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Cereb Cortex ; 25(4): 959-71, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24122139


Over 40 years ago, Hubel and Wiesel gave a preliminary report of the first account of cells in monkey cerebral cortex selective for binocular disparity. The cells were located outside of V-1 within a region referred to then as "area 18." A full-length manuscript never followed, because the demarcation of the visual areas within this region had not been fully worked out. Here, we provide a full description of the physiological experiments and identify the locations of the recorded neurons using a contemporary atlas generated by functional magnetic resonance imaging; we also perform an independent analysis of the location of the neurons relative to an anatomical landmark (the base of the lunate sulcus) that is often coincident with the border between V-2 and V-3. Disparity-tuned cells resided not only in V-2, the area now synonymous with area 18, but also in V-3 and probably within V-3A. The recordings showed that the disparity-tuned cells were biased for near disparities, tended to prefer vertical orientations, clustered by disparity preference, and often required stimulation of both eyes to elicit responses, features strongly suggesting a role in stereoscopic depth perception.

Neuronas/fisiología , Disparidad Visual/fisiología , Corteza Visual/fisiología , Potenciales de Acción , Animales , Atlas como Asunto , Macaca , Masculino , Microelectrodos , Estimulación Luminosa , Visión Binocular/fisiología
Neuron ; 75(2): 182-4, 2012 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22841302


While attending medical school at McGill, David Hubel developed an interest in the nervous system during the summers he spent at the Montreal Neurological Institute. After heading to the United States in 1954 for a Neurology year at Johns Hopkins, he was drafted by the army and was assigned to the Neuropsychiatry Division at the Walter Reed Hospital, where he began his career in research and did his first recordings from the visual cortex of sleeping and awake cats. In 1958, he moved to the lab of Stephen Kuffler at Johns Hopkins, where he began a long and fruitful collaboration with Torsten Wiesel. Born in Sweden, Torsten Wiesel began his scientific career at the Karolinska Institute, where he received his medical degree in 1954. After spending a year in Carl Gustaf Bernhard's laboratory doing basic neurophysiological research, he moved to the United States to be a postdoctoral fellow with Stephen Kuffler. It was at Johns Hopkins where he met David Hubel in 1958, and they began working together on exploring the receptive field properties of neurons in the visual cortex. Their collaboration continued until the late seventies. Hubel and Wiesel's work provided fundamental insight into information processing in the visual system and laid the foundation for the field of visual neuroscience. They have had many achievements, including--but not limited to--the discovery of orientation selectivity in visual cortex neurons and the characterization of the columnar organization of visual cortex through their discovery of orientation columns and ocular-dominance columns. Their work earned them the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1981, which they shared with Roger Sperry.

Neurofisiología/historia , Corteza Visual/fisiología , Vías Visuales/fisiología , Animales , Gatos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Premio Nobel , Estados Unidos