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1.
Nature ; 579(7800): 494-496, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210388
4.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 17, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996199

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There has been a successful push towards parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Africa, mainly with rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), which has reduced over-prescribing of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to malaria test-negative patients. The effect on prescribing for test-positive patients has received much less attention. Malaria infection in endemic Africa is often most dangerous for young children and those in low-transmission settings. This study examined non-prescription of antimalarials for patients with malaria infection demonstrated by positive mRDT results, and in particular these groups who are most vulnerable to poor outcomes if antimalarials are not given. METHODS: Analysis of data from 562,762 patients in 8 studies co-designed as part of the ACT Consortium, conducted 2007-2013 in children and adults, in Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda, in a variety of public and private health care sector settings, and across a range of malaria endemic zones. RESULTS: Of 106,039 patients with positive mRDT results (median age 6 years), 7426 (7.0%) were not prescribed an ACT antimalarial. The proportion of mRDT-positive patients not prescribed ACT ranged across sites from 1.3 to 37.1%. For patients under age 5 years, 3473/44,539 (7.8%) were not prescribed an ACT, compared with 3833/60,043 (6.4%) of those aged ≥ 5 years. The proportion of < 5-year-olds not prescribed ACT ranged up to 41.8% across sites. The odds of not being prescribed an ACT were 2-32 times higher for patients in settings with lower-transmission intensity (using test positivity as a proxy) compared to areas of higher transmission. mRDT-positive children in low-transmission settings were especially likely not to be prescribed ACT, with proportions untreated up to 70%. Of the 7426 mRDT-positive patients not prescribed an ACT, 4121 (55.5%) were prescribed other, non-recommended non-ACT antimalarial medications, and the remainder (44.5%) were prescribed no antimalarial. CONCLUSIONS: In eight studies of mRDT implementation in five African countries, substantial proportions of patients testing mRDT-positive were not prescribed an ACT antimalarial, and many were not prescribed an antimalarial at all. Patients most vulnerable to serious outcomes, children < 5 years and those in low-transmission settings, were most likely to not be prescribed antimalarials, and young children in low-transmission settings were least likely to be treated for malaria. This major public health risk must be addressed in training and practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Reported in individual primary studies.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Artemisininas/uso terapéutico , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Prescripciones , Sector Privado , Tanzanía , Uganda , Adulto Joven
5.
Vaccine ; 37(43): 6241-6247, 2019 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522809

RESUMEN

During the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa an expert panel was established on the instructions of the UK Prime Minister to identify priority pathogens for outbreak diseases that had the potential to cause future epidemics. A total of 13 priority pathogens were identified, which led to the prioritisation of spending in emerging diseases vaccine research and development from the UK. This meeting report summarises the process used to develop the UK pathogen priority list, compares it to lists generated by other organisations (World Health Organisation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) and summarises clinical progress towards the development of vaccines against priority diseases. There is clear technical progress towards the development of vaccines. However, the availability of these vaccines will be dependent on sustained funding for clinical trials and the preparation of clinically acceptable manufactured material during inter-epidemic periods.

6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(2): 428-431, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219002

RESUMEN

This study describes the clinical features of a cohort of imported cases of strongyloidiasis and the performance of standard diagnostic techniques for this condition. A total of 413 cases were identified, of whom 86 had microscopically proven infection. In proven cases, 23% had normal eosinophil counts, 19% had negative Strongyloides-specific serology, and 9.3% had normal blood counts and were seronegative. Serological testing was less sensitive for returning travelers (46.2%) than for migrants (89.7%). Immunosuppression, including human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1, was significantly associated with proven infection after controlling for age, presence of symptoms, duration of infection, and eosinophilia (OR 5.60, 95% CI 1.54-20.4). Patients with proven infection had lower serology values than those diagnosed with strongyloidiasis on the basis of positive serology and eosinophilia alone (P = 0.016). Symptomatic patients were significantly younger, had a shorter presumed duration of infection, and lower serology values. These data suggest a correlation between immunologic control of strongyloidiasis and the amplitude of the humoral response.

10.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 218, 2018 11 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477484

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale spp. and P. malariae cause illness in endemic regions and returning travellers. Far less is known about these species than P. falciparum and P. vivax. METHODS: The UK national surveillance data, collected 1987 to 2015, were collated with the International Passenger Survey and climatic data to determine geographical, temporal and seasonal trends of imported P. ovale spp. and P. malariae infection. RESULTS: Of 52,242 notified cases of malaria, 6.04% (3157) were caused by P. ovale spp. and 1.61% (841) by P. malariae; mortality was 0.03% (1) and 0.12% (1), respectively. Almost all travellers acquired infection in West or East Africa. Infection rate per travel episode fell fivefold during the study period. The median latency of P. malariae and P. ovale spp. was 18 and 76 days, respectively; delayed presentation occurred with both species. The latency of P. ovale spp. infection imported from West Africa was significantly shorter in those arriving in the UK during the West African peak malarial season compared to those arriving outside it (44 days vs 94 days, p < 0.0001), implying that relapse synchronises with the period of high malarial transmission. This trend was not seen in P. ovale spp. imported from East Africa nor in P. malariae. CONCLUSION: In West Africa, where malaria transmission is highly seasonal, P. ovale spp. may have evolved to relapse during the malarial high transmission season. This has public health implications. Deaths are very rare, supporting current guidelines emphasising outpatient treatment. However, late presentations do occur.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Plasmodium malariae , Plasmodium ovale , Viaje , Reino Unido/epidemiología
12.
J Infect ; 75(4): 301-308, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842188

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Determining the cause of eosinophilia in patients returning from the tropics continues to present a diagnostic challenge. The history, symptoms and degree of eosinophilia are often poor predictors of eventual diagnosis, but helminths are an important cause. The current British Infection Association recommendations use travel history to guide investigation of eosinophilia. However the global burden of helminth disease and travel patterns have changed over the last 3 decades and guidelines based on previous epidemiology need to be reviewed in the light of current data. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with, or referred for, investigation of eosinophilia were identified prospectively. Case notes, laboratory results and electronic records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Patients with an eosinophil count ≥0.50 × 109/L were included, and grouped based on lifetime history of travel to: West Africa, elsewhere in Africa, and the rest of the world. Results were compared to published data from 1997 to 2002 collected at the same centre. RESULTS: Of 410 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 407 had a documented travel history. Average yearly referrals for eosinophilia fell from 58 per year between 1997 and 2002, to 33 per year (2002-2015). The proportion of eosinophilia cases diagnosed with a parasitic cause fell from 64% to 50%, and yields for all parasitological investigations fell, the largest reduction in stool microscopy (20% yield to 9%) and day bloods for microfilariae (14% yield to 3%). Strongyloides stercoralis was the commonest diagnosis overall in our cohort, accounting for 50% of the total parasites diagnosed, and was present in 38% of patients from West Africa, 19% from rest of Africa, and 34% from rest of world; a relative increase compared to previous data. Schistosomiasis is slightly less common in those who had travelled to West Africa than the rest of Africa, and overall point prevalence has fallen from 33% (1997-2002) to 17% (2002-2015). Travellers were significantly less likely than patients who had immigrated to the UK to be diagnosed with any parasite (OR 0.54 95% CI 0.378-0.778 p = 0.0009). DISCUSSION: A parasitic cause will still be found in half of people returning from the tropics with an eosinophilia, but we observed a fall in the overall prevalence of parasitic diagnoses when compared with the earlier data. This may, in part, be explained by the impact of control programmes on the prevalence of parasites globally, especially filarial disease. S. stercoralis now represents the majority of parasites diagnosed in our cohort from all continents. We identified significantly higher rates of strongyloidiasis in immigrants than returning travellers. Despite the falling yields of stool microscopy and filarial serology the current guidelines based on travel history remain relevant with adequate yield.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Eosinofilia/epidemiología , Eosinofilia/etiología , Enfermedades Parasitarias/epidemiología , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Anciano , Animales , Niño , Eosinofilia/parasitología , Eosinófilos/ultraestructura , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Londres/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Parasitarias/sangre , Enfermedades Parasitarias/complicaciones , Enfermedades Parasitarias/parasitología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Esquistosomiasis/sangre , Esquistosomiasis/complicaciones , Esquistosomiasis/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidiasis/complicaciones , Estrongiloidiasis/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidiasis/epidemiología , Clima Tropical , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(4): 1170-1179, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820705

