualtrics and analyzed with the use of SAS. RESULTS: Six hundred seventy-six technicians (547 certified, 103 noncertified, and 26 previously certified) responded to the survey (9.4% response rate). Certified technicians reported significantly higher confidence rating for desire to take on new responsibilities (P < 0.01; Cohen d 0.45) and plans to remain in the pharmacy field (P = 0.01, Cohen d 0.35), lower rating for leaving the job in the next 12 months (P < 0.01; Cohen d 0.35), and perceived lower rate of medication errors (P < 0.01; Cohen d 0.35) compared with other technicians in the work setting. The majority of respondents stated confidence in performing the "final check" on another technician's preparation of a new or refill medication if allowed. Both certified and noncertified technicians noted dissatisfaction with pay. The majority of respondents reported that they spent none of or less than 10% of their workday assisting pharmacists with medication therapy management (MTM) sessions, immunizations, or point-of-care tests; however, 71 respondents specifically described how they assist pharmacists with MTM. CONCLUSION: Results from our survey sample indicate that certified technicians have a stronger organizational and career commitment and desire to take on new roles. A majority of respondents noted dissatisfaction with pay but feel a sense of pride in their work. Both groups were confident in their abilities needed for tech-check-tech product verification.

6.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(5): 571-578, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986816

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the significant public health burden of pulmonary diseases and the vital role pharmacists play in management across the continuum of care (and within transitions in care), an elective course for pharmacy students focused on pulmonary diseases was developed. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY: A month-long elective course for third-year pharmacy students consisting of 12 class sessions delivered in two-hour periods three times per week, was implemented. The course was delivered using the team-based learning (TBL) format in addition to hands-on skills and simulation sessions. Knowledge and skills assessments were administered before and after completion of the course. Student perceptions of self-confidence and ability regarding management of pulmonary diseases pre- and post-course and their perceptions of the course and TBL as a teaching strategy for this course were evaluated upon course completion. CRITICAL ANALYSIS: Nine students completed the course. Mean scores on knowledge and skills assessment significantly improved after completion of the course (54.5% pre-course vs. 79.3% post-course; p < 0.05% and 60.3% pre-course vs. 93.2% post-course; p < 0.05, respectively). Student perceptions of their ability to care for patients with pulmonary diseases significantly increased, compared to pre-assessments, in all areas taught in the course (p< 0.05). Additionally, students' confidence in managing specific disease states significantly improved in all areas (p < 0.05) except for spirometry (p = 0.06). Students' knowledge, skills, and confidence regarding management of common pulmonary disease states improved following this month-long elective course delivered using a combination of TBL activities and hands-on skills sessions.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Percepción , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Desarrollo de Programa/métodos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(6): 966-971, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233393

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study quantifies and describes student self-assessment approaches in colleges of pharmacy across the United States. METHODS: Faculty members identified as assessment directors from college websites at U.S. colleges of pharmacy were electronically surveyed. Prior to distribution, feedback and question validation was sought from select assessment directors. Surveys were distributed and recorded, via Qualtrics® survey software and analyzed in Microsoft Excel®. RESULTS: Responses were received from 49 colleges of pharmacy (n = 49/134, 37% response rate). The most commonly used strategies were reflective essays (n = 44/49, 90%), portfolios (n = 40/49, 82%), student self-evaluations (n = 35/49, 71%) and questionnaires/surveys/checklists (n = 29/49, 59%). Out of 49 submitted surveys, 35 programs noted students received feedback on self-assessment. Feedback came most commonly from faculty (n = 31/35, 88%). Thirty-four programs responded regarding self-assessment integration including fifteen colleges (n = 15/34, 44%) that integrated self-assessment both into the curriculum and co-curricular activities, while 14 (n = 14/34, 41%) integrated self-assessment exclusively into the curriculum, and five (n = 5/34, 15%) used self-assessment exclusively in co-curricular activities. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Student self-assessment is a critical first step of the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) process. Colleges and schools of pharmacy use a wide variety of methods to develop this skill in preparing future practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Autoevaluación , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/tendencias
10.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 57(6): 723-728, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951136