RESUMEN

Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan, to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type. This synthesis includes 562,368 outpatient encounters (study size range 2,400-432,513). mRDTs were associated with significantly lower ACT prescription (range 8-69% versus 20-100%). Prescribing did not always adhere to malaria test results; in several settings, ACTs were prescribed to more than 30% of test-negative patients or to fewer than 80% of test-positive patients. Either an antimalarial or an antibiotic was prescribed for more than 75% of patients across most settings; lower antimalarial prescription for malaria test-negative patients was partly offset by higher antibiotic prescription. Symptomatic management with antipyretics alone was prescribed for fewer than 25% of patients across all scenarios. In community health worker and private retailer settings, mRDTs increased referral of patients to other providers. This synthesis provides an overview of shifts in case management that may be expected with mRDT introduction and highlights areas of focus to improve design and implementation of future case management programs.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Malaria/diagnóstico , Afganistán/epidemiología , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Manejo de Caso , Humanos , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/epidemiología
14.
BMC Med ; 15(1): 124, 2017 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683750

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends parasitological diagnosis of malaria before treatment, but use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) by community health workers (CHWs) has not been fully tested within health services in south and central Asia. mRDTs could allow CHWs to diagnose malaria accurately, improving treatment of febrile illness. METHODS: A cluster randomised trial in community health services was undertaken in Afghanistan. The primary outcome was the proportion of suspected malaria cases correctly treated for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed malaria and PCR negative cases receiving no antimalarial drugs measured at the level of the patient. CHWs from 22 clusters (clinics) received standard training on clinical diagnosis and treatment of malaria; 11 clusters randomised to the intervention arm received additional training and were provided with mRDTs. CHWs enrolled cases of suspected malaria, and the mRDT results and treatments were compared to blind-read PCR diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 256 CHWs enrolled 2400 patients with 2154 (89.8%) evaluated. In the intervention arm, 75.3% (828/1099) were treated appropriately vs. 17.5% (185/1055) in the control arm (cluster adjusted risk ratio: 3.72, 95% confidence interval 2.40-5.77; p < 0.001). In the control arm, 85.9% (164/191) with confirmed Plasmodium vivax received chloroquine compared to 45.1% (70/155) in the intervention arm (p < 0.001). Overuse of chloroquine in the control arm resulted in 87.6% (813/928) of those with no malaria (PCR negative) being treated vs. 10.0% (95/947) in the intervention arm, p < 0.001. In the intervention arm, 71.4% (30/42) of patients with P. falciparum did not receive artemisinin-based combination therapy, partly because operational sensitivity of the RDTs was low (53.2%, 38.1-67.9). There was high concordance between recorded RDT result and CHW prescription decisions: 826/950 (87.0%) with a negative test were not prescribed an antimalarial. Co-trimoxazole was prescribed to 62.7% of malaria negative patients in the intervention arm and 15.0% in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: While introducing mRDT reduced overuse of antimalarials, this action came with risks that need to be considered before use at scale: an appreciable proportion of malaria cases will be missed by those using current mRDTs. Higher sensitivity tests could be used to detect all cases. Overtreatment with antimalarial drugs in the control arm was replaced with increased antibiotic prescription in the intervention arm, resulting in a probable overuse of antibiotics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01403350 . Prospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Malaria/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Afganistán , Antimaláricos/administración & dosificación , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Artemisininas/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Plasmodium vivax , Combinación Trimetoprim y Sulfametoxazol/uso terapéutico
15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 17: 35-42, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456684

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We describe trends of malaria in London (2000-2014) in order to identify preventive opportunities and we estimated the cost of malaria admissions (2009/2010-2014/2015). METHODS: We identified all cases of malaria, resident in London, reported to the reference laboratory and obtained hospital admissions from Hospital Episode Statistics. RESULTS: The rate of malaria decreased (19.4[2001]-9.1[2014] per 100,000). Males were over-represented (62%). Cases in older age groups increased overtime. The rate was highest amongst people of Black African ethnicity followed by Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi ethnicities combined (103.3 and 5.5 per 100,000, respectively). The primary reason for travel was visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in their country of origin (69%), mostly sub-Saharan Africa (92%). The proportion of cases in VFRs increased (32%[2000]-50%[2014]) and those taking chemoprophylaxis decreased (36%[2000]-14%[2014]). The overall case fatality rate was 0.3%. We estimated the average healthcare cost of malaria admissions to be just over £1 million per year. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted that people of Black African ethnicity, travelling to sub-Saharan Africa to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin remain the most affected with also a decline in chemoprophylaxis use. Malaria awareness should focus on this group in order to have the biggest impact but may require new approaches.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Quimioprevención/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Londres/epidemiología , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/economía , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
16.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 372(1721)2017 May 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396466

RESUMEN

The tragic West African Ebola epidemic claimed many lives, but would have been worse still if scientific insights from many disciplines had not been integrated to create a strong technical response. Epidemiology and modelling triggered the international response and guided where response efforts were directed; virology, engineering and clinical science helped reduce deaths and transmission in and from hospitals and treatment centres; social sciences were key to reducing deaths from funerals and in the community; diagnostic and operational research made the response more efficient; immunology and vaccine research contributed to the final stages of the epidemic and will help prevent future epidemics. These varied scientific contributions had to be integrated into a combined narrative, communicated to policymakers to inform decisions, and used by courageous local and international responders in the field in real time. Not every area of science was optimal, and in particular, clinical trials of simple interventions such as fluid management were slow to be adopted and sharing of data was initially poor. This Ebola epidemic demonstrated how science can respond to a major emergency, but also has lessons for better responses in future infectious emergencies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic: data, decision-making and disease control'.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias/prevención & control , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/prevención & control , África Occidental/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/virología , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173093, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR) that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions. METHODS: Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators. RESULTS: Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic services may hold great promise to improve malaria case management and curb overtreatment with antimalarials. However, doing so will require careful planning, investment and additional research to develop and sustain effective training, supervision, waste-management, referral and surveillance programs beyond the public sector.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/diagnóstico , Sector Privado , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico , Humanos
18.
BMJ ; 356: j1054, 2017 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356302

RESUMEN

Objectives To examine the impact of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on prescribing of antimicrobials, specifically antibiotics, for acute febrile illness in Africa and Asia.Design Analysisof nine preselected linked and codesigned observational and randomised studies (eight cluster or individually randomised trials and one observational study).Setting Public and private healthcare settings, 2007-13, in Afghanistan, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.Participants 522 480 children and adults with acute febrile illness.Interventions Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.Main outcome measures Proportions of patients for whom an antibiotic was prescribed in trial groups who had undergone rapid diagnostic testing compared with controls and in patients with negative test results compared with patients with positive results. A secondary aim compared classes of antibiotics prescribed in different settings.Results Antibiotics were prescribed to 127 052/238 797 (53%) patients in control groups and 167 714/283 683 (59%) patients in intervention groups. Antibiotics were prescribed to 40% (35 505/89 719) of patients with a positive test result for malaria and to 69% (39 400/57 080) of those with a negative result. All but one study showed a trend toward more antibiotic prescribing in groups who underwent rapid diagnostic tests. Random effects meta-analysis of the trials showed that the overall risk of antibiotic prescription was 21% higher (95% confidence interval 7% to 36%) in intervention settings. In most intervention settings, patients with negative test results received more antibiotic prescriptions than patients with positive results for all the most commonly used classes: penicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (one exception), tetracyclines, and metronidazole.Conclusions Introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria to reduce unnecessary use of antimalarials-a beneficial public health outcome-could drive up untargeted use of antibiotics. That 69% of patients were prescribed antibiotics when test results were negative probably represents overprescription.This included antibiotics from several classes, including those like metronidazole that are seldom appropriate for febrile illness, across varied clinical, health system, and epidemiological settings. It is often assumed that better disease specific diagnostics will reduce antimicrobial overuse, but they might simply shift it from one antimicrobial class to another. Current global implementation of malaria testing might increase untargeted antibiotic use and must be examined.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico , África/epidemiología , Atención Ambulatoria , Antimaláricos/administración & dosificación , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Asia/epidemiología , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Fiebre/sangre , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Fiebre/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Malaria/sangre , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(3): e012973, 2017 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274962

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The overuse of antimalarial drugs is widespread. Effective methods to improve prescribing practice remain unclear. We evaluated the impact of 10 interventions that introduced rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) on the use of tests and adherence to results in different contexts. DESIGN: A comparative case study approach, analysing variation in outcomes across different settings. SETTING: Studies from the ACT Consortium evaluating mRDTs with a range of supporting interventions in 6 malaria endemic countries. Providers were governmental or non-governmental healthcare workers, private retail sector workers or community volunteers. Each study arm in a distinct setting was considered a case. PARTICIPANTS: 28 cases from 10 studies were included, representing 148 461 patients seeking care for suspected malaria. INTERVENTIONS: The interventions included different mRDT training packages, supervision, supplies and community sensitisation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis explored variation in: (1) uptake of mRDTs (% febrile patients tested); (2) provider adherence to positive mRDTs (% Plasmodium falciparum positive prescribed/given Artemisinin Combination Treatment); (3) provider adherence to negative mRDTs (% P. falciparum negative not prescribed/given antimalarial). RESULTS: Outcomes varied widely across cases: 12-100% mRDT uptake; 44-98% adherence to positive mRDTs; 27-100% adherence to negative mRDTs. Providers appeared more motivated to perform well when mRDTs and intervention characteristics fitted with their own priorities. Goodness of fit of mRDTs with existing consultation and diagnostic practices appeared crucial to maximising the impact of mRDTs on care, as did prior familiarity with malaria testing; adequate human resources and supplies; possible alternative treatments for mRDT-negative patients; a more directive intervention approach and local preferences for ACTs. CONCLUSIONS: Basic training and resources are essential but insufficient to maximise the potential of mRDTs in many contexts. Programme design should respond to assessments of provider priorities, expectations and capacities. As mRDTs become established, the intensity of supporting interventions required seems likely to reduce.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Artemisininas/uso terapéutico , Personal de Salud/educación , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum , Uso Excesivo de Medicamentos Recetados/prevención & control , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas Serológicas , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 110(8): 456-63, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618924

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding geographic and temporal trends in imported infections is key to the management of unwell travellers. Many tropical infections can be managed as outpatients, with admission reserved for severe cases. METHODS: We prospectively recorded the diagnosis and travel history of patients admitted between 2000 and 2015. We describe the common tropical and non-tropical infectious diseases and how these varied based on region, reason for travel and over time. RESULTS: A total of 4362 admissions followed an episode of travel. Falciparum malaria was the most common diagnosis (n=1089). Among individuals who travelled to Africa 1206/1724 (70.0%) had a tropical diagnosis. The risk of a tropical infection was higher among travellers visiting friends and relatives than holidaymakers (OR 2.8, p<0.001). Among travellers to Asia non-tropical infections were more common than tropical infections (349/782, 44.6%), but enteric fever (117, 33.5%) of the tropical infections and dengue (70, 20.1%) remained important. The number of patients admitted with falciparum malaria declined over the study but those of enteric fever and dengue did not. CONCLUSIONS: Most of those arriving from sub-Saharan Africa with an illness requiring admission have a classical tropical infection, and malaria still predominates. In contrast, fewer patients who travelled to Asia have a tropical diagnosis but enteric fever and dengue remain relatively common. Those visiting friends and relatives are most likely to have a tropical infection.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Viaje , Clima Tropical , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología , Adulto , África , Asia , Virus del Dengue , Familia , Femenino , Fiebre/epidemiología , Fiebre/etiología , Amigos , Hospitales , Humanos , Londres/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plasmodium falciparum , Estudios Prospectivos , Medicina Tropical
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