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certifications are credentials viewed by academic pharmacy communities and professional organizations as positive assets for those seeking pharmacist jobs; however, a key question merits further investigation: do these views match employer expectations? The primary objective of this study was to identify the most common qualifications employers require as stated in job advertisements. METHODS: Pharmacist job postings from the aggregate jobs website Indeed.com were evaluated for the 20 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Search criteria included: pharmacist, full-time, and within a 50-mile radius of the metropolitan area. Positions were excluded if they were not pharmacist specific, did not require a pharmacy degree, were part-time, or were temporary. Required and preferred qualifications were collected in the following categories: practice type, experience needed, training, certification, and desired skills. RESULTS: Six hundred and eleven of 1356 postings met inclusion criteria. Positions were classified as community (113), health-system (264), industry (149), academia (9), or other (76). Four hundred and six (66.4%) required a minimum of a Bachelor's of Pharmacy degree, while 174 (28.4%) required a Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Experience was required for 467 positions (range of 6 months to 14 years). Postgraduate training was required for 73 positions (66 residency/7 fellowship). One job required a Master's degree, type unspecified. BPS certifications were required for 7 positions (1.1%) and preferred for 22 positions (3.6%). Certifications and skills most required by employers were verbal and written skills (248), Microsoft Office proficiency (93), immunization certifications (51), and Basic Life Support/Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation certifications (37). CONCLUSION: Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certification were not significant factors in the qualification criteria for the positions identified. The qualifications most often required by employers were experience and skills. Our findings indicated that employers wanted many soft skills that cannot be quantified.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Educación en Farmacia , Empleo , Perfil Laboral , Selección de Personal , Farmacéuticos , Certificación , Competencia Clínica/normas , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Escolaridad , Empleo/normas , Humanos , Perfil Laboral/normas , Selección de Personal/normas , Farmacéuticos/normas , Estados Unidos
11.
Ann Pharmacother ; 51(12): 1138-1141, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805068

RESUMEN

Limited information exists regarding medication errors and trainees (students or residents). Yet during the experiential education component of their training, learners are expected to assume significant responsibilities in the medication use process. This commentary addresses both trainees and organization leaders on medication safety practices and the incorporation of learners into the organization's medication safety culture.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Errores de Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internado y Residencia , Cultura Organizacional
13.
Ann Pharmacother ; 50(3): 172-9, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26783358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that development of a unit-specific combination antibiogram improves optimal selection of empiric therapy for Gram-negative infections, yet no published data exist regarding the role of the combination antibiogram as an antimicrobial stewardship program tool for disease-specific prescribing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of a combination antibiogram to guide antibiotic prescribing for patients with health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). METHODS: This was a retrospective preprovider and postprovider education intervention study aimed to evaluate fluoroquinolone (FQ) use in patients with HCAP. Data were collected retrospectively to evaluate antibiotic prescribing patterns and patient outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were eligible for study inclusion. The primary end point, FQ days of therapy (DOT) was decreased by 2.3 days (P < 0.001). The secondary end point included FQ DOT per 1000 patient-days in patients with discharge diagnosis-related group of pneumonia and was decreased by 83.5 days (P = 0.08); double coverage reduced by 13% postintervention (P = 0.22); mean days of double coverage decreased by 2.1 days (P < 0.001), and length of stay was shortened by 2.1 days (P = 0.22). Clinical success was achieved more often in the postintervention group (90% vs 98%, P = 0.18) when compared with the preintervention group. No difference was found in microbiological outcomes in the subset of microbiologically evaluable patients (P = 0.57). CONCLUSION: Facility-specific combination antibiograms may be used to inform antibiotic prescribing in HCAP patients.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapéutico , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Neumonía Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados , Femenino , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24833897

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive disease that affects an estimated 10% of the world's population over the age of 40 years. Worldwide, COPD ranks in the top ten for causes of disability and death. Given the significant impact of this disease, it is important to note that acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are by far the most costly and devastating aspect of disease management. Systemic steroids have long been a standard for the treatment of AECOPD; however, the optimal strategy for dosing and administration of these medications continues to be debated. OBJECTIVE: To review the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature was identified through PubMed Medline (1950-February 2014) and Embase (1950-February 2014) utilizing the search terms corticosteroids, COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and exacerbation. All reference citations from identified publications were reviewed for possible inclusion. All identified randomized, placebo-controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews evaluating the efficacy of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of AECOPD were reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: The administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of AECOPD was assessed. In comparison to placebo, systemic corticosteroids improve airflow, decrease the rate of treatment failure and risk of relapse, and may improve symptoms and decrease the length of hospital stay. Therefore, corticosteroids are recommended by all major guidelines in the treatment of AECOPD. Existing literature suggests that low-dose oral corticosteroids are as efficacious as high-dose, intravenous corticosteroid regimens, while minimizing adverse effects. Recent data suggest that shorter durations of corticosteroid therapy are as efficacious as the traditional treatment durations currently recommended by guidelines. CONCLUSION: Systemic corticosteroids are efficacious in the treatment of AECOPD and considered a standard of care for patients experiencing an AECOPD. Therefore, systemic corticosteroids should be administered to all patients experiencing AECOPD severe enough to seek emergent medical care. The lowest effective dose and shortest duration of therapy should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/administración & dosificación , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Vías de Administración de Medicamentos , Esquema de Medicación , Humanos , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Recuperación de la Función , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA